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been afforded to him in the earlier part of his journey, appears strange, but it is easily accounted for. When Ledyard obtained | THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE HUMAN his passport and government protection the court was abroad, and
FRAME. occupied by amusements, and probably the Empress thought that by showing a trifling favour to an American, she would engage him in her service ; and she was at that time extremely anxious to The lungs are only one of the organs whose primary office is the retain men of talent of any nation, and to spread abroad a good purification of the blood. There are other elements, besides idea of her own administration ; consequently, she considered it carbon and hydrogen, which have a tendency to accumulate in it good policy to show favour to Ledyard, who was represented as å mere traveller, and from whom no harm was to be dreaded. to excess, yet the lungs are capable of removing none but them. The governor of Yakutsk must have known well that the views Moreover, the lungs alone would be unable to carry off the whole of Ledyard would, if realised, very much weaken the Russian
excess even of these two substances. Hence a necessity for other power in Eastern Asia, and, at least, very much interfere with the establishments already made, and still extending, by which excreting organs,—that is, for organs whose function is to secrete they then enjoyed a monopoly of the fur trade with the North from the blood, and carry out of the system, whatever, either by western American Indians. No wonder that he held Ledyard its noxious qualities or its superabundant quantity, tends to detefast, till he could send home and get a ukase of banishment riorate the blood. against our unfortunate traveller. Is it possible to conceive the feelings of a man, who, after triumphing over every difficulty,
Azote is the basis of animal structure, to which it is indeed after penetrating from London to Yakutsk, one-half of the circum- peculiar, not entering at all into the composition of vegetables. It ference of the globe, or nearly so, in the earnest pursuit of a has been mentioned that a quantity of this gas is absorbed into the purpose on which his mind was set; for the sake of which he blood at every inspiration, and the need of some apparatus to had hazarded everything ; for which he had suffered cold, hunger, and fatigue, when he found himself at length, after being limit the amount retained in the system is therefore obvious. This trained on by flattering hopes, disappointed? Who that reads office is performed by the kidneys, two glandular bodies, situated this narrative, and believes himself of sufficient spirit to have gone through what Ledyard suffered, would have borne up as he structure. The importance of these organs may be estimated from
one on each side of the spine, and possessing a very complicated did ?
He was turned adrift on the frontiers of Poland, without a the fact, that about a thousand ounces of blood circulate through penny, and commanded never to set foot again in Russia. He them every hour. The secretion of the kidneys consists of a large managed to raise five pounds on a draft on Sir Joseph Banks, quantity of fluid derived from the aqueous constituents of the and with these slender means contrived to reach London, where he arrived in the beginning of May, " disappointed, ragged, and blood, and holding in solution a great variety of substances,-that pennyless." He was received with great kindness by Sir Joseph peculiar to, and giving its name to the secretion, being urea, a Banks, who gave him a recommendation to the African Associa- highly animalised substance, the basis of which is azote. tion, who were then seeking for a traveller willing to explore the interior of Africa, and, if possible, discover the source of the
The skin is an organ of great complexity and varied functions. Niger. Ledyard at once acceded to the proposition, and, on It is composed of three layers,—the cuticle (or external skin), the being asked when he should be ready to set out, promptly replied, rele mucosum (or mucous network), and the cutis (the true or " To-morrow morning.”
internal skin). The cuticle is a thin, yet firm and strong, insensible He left London on the 30th of June, and proceeded without membrane ; the principal office of which is to diminish the force accident to Cairo, but just as he was on the point of setting out with the caravan to Sennaar, he was attacked by illness, occa- of external impressions; it also serves as a covering to the whole sioned by exposure to the sun, and, notwithstanding the efforts body, and confines and protects the soft tissues lying beneath. of the best physicians at Cairo, he expired towards the end of The rete mucosum connects the cuticle with the cutis, and is the November, 1788, in the thirty-eighth year of his age.
seat of the colouring matter of the skin. The cutis is the chief THE POOR MAN'S MAY.
part of the compound structure to which it belongs. It is com
posed of an infinite number of capillaries and nerves, of which, SWEET MAY! they tell me thou art come :
indeed, it wholly consists. These capillaries are the agents which Thou art not come to me ;
perform the specific function of the skin,—the secretion and exI cannot spare a single hour,
cretion of a large proportion of the superfluous hydrogen of the Sweet May! to welcome thee.
blood. Under ordinary circumstances, this element is removed God knows how hard I've worked this week,
by the skin in the form of an invisible vapour, which, when To earn my children bread; And see we have an empty board,
more abundantly evolved, condenses on the surface of the body. My children are unfed.
The former is called insensible, the latter sensible, perspiration.
Along with these watery particles, and held in solution by them, a And thou art still the same sweet May
considerable number of other substances are conveyed out of the My childhood loved so well.
system. The quantity of matter excreted by the skin is exceed. When humming like a happy bee
ingly variable, depending chiefly on the degree of temperature to Along some primrose dell,
which the individual is exposed, which operates in this way by I thought, oh! what a lovely world Is this, dear God has given ;
determining the distribution of the blood ; great heat or exertion And wondered any one should seek
causing a large proportion of the entire mass of that fluid to flow For any other heaven!
into the cutaneous capillaries. In a state of health, insensible
perspiration goes on uninterruptedly, and the average amount of The hawthorn buds are come again,
this secretion in an adult has been estimated at from twenty to And apple blossoms too ;
forty ounces in four-and-twenty hours. And all the idle, happy birds
The liver has been already mentioned as assisting in digestion May sing the long day through.
by means of its secretion, the bile. We have now to show its uses The old green lane awakes once more, And looks perhaps for me,
as a depurating organ. The liver is the only organ in the body (if Alas! green lane, my heart may die-
we except the lungs) whose secretion is formed from venous I cannot come to thee.
blood : the kidneys, the pancreas, the salivary glands, derive their From Poems by John and Mary Saunders.
respective products from arterial blood. Not so the liver. The veins of the digestive organs, instead of returning the blood directly original constitution of the animal economy. The human frame to the heart, unite to form a large vein, the vena porlæ, which is, doubtless, a structure far from simple, yet no part of it is ramifies throughout the liver, and furnishes the materials from superfluous. On the contrary, we find in it a wonderful economy which the bile is eliminated. The principal constituents of bile of instruments ; various and apparently independent effects being are carbon and hydrogen, so that, by this process, the blood sent produced by one set of means and agencies, in a way which never to the liver is freed from a large portion of those elements, and fails to excite our admiration, by the display of profound wisdom prepared for being more completely purified in the lungs. The and perfect control over the materials employed which such mani. liver is therefore subsidiary to the proper organs of respiration, festations indicate. Some remarkable instances of this kind next from which it differs chiefly in the mode by which it decarbonizes claim our attention. the blood.
One of the essential characteristics of life is a temperature more Here may be mentioned the proper digestive function of the or less elevated, independent of that of the media by which living liver, by virtue of which it assists the stomach and other organs of beings are surrounded. A certain degree of heat, varying in digestion. "Fluids, more especially fermented or spirituous liquors, different classes of organised bodies, is indispensable to the conti. are rapidly removed from the stomach by its capillary veins and nuance of life, every deviation from it being either a cause or a absorbents, and are thus conveyed to the liver, to which, by consequence of disease, and, when it reaches beyond a given point, similar means, are brought various products of the other organs, destructive of life. The production and regulation of this tempe. whose veins terminate there. Here these substances undergo a rature are effected by the organs of organic life : so long as they are change, with the nature of which we are not acquainted, but healthy and vigorous, the exact degree of heat required is kept up which is doubtless a process of digestion, and are then transmitted in the animal economy, in spite of the influence of external agents.
a with the blood into the hcart and lungs. Hence it plainly appears The sources of terrestrial heat are both numerous and diversified, that the liver is a digestive as well as an excreting and respiratory yet “ the discoveries of chemists have referred most of these to the organ, being destined to operate upon substances on which the general head of chemical combination. Thus, fire, or the comother digestive organs are not capable of acting. These various bustion of inflammable bodies, is nothing more than a violent functions account for the great size of the liver, and its intimate chemical action attending the combination of their ingredients with connexion with the stomach, as well as for its extraordinary deve- the oxygen of the air."'* lopment in some of the lower classes of animals, as fishes and This brief quotation contains the explanation of the generation reptiles, whose respiratory system is simple and on a small scale. of animal heat. Carbon, an inflammable substance, the basis of
The principal functions of the intestines are, as we have seen, coal, wood, &c., is continually entering into the blood, and as the separation of the nutritious from the excrementitious parts of constantly being removed from it, by combining with oxygen. the food, and the removal of the latter. These are not all, how. Here, then, are all the conditions necessary to the production of ever: the mucous lining of the intestines is thickly studded with heat. Thus, the same process that purifies the blood also generates glands, which secrete a large quantity of Auid, consisting of effete the vital heat, equally indispensable with the blood to organized particles of every kind entering into the composition of the body, existence : the accumulation of carbon in the blood is, therefore, and which is ejected along with the excrementitious portions of the not an evil,—not a circumstance indicative of imperfection,-but bile and aliment.
one absolutely essential to life, and a mark of beneficent design. It frequently happens that more nutriment is formed than the
So far, the theory of animal heat is free from difficulty, but in system requires, and hence the blood becomes loaded with carbon other respects it is still, to some extent, unsettled, -that theory and hydrogen. In such cases these elements combine, forming which appears most satisfactorily to account for all the observed
al, which is separated from the blood, and deposited, in various phenomena involving several points in physiology which are yet parts of the body, in the cellular tissue, by the capillary arteries matters of dispute. On this account, and as the subject does not of that tissue.
bear directly on the object we have in view, we shall not enter upon By the combined operation of these organs—the lungs, the it bere, further than to quote the conclusion at which Dr. S. Smith kidneys, the skin, the liver, the intestines, and by the cellular arrives respecting the question. " The result of the whole is the tissue, the blood is maintained in the proper condition for the complete establishment of the fact that the production of heat in carrying on of its function with regularity and perfection. To this the animal body is a chemical operation dependent on the combiend they are all indispensable ; and, although their activity varies nation of oxygen with carbon in the capillary arteries of the system, with varying circumstances, and one or more may, for a time, take - that is, it is the result of the burning of charcoal at every point scarcely any part in this grand process, their inactivity being of the body."' compensated for by the greater vigour of others, yet health is not Numerous experiments have decisively proved that this chemical compatible with the continued cessation of the function of any one process is greatly aided by the vital functions of the nervous of them. It is observable that more than one organ is provided system, which are, indeed, essential to its continuance. In what for each of the matters excreted from the blood ; the object of mode it is so, however, we are still ignorant : whether, as some which arrangement is to prevent the serious evils which would suppose, by the electrical properties which they attribute to the arise from the temporary derangement of an organ of this kind, nervous centres, or by the direct generation of heat, being undewere there none to supply its place. Hence all the organs just termined. enumerated are closely implicated with one another, all being One of the best ascertained laws of heat is ils tendency to equal affected, to a greater or less extent, by the condition of each. The distribution. Now, since the media in which animals exist are practical consequences of this fact are of the highest importance, liable to great and sudden variations of temperature, it might be and will hereafter be pointed out.
supposed that the heat of animals would undergo corresponding The complicated and elaborate apparatus provided for the changes. Such, however, is not the case. The natural heat of maintenance of organic life, especially as so much of it seems to man remains, with little variation, the same in the hottest regions produce no positive good, but merely to serve as preventives of evil, may, at first sight, appear to betoken imperfection in the * Sir J. Herschell's Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, p. 312.
of the tropics and in the midst of the ice-bound oceans around the peculiar class of glands, termed conglobate. Collectively, the poles : nay, even when exposed to artificially created temperatures, office of those organs is, as the name denotes, to take up the higher than any that are met with in the warmest climates. The various particles that come in contact with their extremities, and processes by which this is accomplished, and which come under to convey them into the blood. The thoracic duct is the common the denomination of those which protect the animal economy from termination of the whole absorbent system. The special functions external agents, are next to be considered.
of the lacteals have been already stated. The lymphatics are It has been proved by experiment that the quantity of oxygen exceedingly minute vessels, closely resembling the lacteals in consumed by man diminishes in proportion as the temperature of structure ; they penetrate every part of the body, and are probably the atmosphere rises : for, as the air expands in the same pro- the sources of the absorbent power of the skin, and of the surface portion, fewer particles of oxygen enter the lungs, and con. of several internal organs, by means of which substances placed sequently less carbonic acid is formed ; the excess of carbon not upon them are speedily removed into the circulation. But the removed by respiration being, in such cases, secreted by the liver, characteristic office of the lymphatics is, in conjunction with the as already explained. Here, then, is a direct provision for coun- | capillaries, to build up and keep in repair the organs of the body. teracting the effect of too high an external temperature, by Pervading every tissue in countless numbers, they remove the limiting the amount of animal heat generated.
worn-out particles from their various combinations, and thus preThe influence of heat upon the distribution of the blood has been pare the receptacles in which the capillary arteries deposit the before alluded to, and this is another means for effecting the pur- newly-formed particles, and hence they have been aptly termed pose under consideration. When an animal is removed into a the architects of the animal structure. On them is greatly depenhigher temperature, the action of the heart is increased, the circu- dent the condition of the entire frame. If they are too active, the lation is accelerated, and thus a larger quantity of blood is sent to body becomes emaciated and weakened ; if insufficiently so, depothe lungs and skin. In these organs, being acted upon by the heat, sition proceeds too rapidly, and a plethoric state of the system is a portion of the watery constituents of the blood is converted into induced, and, at the same time, noxious particles are suffered to vapour and poured out on their surfaces, whence it is carried off by remain and accumulate. the surrounding air. Now, the change of a substance from a state
Sensibility is generally regarded as an essential attribute of of less to one of greater rarity occasions the absorption of caloric ; nerves. This, however, is an erroneous notion. The nervous the vapour or steam arising from boiling water, for instance, pre system is composed of two parts, the sentient, of which the brain vents it ever rising above a certain temperature, whatever degree and spinal cord are the central masses, and the organic, which is of heat it may be subjected to. In like manner, evaporation from not susceptible of sensation. The former presides over the funcanimals lowers their temperature by absorbing and carrying off the tions of animal life ; the latter over the processes by which vegesuperabundant heat; and so effectual is this process that persons tative existence is preserved. The organic nerves are developed may remain for considerable periods in an atmosphere many before the sentient part of the nervous system, and co
consequently degrees hotter than boiling water, without injury and almost with- are originally independent of it; but afterwards these two systems out inconvenience! In such circumstances the loss of substance unite and exert great mutual influence. Organic nerves take their is, of course, very great; men engaged in gas-works, &c. rise in the abdomen and thorax, the cavities which contain the frequently lose four or five pounds in weight in a short time.
principal organs of the organic life, the great trunks of the arteries Man is exposed to degrees of temperature as far below his own supplying which are completely enveloped in a complicated netnatural heat as those just referred to are above it. In the polar work of organic nerves, and filaments derived from which accompany regions the temperature of the atmosphere is sometimes as low as all, even the minutest ramifications of the arteries, becoming
larger and more numerous as the size of the arteries diminishes, forty or fifty degrees below zero, that is, 140 degrees lower than Organic nerves are indispensable to the carrying on of all the prothat of man, which latter is nevertheless maintained in spite of the cesses of organic life : digestion, secretion, absorption, nutrition, constant radiation of heat from his body. It must be noted, would at once cease, but for their co-operation with the arterial however, that man could not long exist under such circumstances capillaries. It is conjectured, and with much appearance of but for the assistance of art; he clothes himself in the thick furs economy by means of the electric fluid, which they are supposed
reason, that they perform their important part in the animal with which the lower animals destined to inhabit such localities, to convey to the capillaries, where it exerts a chemical influence on are provided, and which, being bad conductors of heat, diminish the blood. Numerous experiments have been made with a view to greatly the loss of caloric. The natural provisions for enabling determine this question, but physiologists are not yet agreed
respecting it. Be this as it may, it is certain that the functions of man to resist the influence of intense cold are principally, increased any organ are interrupted by the removal of its organic nerves: consumption of oxygen and production of carbonic acid, and dimi- but may, for a time at least, be re-established by conveying a galnution of evaporation. Cold contracts the capillaries on the sur. vanic current to the organ affected. faces of the body, and thus lessens the quantity of blood contained organic life as is necessary for our purpose. Our readers will now
We have thus completed a brief outline of so much of the in them, and thereby, and by the direct influence of low tempera- be able to understand the principles on which the practical directure, evaporation is, to a great extent, prevented. It may be tions for the preservation of health, to be hereafter given, observed, also, that the food of animals living in cold climates is individual cases, intelligently and beneficially. Health consists in
are founded, and to apply those general rules to their own almost exclusively animal, which contains a larger proportion than the regular and natural performance of the functions of organic vegetables of carbon and hydrogen—at least, of those elements in life, being influenced by the animal life merely through its action a state fit to enter into and form part of the body, which thus upon them. We have, therefore, given a far more full account of receives a more abundant supply of combustible matter than it those functions, than it will be necessary to do with regard to the
animal functions of locomotion and sensation. Our exposition is would if vegetables were the chief articles of food.
still necessarily imperfect; and those of our readers whom we may Before concluding this exposition of the laws of organic life, we have succeeded in interesting in the subject, we refer for fuller must briefly describe two sets of organs wbich exert a general information to Dr. Southwood Smith's work on The Philosophy influence upon that as well as upon the animal life, namely, the of Health,” which contains a most complete and luminous expoabsorbent system and the organic nerves.
sition of every branch of the subject, and to which we take this The absorbent system consists of lacteals, lymphatics, and a compendium.
opportunity of expressing our great obligations in the foregoing
ANECDOTE OF KING JAMES I. It is very remarkable that Wells Cathedral was finished in 1242, two years In the midst of the Spanish match, the king, who was at Theobalds, w33 after the birth of Cimabue, the restorer of painting in Italy; and the work much discomposed by missing some important papers which he had received was going on at the same time that Nicolo Pisano, tho Italian restoror of respecting it. On recollection, he was persuaded that he had intrusted them sculpture, exercised the art in his own country: it was also finished forty- to his old servant Gib, a Scotchman and gentleman of his bed-chamber. six years before the Cathedral of Amiens, and thirty-six years before the Gib on being called declared, humbly but firmly, that no such papers had Cathedral of Orvieto was begun; and it seems to be the first specimen of ever been given to his care; on which the king, transported with rage, after such magnificent and varied sculpture, united in a series of sacred history, much reviling, kicked him as he kneeled before him. “Sir," exclaimed that is to be found in Western Europe.- Flax man's Lectures on Sculpture. Gib, instantly rising, "I have served you from my youth and you never
found me unfaithful ; I have not deserved this from you, nor can I live FAST DRIVING.
longer with you under this disgrace: fare ye well sir, I will never see your “ Coachman," said an outside passenger to one who was driving at a face more:” and he instantly took horse for London. No sooner was the furious rate over one of the most mountainous roads in the north of circunstance known in the palace, than the papers were brought to the king England, “have you no consideration for our lives and limbs?"_"" What are by Endymion Porter, to whom he had given them. He asked for Gib, and your lives and limbs to me,” was the reply; “I am behind my timo!"-being told he was gone, ordered them to post after him and bring him back; New York Mirror.
vowing that he would neither eat, drink, nor sleep till he saw him. And IPHIGENIA IN AULIS.
when he at length beheld him entering his chamber, he kneeled down and Rent on the earth her maiden veil she throws,
very earnestly begged his pardon ; nor would he rise from this humble pose
ture till he had in a manner compelled the confused and astonished Gib to That emulates the rose; And on the sad attendants rolling
pronounce the words of absolution.-Miss Aikin's Memoirs of James I. The trenibling lustre of her dewy eyes,
THE SONG OF THE LARK.
The Lark proclaimed the joys of the coming year, and awakened endless
hopes, while she soared circling higher and higher, till, at length, her song Which the mimic pencil tries
was like the soft whisper of an angel holding converse with the spring, under In the imag'd form to trace,
the blue arch of heaven - The Story without an End.
WHO NEVER COMMEND BUT WITH A “BUT."
I knew a man who never heard any one praised but he damped the praise.
He did praise, occasionally, but then it was to mortify the listener. If the Warble the sprightly-fancied air
listener praised, in turn, he would immediately change sides, and begin to So now in act to speak the virgin stands;
censure the very person he had before eulogised. He went to church every But when the third libation paid,
Sunday; read the prayers audibly; sung with the clerk; would cry like a She heard her father's dread commands
child in misfortune; and, in the course of an hour, sing a song to drive his Enjoining silence, she obey'd :
care away. He never commended but with a “ BUT." With him Naaman And for her country's good,
was an honourable man, and a mighty man of valour-BUT--he was a With patient, meek submissive mind
leper !-Bucke's Book of Human Character.
following item ; and, considering the job, his charge was certainly mode. An unfortunate Irishman known by the name of Lord Kerry, being the rate :-" To hanging wickets and myself, seven hours, five shillings and sixother night at one of the Dutch assemblies, and quite overcome with its pence."—New York Mirror. stupidity, yawned so terribly that he fairly dislocated his jaw. It was
THE HONEY-BIRD. immediately set again ; but he has suffered much from the accident, and is still confined by it to his bed. He is a man upwards of fifty, and conse.
In the country of the Amakasa wild honey is found plentifully, and the quently, must have been frequently ennuied before. But such peculiar
natives very frequently avail themselves of the assistance of the honey-bird, ennui was more than he had bargained for, or had power to resist. You
or bee-cuckoo, (Cuculus Indicator), in searching for it. This bird, which is may think this is a made anecdote, but I assure you I have told you the plain
of a cinereous colour, and somewhat larger than the common sparrow, is matter of fact.-Letter M. G. Leucis.
well known in South Africa for its extraordinary faculty of discovering the
hives or nests of the wild bees, which in that country are constructed eitber FIRST INSTANCE OF BRIBERY IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. in hollow trees, in crevices of the rocks, or in holes in the ground. Being
1571 A. R. 13-May 10. Thomas Long, "a very simple man and unfit extremely fond of honey, and of the bees'-eggs, or larvæ, and at the same to serve, is questioned how he came to be elected. He confesses that he
time unable, without assistance, to obtain access to the bee-hives, nature has gave the Mayor of Westbury and another four pounds for his place in supplied the Indicator with the singular instinct of calling to its aid certain Parliament. They are ordered to repay this sum, to appear to answer such
other animals, and especially man himself, to enable it to attain its object. things as should be objected against them in that house, and a fine of
This is a fact long ago established on the authority of Spartman, Vaillant, twenty pounds is to be assessed on the corporation and inhabitants of
and other scientific travellers in Southern Africa. With the habits of this Westbury, for their scandalous a ttempt. — Parry's Parliaments and
curious bird I was myself acquainted during my residence in the interior of Councils of England.
the Cape colony, and have often partaken of wild honey procured by its
guidance. It usually sits in a tree by the way-side, and, when any pas. DISPROPORTIONED PUNISHMENTS.
senger approaches, greets him with its peculiar cry of cherr-a-cherr! cherr. Whenever the offence inspires less horror than the punishment, the a-cherr! If he shows any disposition to attend to its call, it flies on before rigour of the penal law is obliged to give way to the common feelings of him in short flights, from tree to tree, till it leads him to the spot where it mankind.-Gibbon.
knows a bce.hive to be concealed. It then sits still and silent till he has A NEGRO CHILD'S BURIAL.
extracted the honeycomb, of which it expects a portion as its share of the A friend, who had resided some time in Brazil, told an anecdote, which spoil; and this share the natives who profit by its guidance never fail to was extremely pleasing to me, on account of the distinct and animating leave it. Some of the native Hottentots assert, also, that to obtain access to faith it inıplied. When walking on the beach, he overtook a negro woman,
the hives in hollow trees, the honey-bird sometimes calls to its aid the wood. carrying a large tray upon her head. Thinking she had fruit or flowers to pecker, a bird which finds in the larvæ, or young bees, a treat as enticing sell, he called to her to stop. On being asked what she had in her tray, she to its taste as the honey is to that of its ingenious associate.-African Sketches, lowered the burthen upca the sand, and gently uncovered it. It was a dead by Thomas Pringle. negro babe, covered with a neat white robe, with a garland around its head, and a bunch of flowers in the little hands, that lay clasped upon its bosom.
A FRIEND IN NEED IS A FRIEND INDEED. “Is this your child ?" asked my friend. “ It was mine a few days ago," she Wuen Drury-lane Theatre was burnt, Bannister the comedian was said ; " but it is the Madonna's now, I am carrying it to the church to be amongst the losers of property, as well as of situation. His wife was a buried. It is a litlle angel nou." “ How beautifully you have laid it out!" relation of Rundle the goldsmith, who sent Bannister the following said tho traveller. “Ah!" replied the negro, “ that is nothing compared to
letter: the beautiful bright wings with which it is flying through heaven !"--The
“ Ludgale-hil, 27 Feb. 1809. Mother's Book.
“Dear Sir :-I have great pleasure in inclosing you a bank-note for 5001., THE TRIGGER FISH.
which I hope you will do me the favour to accept, in consideration of the We were boarded by some little canoes, hollowed from logs, when fully
loss you may sustain from the late serious change in the concern. ten miles from the shore; nor did the poor fishermen in these frail vessels
“ I remain, dear sir, with the greatest regard for your welfare, your friend appear to feel any concern at the distance. From one of these boats we
and humble servant,
« PHILIP RUNDLE. obtained some fish of an oval shape, of one to two pounds in weight and a
“ I presume there will be a subscription opened for those in distress." deep blue colour, spotted all over with white. Sailors call them * trigger"
Bannister's Memoirs. fish because their large back-fin cannot be pressed backward by a strong effort, but is levelled by the slightest touch on a smaller fin, planted a little London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER below it.-Voyage of the Brig Himmaleh.
& Co. Dublin : CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars.
direct influence of electricity. They further justify the well
grounded supposition that the immediate cause of the variation in No. V.
the magnetic needle, which so materially affects navigation, is the CONCLUDING VIEW OF THE NATURE OF ANIMAL MAGNETIAM. action of electricity under polar connexion. I will endeavour to
“ You are aware," continued M. de L., “ that, besides light explain this to you more clearly. and heat, there are two other imponderable and prodigiously “ The two poles of a voltaic apparatus,—the positive pole, as subtle bodies, which lend their concurrent aid in governing the you know, yielding vitreous, the negative yielding resinous, elecuniverse of matter and its changes,—so far, at least, as regards the tricity,—are connected by a wire of platinum, gold, or iron. planet we inhabit : I mean electricity and magnetism. Many This wire, being rectilinear almost from end to end, is directed in philosophers regard these four substances or elements as impart. the exact line of the magnetic meridian. If a magnetic needle, ing condition to matter, rather than as forming any part of matter properly suspended, and attached to a diagram representing the itself. But, imponderable though they be, they nevertheless points of the mariner's compass, be placed with its centre immedioccupy space, and two of them, at least, offer resistance ; facts ately under this connecting wire, the pole of the needle nearest to evident to the physical senses of organised beings: they may, the negative electric pole will decline towards the west; but, if the therefore, justly be considered matter. I accordingly term them needle be placed in the same situation above the connecting wire, its
bodies. By their nature, light, heat, electricity, and magne- declination will be towards the East. In neither case, however, tism, are fluids, but of more refined and penetrating action than does the declination exceed an angle of ninety degrees. Some day, the most subtle and expansive of the elastic fluids called "gases.' I will show you two or three singular experiments connected with The necessity of light, and its chemical action upon matter, needs this fact, which very materially strengthen the evidence it offers of not now to be discussed, any more than the properties of heat, by so close a connexion between electricity and magnetism, that iden. which all nature is maintained in form and life. But if light be tity may almost be inferred. necessary to bring about many changes in matter inorganic, and, in
“ There is another point which I must notice. If light, heat, most cases, indispensable to the very life of organised matter; and electricity, and magnetism, be matter, though imponderable, do if heat be indispensable to impart form and bulk to the material they enter into chemical union with matter? My opinion is, that world ; electricity and magnetism are equally so to direct the they do. Heat gives form and bulk to all bodies, by lying between general polarity of matter,-a condition necessary, not only to their ultimate atoms, which it keeps asunder to the utmost extent marshal it to the laws of gravitation and motion, but to excite those permitted by the power of cohesion peculiar to the separate changes arising from what is termed chemical action. Besides qualities of each body. The different bulks and specific qualities the general polarity of the world, its component parts, even, no of bodies depend, therefore, upon the interposition of heat, the doubt, to its ultimate atoms, have individual polarity, governed by substances which contain the greatest quantity being the most the same laws. This is, however, foreign to the subject now under porous, and therefore the lightest, because their constituent atoms our consideration, but may form a topic on some future occasion.
are the farthest asunder. But the heat which regulates this spe“Thus, then, electricity and magnetism have an action upon cific gravity, and that also which maintains matter in its sereral matter, from which it renders them as inseparable as light and conditions of solid, liquid, and vapour or gas ;-that is to say, the beat. Volta having discovered galvanism to be identical with elec- constituent heat of matter-loses by its combination, by its very tricity, some other philosopher may hereafter show that magnetism quality of constituent heat, its distinctive property of affording senis only a modification of the electric principle ; that the polarity of sible warmth. Constituent heat does not affect the most delicate matter, and the chemical arrangements dependent upon it, are
thermometer. But when this kind of heat is separated from the directed by one fluid only, and not by two; that, in short, the body to which it is united, it immediately resumes its power of whole material universe is under the control of a general directing affording warmth, and will act upon the mercury in the thermo. or governing principle, which may be called 'electricity,' or 'mag- meter. For example : steam and boiling water are of the same netism,' or by some more appropriate name.
precise temperature--100° centigrade *; but steam absorbs, be“ That there is a very close connexion between electricity and yond this, 555.8° † of constituent heat, although its temperature magnetism is evident from the discoveries of the Danish philoso- never exceeds 100°. Did it not absorb this heat, it would remain pher, Oersted, in 1819. His experiments have been since water at the temperature of steam. When this latter is re-confollowed out and illustrated by Ampère, De la Rive, Arago, your densed to water, it parts with its constituent heat, which, on being own Davy, and many other illustrious men. These discoveries liberated, recovers the property it had lost, and sensibly affects the show most satisfactorily that the action of magnetism is under the surrounding media. Again : ice, and water just melted from ice,
show the same temperature, that of zero I ; but the water has The word electricity is derived from the Greek word KA EXTPOV. (elec- absorbed 77.812°ş of heat, which has become insensible, but withtron), which signifies amber. This name was given from the circumstance that the discoverer of electricity, Thales of Miletus, found it to arise out which the water at zero would have remained ice. This latter from the friction of amber. Magnetism comes from the Latin word "magnes," which means the lodestone, or stone that attracts iron.--"Mag
$ 10000 measured by Fahrenheit's scale. nes ad se ferrum allicit et trahit."-Cic.
* 320 Fahrenheit.
§ 1400 Fahrenheit's scale.
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