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solid will never melt unless the surrounding media supply this young are able to take care of themselves, the parents cast them constituent heat; a fact which explains the cause of the atmosphere off, and know them no more. Intuitively the bird builds its nest, being sometimes colder during a thaw than before it commenced. the beaver constructs its hut, the rabbit makes its burrow, the bee Now, it is by chemical combination only that elementary bodies forms its honeycomb, the spider spins its web,—each as perfectly, part with their distinctive properties; therefore, we are justified in but not more so, than at any previous period of the world's existence
. supposing constituent heat to be in chemical union. With regard Each animal exercises the several functions of its peculiar organi. to light, we know that many chemical changes require its presence, zation, because the sensations of physical life impel it to do so." and that it is necessary to the life of organized matter; yet, we On the other hand, the attainments of man are progressive, be. cannot clearly trace its existence in combination. The case is cause they result from the lessons of reason, which belongs to different with electricity. This principle enters largely into the spiritual life. Moreover, this reason—this spark of spiritual life composition of many, perhaps of all, bodies. Your Dr. Faraday, --showing man the difference between good and evil, makes him the worthy and accomplished pupil and successor of that great and resist many improper calls and propensities of physical life, which good philosopher, Davy, has recently shown that a single drop of the inferior animals instinctively indulge, because they have no water contains electric matter sufficient for a powerful thunder- such spiritual check. I could extend this argument much farther, storm : but this electric matter in union with water shows none of and answer many anticipated objections ; but by so doing, at the distinctive properties of electricity; whence we have a right to present, I should lose sight of the main question. I will therefore conclude that it is in chemical union.
at once make my point, which is this :- Animal magnetism being “What I wish you to understand is, that bodies, requiring common to the inferior warm-blooded animals, as well as to man, electricity in its active state, contain it in its dormant or combined it cannot possibly be other than an effect of matter, wholly uncon. condition ; that, therefore, such bodies may obtain their supply of nected with anything spiritual, because these animals possess electricity by the natural course of chemical action, without the only physical without spiritual life, and psychological action aid of what, in the older philosophy of modern times, is called cannot exist where there is no soul. the grund reservoir, the necessity of a constant recourse to which “I now come to the real physical question before us, the would make them mere conductors of the fluid from the general nature and action of animal magnetism. I have already esplained mass of the earth, whilst their very constituent matter is full of it. to you that a general governing principle, in the condition of an This is more especially applicable to organized matter, which is invisible and subtle fluid, pervades the world of matter; that all never free from electrical influence ; whilst inert or inorganic bodies contain this principle reduced to an inactive state by che. matter may possibly remain for ages without its active electrical mical operation; and that, in organised matter, the governing power being called into operation. In all organic matter, both fluid, by the effect of the continued chemical action which sup: vegetable and animal, the electric action is always going on. It is ports life, is in never-ceasing progress of liberation and resumed well known that some vegetables, from the mere excitement of the activity. Not only does it direct every exercise of the animal atmosphere, give out electric sparks visible at night. A hairy functions, but it is the immediate agent of the will of motion; that man will produce, in the dark, visible electric sparks, by stripping is to say, it carries from the brain to the nerves, the volition by a silk stocking from his leg. The back of a cat, when dry and which any particular set of muscles is put in motion, and thereby warm, will, by friction, yield electric sparks; and, if the electric | enables the will belonging to the physical life consequent upon circle be formed, a shock may be given either to the animal itself | organization, to perform the voluntary functions of the body; or to the person who holds her. I have often in this way pro- whilst, unbidden by any but the eternal and benevolent God from duced in my fingers a very sharp pain from the electric fluid. whom it proceeds, it secretly directs the involuntary functions.
“Both vegetable and animal bodies imbibe this fluid from This is the FLUID OF ANIMAL MAGNETISM. Now, physioloevery medium that tends to preserve their life. The former gists admit that there is a nervous fluid' from which the organs receive it from the soil they inhabit ; from the atmosphere ; from derive their power of voluntary and involuntary, sensible and the water taken up by their roots as nourishment, and decom- insensible muscular action, subservient to the laws of gravitation posed, -the oxygen being set free, the hydrogen retained, and the and dynamics ;—but they have made no inquiry into the origin of electric matter, liberated by the decomposition of the water, either this nervous fluid;' they have never sought from it any further brought into action or forming new combinations. Animals action; they have never tried to discover whether any other voluntary receive the electric fluid with the food they take, with the liquids or involuntary faculties are derived from it, independently of those they imbibe ; it is present in every part of their bodies, and its appertaining to the known functions of individual life. They have influence is employed in every chemical change of the matter de. very unjustifiably taken it for granted, that the origin of this fluid rived from their food, assimilated and converted into blood is one of the mysteries of the creation beyond the reach of human charged with the elements of life. This blood receives electricity investigation ; they have taken it for granted, also, that its action from the atmospheric air inhaled in respiration. Not only is it is limited to what they already know. Glimpses of facts, unobdecarbonised by the oxygen of the air breathed, which returns served by them, have been caught by ignorant and credulous from the lungs in the form of carbonic acid, but the electrical individuals, and advantage taken of such glimpses by quacks
and action imparted by the air to the blood qualifies its chemical cheats to delude the weak and excite the contempt of the wise. elements for those secretions which maintain the animal frame, and To these causes are we to attribute the present disreputable conconsequently animal life.
dition of animal magnetism, coupled, as it is, with all the lies that “Physical animal life is the mere machinery of organization the most monstrous empiricism could invent, and with the delu; set in motion. But there exists something more :-intelligence to sions successfully practised upon badly informed and superficial direct that machinery; intelligence and volition to make it work | minds, by even the very dregs of society. to a profitable moral end ; intelligence to distinguish good from “ The hypothesis that electricity is the sole governing principle evil;—that intelligence, in short, which constitutes spiritual life, of material polarity and of chemical action, under the inference that and is, by a mysterious exercise of Divine will
, united for a time magnetism is one of its varieties or modifications, naturally leads to the physical life of the human body; though, when this latter us to the conclusion that the nervous fluid, which is the gorerning is destroyed and extinct from any defect or injury, or by the principle of animal life, is likewise electricity. In addition to what wearing out or destruction of the organization that formed it, I have already stated to justify this conclusion, I may adduce the the immortal spiritual life is emancipated, in all its freshness; further well-known fact that, on the nerves of animal bodies and vigour, and consciousness
, to be eternally responsible for any recently deprived of life, but before the muscles have become rigid misdirection it may have given to the physical life during their and therefore incapable of renewed motion, voltaic electricity prop union in the body.
duces so powerful an effect as to induce considerable muscular “ There is another question, which I would pass without notice, action.t It is also most effective, when properly applied, in did I not consider it necessary to my case.
It is this. The most learned theologians, the wisest and best of our spiritual teachers, * Much has been said and written concerning the reasoning powers, deny to the inferior animals the possession of any but the mere animals; and we daily see extraordinary instances of instinctive intelliphysical life. They consider that the life immortal, or the spi- gence
in those domesticated with man, as well as in those which range ritual essence which constitutes mind, belongs solely to man, he forest and the desert in wild freedom. But this intelligence is the amets alone being called to fill a higher future destiny. After mature
result of organization : it is directed solely to physical effects, and cannot compelled to following reasons ? The instinct of all the inferior animals is at Ginsgow, oven Berikin, i816, in this experiments upon the body of tea
* One of the most striking instances on record is that exhibited by Dr, Crea their organs are require instruction, but their natural instinct never improves. When the by the apparatus not only to the limbs of the corpse, but to the
muscles of executed murderer Clydesdale. The reality of muscular motion imparted
reach a moral cause.
THE LONDON SATURDAY JOURNAL.
restoring the action of physical life suspended by suffocation. If the animal body naturally resides in the blood. When, therefore, the phrenic nerve be laid bare and exposed to the direct operation by an operation of the will, the direction of the fluid to a nerve of the fluid, by means of conducting wires, the play of the lungs is is followed by muscular action, the same operation of the will instantly resumed, and the electric spark rekindles the flame of has simultaneously charged with an excess of blood the vessels life, provided the animal heat be not exhausted. I have witnessed belonging to that nerve,—for every nerve, however minute, has this effect on many occasions; I have myself produced it with the an artery and a vein,-or, more properly speaking, it has charged electricity of my own voltaic apparatus, the power of which is the vessels attached to the numerous nerves, or ramifications of known to you. In my professional practice, I apply this process nerves, which are united to each bunch of muscle. It follows, for restoring suspended animation, whenever an opportunity therefore, that a phlegmatic individual, however robust, is less offers; because, in every case where no vital organ is disturbed, charged with the magnetic fluid, and therefore less qualified to and the minimum of animal warmth necessary for the support of magnetise, than one of sanguineous temperament. I will illuslife is retained, I have found it successful. The nervous fluid, or, trate this. Feel my hand.” if it may be so called, the animal-magnetic fluid, is then most pro- We did so: the doctor's hand was at the ordinary tenperature bably one of the forms of electricity,
,-a position the more tenable of that of a man in health. A few moments after, he desired because it explains most of the known phenomena really arising us to feel it again : it was in a burning heat, as if of strong fever. from animal magnetism, and is in perfect accordance with the “I am,” said he, “ of excessively sanguineous temperament, whole.
and therefore a good magnetiser. The first time you felt my “ I will endeavour to give you a brief general outline of these hand, it was in its normal condition; the second time it was phenomena, so far, at least, as I am acquainted with them. acted upon by my will to magnetise, and the vessels were there
" By the power of the will, as I have before stated, the nervous fore filled with an excess of blood : hence its high temperature. fluid is, in an instant, directed by the brain to a nerve or set of No doubt, in the contact, you received from me a portion of nerves, in order to bring about muscular action, which is so rapid magnetic fluid. a consequence as to be almost simultaneous with volition. Now, ** As I continue my explanation, you will naturally perceive such direction and its immediate consequence in muscular motion, that the science of medicine may gather many important advanshow that the muscular fibre through which it passes is a good tages from the agency of animal magnetism. I confess to you, conductor of the fluid. If, therefore, the will can propel the ner- that, although in my practice I derive great assistance from the vous fluid to any nerve at the extremity of the body—let us say, for use of this agent, I am but an infant in knowledge of the results instance, at the tips of the fingers,—may we not justly infer that, as that I anticipate, when its separation from the monstrous lies no known obstacle exists, the will can also drive the fluid beyond with which it is now yoked shall have dispelled the prejudice that nerve and out of the body altogether, provided there be any that, like a thick mist, conceals it for a time from the attention conductor to receive it? That such is actually the case is fully of the learned. esident to the least informed of the magnetisers. I will go a step “ One of the most singular effects of animal magnetism is that further, and tell you that not only can this be done by the force of of magnetic sleep. This is a sort of lethargic condition, arising volition and with perfect consciousness of the ability to do it, but from pressure on the brain, caused by an excess of magnetic it is constantly effected, without consciousness, by the inferior fluid communicated by a transmission to that organ. The warn-blooded animals as well as by the human species. The lethargy thus induced so strongly resembles sleep, as not only caresses of the former bestowed upon their young; their lickings to afford rest under bodily fatigue, but to leave the mind unfet. and rubbings, and the various modes of contact they employ, cause tered to a certain limited extent. I am not, however, prepared a transmission of magnetic fluid, which soothes the pains attendant to say that dreams ever occur during this kind of sleep, because I upon the immaturity of animal nature. If the lickings of the dam have never yet met an individual, even one who, whilst under its quiet the cub, in like manner the human mother, or the human influence, had replied to questions, who retained the slightest nurse will, by her caresses and her handlings, assuage the pains recollection of having dreamed. You appear surprised at my and stop the cries of the suffering babe. In both cases, there is a allusion to answering questions ; but of this you may be assured, voluntary though unconscious communication of the nervous fluid, that most, if not all, individuals who, in natural sleep, have an which is that of animal magnetism, or animal electricity-call it idiosyncratic propensity to somniloquence, will reply to questions which you will. Further, this fluid is transmitted in the caresses when under the influence of magnetic sleep, although I know no of fraternal as well as parental affection, in those of holy friend. | instance of any such magnetised sleeper being the first to speak. ship, in those of love. With reference to this latter, I have seen, The faculty of speaking must be excited. I may add, that as the in the course of my professional career, much to prove the extra- action of the mental organs, which may correspond with the ordinary influence of animal magnetism in pregnancy, and during phrenological developments, is in great measure suspended, the the whole period of gestation. In the exercise of the human feel- sleeper who speaks unconsciously will always utter the truth. ings and affections, who has not, without knowing it, felt the Such a faculty would prove a terrible engine for the discovery of power of animal magnetism! Who, in bodily suffering and personal crime. God forbid that it should ever be applied to such anguish of mind, has not experienced its soothing effect! Do we a purpose! the evils to which it might lead would be incalculanot all know that actual contact induced by sympathy is more bly greater than any good it could afford. efficacious than verbal sympathy without it?—that the grasp of a " Mesmer certainly discovered magnetic sleep, but made no use friendly hand, the kiss of sisterly or conjugal affection, an embrace, of the discovery. His pupil, Puységur, having found idiosyncratic the placing of a hand upon the head, or the shoulder, or the arm, somniloquence under the magnetic action, invented somnambulism, or any other part of the sufferer's body, will produce a wonder and brought to light the alleged marvels of that condition. He fully quieting and consolatory effect, which the most tender words was ignorant, weak-minded, and credulous ; but not more so, perwithout it will fail to do?' We have all felt this: we can all, / haps, than those of my professional brethren who are now pursuing therefore, bear witness of its truth. This is the unconscious exer- the same illusory course. cise of animal magnetism; in all such cases, there is a transmission “Magnetic sleep is very easily communicated by any individual of magnetic fluid, arising from an exercise of the ordinary laws to who has practised the transmission of the magnetic fluid. I need which organic animal nature has been subjected by the GREAT scarcely observe, that such transmission cannot take place even at AND BENEVOLENT FIRST CAUSE.
the distance of a few feet, except by means of a conductor at a “The faculty of transmitting the animal-magnetic fluid, by an proper temperature,-a thing not easily obtained. The operator operation of the will, requires, like the exercise of every other must, therefore, be near, and his fingers within half an inch of the animal faculty, a little practice to make it perfect. The mind patient's skin, if not in contact. Further, the electric circle is should not wander, but the whole attention be devoted to the necessary. A great number of individuals of both sexes, utterly operation. I must also observe that, like every other fluid, that ignorant of the real nature of animal magnetism, produce this of animal magnetism has a tendency to equilibrium ; therefore, magnetic sleep, and are able to do so upon persons even unconthe body containing the greater quantity will part with a portion scious of being the objects of magnetic action. This faculty is, to that which has less. Further : the active governing fluid of like a medicinal poison, dangerous in the hands of the ignorant or the murderer's face, to his eyes, and mouth, producing every variety of
unprincipled. expression, from the placid and jocular to the most terrific, was so startling magnetic sleep. I may mention two severe cases of the most
“In my practice, I have obtained many beneficial results from that one gentleman actually fainted, and terror drove several from the room. Dr. Ure expressed the opinion that, but for the sections made by the sur- distressing hysterical or uterine affection, which have occurred geons present, vitality might have been restored,
within the last six months. One patient was fourteen years of
age; the other fifteen. Both cases had resisted all medical treat- to a patient in one way, its effect may be beneficial ; applied in ment. Four hours of magnetic sleep each day cured these young another way it may have an opposite result. Facts and experience persons in a few weeks; the colour of their complexion was should be the only guides to a medical man in its application, and restored, their appetite returned, and they now enjoy the most these guides must themselves be governed by correct judgment. robust health. In hundreds of cases, I have produced, by similar 1 frequently cure nervous head-ache by transmitting the fluid means, healthy action in females of all ages between sixteen and through the ends of my fingers, as I have cured it also by a trans. forty-five, upon whom the use of the most powerful emmena- mission of the common electric fluid through a metallic point. I gogues had made no impression. In ordinary hysteria, which is often put a stop to tooth-ache by touching the diseased tooth with peculiar to females, and also in many nervous complaints to which my finger. In this case, no doubt, the magnetic fluid appeases men are subject, I find magnetic sleep a very successful and admi- the exacerbation of the nerve caused by contact with the air. But rable agent. I cannot explain to you the specific action of mag- I will show you a variety of effects from the magnetic action, if netism in any of the cases I have described, nor indeed in any you will devote a few weeks to the subject. You shall see my other, because I know it not: I only state the facts I have patients, not one of whom is conscious of being magnetised. witnessed, leaving the discovery of such action to more able heads Many of them would ridicule the idea of such a thing, and fancy than mine. I have always found the insomnolence arising from that I was jesting if I told them the truth. Whenever, therefore, acute and from chronic discase, or from any other cause, yield to you see me lay one hand on the head and the other on the chest, the magnetic action; and, by this agent, I have obtained refreshing or when I place both hands on any other part of a patient's rest for patients who otherwise would have had none. I employed person, pray observe the result.” this power upon yourself during your late severe attack, and the M. de L— ceased speaking. It is sufficient to add, that he sleep from which you derived so much benefit was magnetic. If convinced us of the truth of his theory by examples, to the evi. you remember, I always came to awaken you, having given strict dence of which we should have been insane had we bot yielded. injunctions to the nurse that you should not be disturbed. You It is quite impossible for us here to give a statement of cases ;always slept from the time I left you at night until I returned in these would fill a volume. It is also unnecessary; for, as we have the morning,—and that, too, without the dangerous use of explained in a former article, we do not pretend to teach animal sedatives. *
magnetism ; though we must, with candour, admit that, in writing “I have told you that the lethargy, or sleep of animal magnetism, for the information, and to satisfy the curiosity of the general is produced by an excess of the fluid pressing upon the brain. It reader, we have a lurking hope that the slight sketch we have follows, therefore, that to put an end to such a condition, its cause given may induce some men of genius to investigate the subject, must be removed by extracting the excess of fluid. This leads us and examine the true character of animal magnetism as a new and to the following corollary : if the etic fluid ca be communi. useful branch of physiological science. cated at will, it can also be withdrawn at will,-a very important
[In concluding this series of papers on ANIMAL MAGNETISM, we wish to point, as you will presently perceive. You are aware that the nerves are the sole organs of sensation, or feeling,-a property
remind our readers of what has been accomplished in them, and to inform which they derive, not from their constituent matter, but from
them how far we are to be considered responsible for the speculations their being formed to receive, and from their actually receiving, advanced in the present paper. In the first three papers, our able and by means of an action of the brain, a portion of the nervous or intelligent correspondent gave a brief sketch of the history of Animal magnetic fluid, by which sensation is imparted. You know also Magnetism ; in the fourth, he gave the results of his own personal expethat muscular action, both voluntary and involuntary, arises from rience, which ended in his conversion to a belief that there is a MAGNETIC precisely the same cause, the action of the brain which directs the fluid to the nerves. You further know that pressure upon
FLUID : and, in the present and concluding paper, he illustrates his belief
the brain prevents that organ from sending the fluid to the nerves ;
by an attempt to elucidate it scientifically. His conclusions are-1. Mag. and that paralysis the consequence, because the nerves netism is probably one of the modified forms of electricity. 2. Animal corresponding with the part under pressure lose their property of magnetism is simply electricity existing in warm-blooded animals. And sensation and of action. Now, although the pressure of a subtle, 3. That this electricity may be communicated or withdrawn by an exertion imponderable fluid like the animal-magnetic, be not sufficient to of the will, and that therefore it is possible to make it a powerful subsercause paralysis, nevertheless, it suspends volition, and causes a vient agent in the cure of disease. Wc leave these conclusions, especially temporary cessation of all muscular motion except the involuntary the last onc, to the consideration of our readers : not without a fear that motion of the vital organs, necessary to carry on life. The limbs of the sleeper become powerless, and the respiration-added to
some of them, like ourselves, may incline to be sceptical, in spite even of the talking, where it occurs—is alone indicative of life. Do
the eloquent enthusiasm of our correspondent. We, however, cordially you not think that, under such circumstances, the nervous or mag
concur in the recommendation with which he concludes this paper. netic fluid that remains, might be extracted from any particular
ED. LOND. SAT. JOURNAL.] nerves, and the muscles and their appendages to which such nerves communicate feeling, be thereby deprived altogether of sensation ?
THE MAID OF ALL WORK's HOLIDAY. That this has been done, is beyond doubt. There are several well. authenticated cases on record; among them is that of a lady who,
When Mary gets leave to go out for the day, she not only under magnetic sleep, and partially deprived of sensation in the leaves her“ place," in the sense of quitting for a time the scene manner I have described, underwent excision of a cancer from her of her labours, but she literally leaves "Mary' behind, and breast, without being sensible of the operation. I will introduce becomes a kind of “ Miss." She is elevated in the scale of society. you this very day to a retired officer of rank in our navy, a white pocket-handkerchief, which she carries in her right hand;
She holds out the “flag and sign” of gentility in the form of a veteran of a hundred battles,' and one whose word cannot be doubted. Dreading the consequence of the extraction of a dan and assumes a degree of oriental splendour in the shawl which gerous splinter from his knee, he deferred it from time to time. depends from her left arm. Her feet and ancles display the step Being advised to submit to the operation whilst under the influence of temporary promotion from black worsted to white cotton. Her of magnetic sleep, the limb being deprived of sensation by the shoe-strings and her bonnet-ribands are crisp with their newness. magnetiser, he ridiculed the thing as impossible. The importuni.
But the prime touch of all is to be seen in her gloves, which are ties of his family, however, prevailed, and he consented to undergo
of white silk. And joy it is to poor Mary to sit for once at a teathe extraction in the manner described. He will inform you, that
table in assurance of being undisturbed by missus's bell. She is he not only felt no pain, but was wholly unconscious of what was
now her own missus, and a belle into the bargain ; and her laughpassing.t
ing little clapper goes on at a delectable rate in ringing the changes “On individuals not asleep, the magnetic fluid has various kinds of family gossip; and how the butcher's young man always wants of action, arising, no doubt, from idiocratic causes. In some I to put his nasty greasy hands upon her wħenever missus sends her have produced sickness and vomiting ; in others, griping pains and
to market; and one of the young gentlemen who visits her young catharsis. In some, I have assuaged pains in different parts of the master had the “imperance” to speak to her in the street, not body; in others I have caused pains, and even syncope. Applied recognising her in her holiday costume ; and then she laughs her
self to fits in thinking “how stupid to be sure he did look” when * This was strictly true; and we were more than once surprised that the
she told him of his blunder ; and then, having enjoyed herself doctor should so frequently find us asleep.
thoroughly, she returns home, and dreams that she and the butcher's † We saw this officer, who himself related to us the particulars of his man have made a match of it after all.-Fraser's Magazine, Jan. case, which were perfectly corroborative of the doctor's statement.
FURTHER PARTICULARS RESPECTING PHOTOGENIC new delineation before me; and to remedy its defects I applied it DRAWING
to a new process altogether, to produce the true lights and Since we last noticed this new art, which has so strongly shadows in their right places. A square of thin glass was placed attracted public attention, many experiments have been made,
over the well-known etching, of "Faust conjuring Mephisattended with the most gratifying results. It is evident that this tophiles to appear in the form of a bright star.' I then painted art is destined to take a very high rank; and the ease with which on the high lights with thick white lead, mixed with copal varnish, copies of any design may be multiplied, without the intervention and sugar of lead, to make it dry quickly; for the half-tints of a press and the necessity of great care and skill in the printer, made the white less opaque with the varnish, and graduated the as in engraving and lithography, will probably soon render it the tints off into the glass for the deep shadows. I allowed this to favourite medium for the circulation of drawings. It remains, dry, and the following day (February 27th) retouched the whole, however, for us to explain how this multiplication of one design by removing, with the point of a kvife, the white ground, to reprecan be attained, as hitherto we have only described the process of sent the dark etched lines of the original. The glass thus painted, obtaining a representation of any particular object.
when placed upon black paper, looked like a powerful mezzotinto To understand the means by which this is effected, it must be engraving. I placed a sheet of prepared paper upon the painted borne in mind that the whole surface of the prepared paper, if ex. surface; and, to make the contact perfect, put three layers of posed to the light, will in a short time change from white to a deep flannel at the back, and tied the whole down to a board. There violet, and, if very sensitive, nearly black ; but if any opaque sub- happened to be a bright sun, and, in ten minutes, the parts of the stance be interposed between the paper and the light, the portion glass exposed had made a deep purplish black on the paper. On so covered remains white, while all around it is coloured. Thus a removing the glass, I had a tolerably good impression, but the white outline of whatever was desired to be represented was
half-tints had absorbed too much of the violet ray. I immediately obtained, and in copying a print by this means a double opera- painted the parts over with black on the other side of the glass, tion was necessary; for in the first instance it was completely which answers to the practice of engravers in stopping out, when reversed, all the dark parts of the print being white in the draw. & plate is bitten in too fast by the acid. This may be wiped off, ing, and vice versa, and it became necessary to obtain a transposed renewed, or suffered to remain, at pleasure.
impression of the reversed drawing, to produce a correct copy of “ There is no advantage in letting the glass remain too long in * the print. In Mr. Talbot's first communication to the Royal the light, as it deepens the middle tints, and does not blacken the
Society, he omitted to state the means which he had used to shadows in the same proportion. The fixation with salt entirely procure accurately shaded drawings and dark outlines, and to failed ; with the iodide of potassium, succeeded very well. The multiply impressions of the same design; but the researches of effect of the drawing may be heightened at pleasure, by touching artists soon led them to the method necessary to obtain these the lights with strong iodide of potassium, and the darks with a results. This circumstance has led to an unpleasant altercation strong solution of the nitrate of silver, dropped upon tin with a between Mr. Wilmore, an engraver, and Mr. Talbot, as to their camel's-hair pencil: this instantly turns black. With these the respective claims to the merit of this application. It seems very drawing may be invigorated; and the whole will resemble a mezzoevident that both may “ divide the crown," and we are sorry that tinto print, or a rich sepia drawing." any such dispute should have taken place. As we are not at all It requires the experienced hand of an artist to produce effects desirous of making our pages the arena of strife, we shall pass by this process; but the power of etching outlines on glass is over the subject, and proceed to describe the process.
more easily acquired, and can be applied with facility to obtaining The desired effect is obtained by the medium of a glass plate, copies of writings, as well as drawings, and may be not unsuccesswhich in Mr. Talbot's process is smeared over with a solution of fully adopted for circulars, &c. resin in turpentine, and, when half dry, held over the smoke of a The English process has been declared by M. Daguerre to be candle, by which a dark ground, which will not rub off, is procured. totally different from that practised by him, and it appears to be Upon this a design is traced with a needle, leaving the glass the case, since the accounts given of it represent the drawings transparent, and on the application of prepared paper a very obtained in the camera as at once giving figures, correctly shaded,perfect copy is procured, every line which the needle has traced a result which can only be obtained with us by a double operation, being represented by a dark line on the paper. Mr. Talbot has or the use of shaded glass. M. Daguerre has, however, given no also employed paintings on glass, executed “ with transparent further description of this process, nor have we any accounts of varnish of different colours, which, by the action of light, produce further experiments upon it in France. His recent heavy mis. as many shadowy tints upon the resulting image. The blue colour fortune in the loss of the Diorama by fire, has probably presented gives a dark shade, the yellow, red, &c., &c., various feebler ones." him from giving attention to the “ Daguerotype.” A strong outline is given by the use of the needle, and drawings Mr. Talbot has communicated to the Royal Society a new reobtained by this process bear a strong resemblance to mezzotinto cipe for the preparation of sensitive paper. It is as follows :engravings.
“Take good writing-paper, and wash it over with nitrate of silver; Mr. Havell, the distinguished painter, has made use of a dif- then with bromide of potassium; and afterwards again with ferent process, productive of nearly the same results, but admitting nitrate of silver ; drying it at the fire between each operation." of greater facility in producing effect. He published an account This paper is found to be exceedingly sensitive to weak light, of his mode of process in the Literary Gazette of the 30th March, changing its colour from pale yellow to green and deep purple from which we transcribe it.
with extreme rapidity ; but it does not appear to be preferable to “My first attempt was a transfer of a powerful etching, by the paper prepared by the former process, as the impression is Rembrandt, of an old man reading; and instead of a bright face said to be less deep; of this, however, we have not had an opporwith black hair, I had a black face with white hair, white eyes, tunity of satisfying onrselves. It may, however, be found ex. white nostrils, white mouth, &c., &c.; and I soon discovered the tremely useful when a strong light cannot be commanded. impossibility of getting any resemblance to the power of the We observe that boxes fitted up with every requisite for the original by a second transfer. Still there was the power of the exercise of the photogenic art, are advertised by Messrs. Ackermann
THE ANCIENT GAULS.
of the Strand, and that prepared paper may be obtained at the
BROTHERS AND SISTERS. shops of various opticians; but, for the benefit of those who are desirous of preparing the paper themselves, we will transcribe the her child, must that be ranked which subsists between the chil
Next to that pure and holy affection which a mother bears to proportions stated to be the best, as given by Mr. C. Toogood dren of the same parents, the brothers and sisters of a family, Downing, in a communication to the Literary Gazette, calculated when the feelings bubble up from the fountain of the heart unupon the known chemical qualities of the materials.
tainted and pure. I do not mean to say that this affection is of For the first process of Mr. Talbot : thirty grains of nitrate of the same class with the maternal one-that it springs spontaneously
- that it is to be found pure in uncivilized and uncultivated man. silver, ten grains of common salt, and twenty-nine and a half of No, it requires a moral process to purify it ; and intellect and iodide of potassium (the best medium for fixing the drawing), to taste must be thrown in, to give that sweetness to the stream, the ounce of water.
which makes domestic happiness so refreshing. But when bro. If bromide of potassium be employed, as in Mr. Talbot's late each as bound to each by more than merely natural ties"knit
thers and sisters, thus taught to love one another, can also regard process, the proportion should be twenty-one grains nearly to the together in love for the truth's sake"-then the family becomes ounce of water.
a Bethel, and the Spirit of Love dwelleth in the midst of it. If hydro-sulphate of soda is used for fixing the shadow, instead
The touching story in the Gospel, where the Redeemer of the
world visits and loves “Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus," of iodide of potassium, no definite proportion need be observed, beautifully exemplifies these remarks. We are not told of their as it acts in a peculiar manner upon the unblackened chloride.
parents : doubtless they were dead, gathered to that all but We have now brought our account of this new art up to the immortal slumber which comes over the faculties of man, and from present time, and have mentioned every fact of importance already which he shall not awake until the sound of the trumpet, “ waxing made public. There is every reason to believe that its application louder and louder,” shall peal into the deepest caverns of eartă
and assemble all-all-the millions of our race, “from will become very extensive, and that new facts in relation to it Adam to his youngest born,” around the great ARBITER. This will be discovered. We regard the subject as one of great import- was, perhaps, one of the reasons why He stept aside, as it were, in ance, and shall from time to time communicate all the intelligence How completely does such a scene in his history prove him to be
his probation, and tarried for a season in the orphan housebold. we can gather concerning it to our readers.
“bone of our bone, and flesh of our flesh ;'' every fibre, every feeling, in nice and exquisite sympathy with us; until manhood, unable to master its emotions, dissolved into tears at a brother's
grave! The first exploit of Maximian, though it is mentioned in a few
Such a family I am now about to describe, bearing in many words by our imperfect writers, deserves, from its singularity, to striking and singular points a near resemblance to the family of be recorded in a history of human manners.
Bethany. They were three in number-two sisters and a brother;
He suppressed the their parents were dead, not indeed without leaving them as much peasants of Gaul, who, under the appellation of Bagandæ, had of this world's goods as renders life a double blessing, but they risen in general insurrection,--very similar to those which, in the died infinitely happier in the conviction that their children were fourteenth century, successively afflicted both France and England. “ rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which God hath provided It should seem that very many of those institutions referred, by for those that love him.” So high was the mother's joy at the an easy solution, to the feudal system, are derived from the thought of all her children constituting a portion of the Celtic barbarians. When Cæsar subdued the Gauls, that great moments, saying, " Lord, let now thy servant depart in peace, for
Redeemer's kingdom, that she held up her hands in her expiring nation was already divided into three orders of men—the clergy, mine eyes have doubly seen thy salvation !" the nobility, and the common people. The first governed by
Isabella, the elder sister, was an active-minded girl ; probably, superstition, the second by arms, but the third and last was not of having been early under the necessity of taking the management any weight or account in the public councils. It was very natural of household affairs, her education had given her character that for the plebeians, oppressed by debt, or apprehensive of injuries, activity which marked her; yet she must have been naturally of to implore the protection of some powerful chief, who acquired tant, and her manner sharper than beseems the sex ; yet to those
an energetic turn. To a stranger her air might have appeared disover their persons and property the same absolute right as, among who were intimate with her, she was known to possess a heart the Greeks and Romans, a master exercised over his slaves. The feelingly alive to all the charities of life, and a mind devoted to her greatest part of the nation was gradually reduced into a state of God. The younger sister was more interesting in her appearance, servitude, compelled to perpetual labour on the estates of the but deficient in those mental qualities which so strikingly characGallic nobles, and confined to the soil, either by the real weight of terised Isabella. Nevertheless, she had the good sense I may fetters, or by the no less cruel and forcible restraints of the laws. say, the grace—to look up to her sister as her superior; and to During the long series of troubles which agitated Gaul, from the love her with the mingled affection which one might bear to a reign of Gallienus to that of Diocletian, the condition of these mother, a sister, and a Christian. Their only rivalry was in the servile peasants was peculiarly miserable, and they experienced at path of duty, and they were not ashamed to hold frequent converse
with each other on their everlasting prospects. once the complicated tyranny of their masters, of the barbarians,
But the brother, how shall I describe him? With an intelligent of the soldiers, and of the officers of the revenue.
mind, stored by an extensive though miscellaneous reading with a Their patience was at last provoked into despair : on every side general knowledge, possessing a kind heart and a frank disposition, they rose in multitudes, armed with rustic weapons, and with irre-honourable in all his actions, and ignorant of the world and much sistible fury. The ploughman became a foot soldier, the shepherd of its depravity, he was yet a dangerous character. Dangerous ! mounted on horseback,—the deserted villages and open towns was he not a Christian man, one whose mental and moral qualifiwere abandoned to the flames,—and the ravages of the peasants cations entitled him to the esteem of all with whom he came in conequalled those of the fiercest barbarians. They asserted the tact? Yes ; but he was under the influence of sensation to an natural rights of men, but they asserted those rights with the most extreme degree ; he was one of those who can attain such a standsavage cruelty. The Gallic nobles, justly dreading their revenge, ing in Christianity as to appear to an observer so spiritually bright, took refuge in the fortified cities, or fled from the wild scene of so determined on the side of God and godliness, so nervously scruanarchy. The peasants reigned without control, and two of their pulous as to all that concerns consistency of character, that no man most daring leaders had the folly and rashness to assume the could possibly doubt that he would ever, by a revulsion of feeling, imperial ornaments. Their power soon expired at the approach descend from his elevated position. “ Unstable as water, thou of the legions. The strength of union and discipline obtained an shalt not excel,” was written upon him ; every effort of his mind easy victory over a licentious and divided multitude. A severe was like each wave of the flowing tide, sparkling in the sun-beam, retaliation was inflicted on the peasants who were found in arms; until it breaks upon the shore, and dies away into foam. Alas ! too the affrighted remnant returned to their respective habitations, many of such characters, even while they abhor the name of hypoand their unsuccessful effort for freedom served only to confirm crite, become a disgrace to Christianity ! their slavery.--Gibbon.
The two sisters loved their brother with all the ardour which