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“A greater number of journals are published in German, a fact heart before he went to Eton, knowing where the lesson was to which is accounted for by that language being spoken in several begin, began without hesitationprovinces of the empire. There are no fewer than 20 German

Mercuri facunde, nepos Atlantisjournals. Four more are published in the Lette language-three at Riga, and one at Mittau.

and went on regularly, first reciting the Latin, and then giving the There exist no circulating libraries, except in the capitals and Latin and English, as if he had really the author before him. The other large cities; the readers, therefore, who wish to know the tutor, perceiving some symptoms of astonishment as well as mirth merit of a work before they buy it, are in the habit of carefully among the other boys, suspected there was something unusual in consulting all the journals, in which they expect to find the the affair, and inquired what edition of Horace Porson had in his necessary information to enable them to judge of its merits. The hand. “I learned the lesson from the Delphin,” replied his journals are thus invested with a sort of magistracy and a confi- pupil, avoiding a direct answer. “ This is very odd,” replied tlie dence, which their interest, as well as reputation, make it a point other, for you seem to be reading on a different side of the page with them to deserve.

from myself. Let me see your book.” The truth was, of course, “The • Northern Bee' is the journal most esteemed, on ac- then discovered ; but the master, instead of showing any displeasure, count of its criticism ; and the Literary Library' the most wisely and kindly observed to the others, that he should be most dreaded, because of the severity of its judgments and the sarcastic happy to find any of them acquitting themselves as well in a style of its writers. The · Literary Library' is the representa- similar predicament. tive in Russia of English ideas. It endeavours as much as pos- Porson used to say that he learnt little at school. Thouglı he sible to treat matters with a view to public utility, and generally would not own it, he was obliged to the collision of a public avoids philosophical abstractions. The • Son of the Country,' school for the rapidity with which he increased his knowledge, and on the other hand, is the partisan of German ideas. It belongs the correction of himself by the mistakes of others. to no particular school, but it indulges in metaphysical specula. He was in the habit of having the last word, and of seeing everytions, and takes a philosophical view of all the questions it body and everything out. examines.”

He communicated information in a plain, direct, straightfor

ward manner; and used to say, " whether you quote or collate, ANECDOTES OF PORSON.

do it fairly and accurately, whether it be Joe Miller, or Tom

Thumb, or the Three Children Sliding on the Ice.” Many men, remarkable in their time, whose merits or whose On one occasion he said, “I never remembered anything but fame have excited wonder and admiration, --whose talents or suc. what I transcribed three times, or read over s.x times, at the least; cess have been sources of emulation or envy,-whose society and and if you will do the same you will have as good a memory." He correspondence have been sedulously courted and anxiously sought bas otten said that he had not naturally a good memory, but that after during their lives, and their praises celebrated after their what he had obtained in this respect, was the effect of discipline deaths,—do soon, after all, pass into a kind of oblivion. Their only. His recollection was really wonderful. He has been known biographies may be too meagre for standard literature-their to challenge any one to repeat a line or phrase from any of the works may not be adapted for Family Libraries - yet, may they Greek dramatic writers, and would instantly go on with the connot be popularly exhibited once or twice at least in a century, if it text. The Letters of Junius, the Mayor of Garratt, and many were but to say, such men have been? Saving an occasional favourite compositions, he would repeat usque ad fastidium. stray anecdote or passing remark, many who deserve a better fate Porson by no means excelled in conversation : he neither wrote are allowed to pass away with the generation they left behind nor spoke with facility. His elocution was perplexed and em. them. Cannot a revival of their virtues still contirm the old, or an barrassed, except where he was exceedingly intimate ; but there exhibition of their follies be yet a warning to the young? How were strong indications of intellect in his countenance, and whatever many good names might be preserved from obscurity if it were but he said was manifestly founded on judgment, sense, and knowby stringing together a few anecdotes of them, and thus, as it were, ledge. Composition was no less difficult to him. Upon one now and then making them write their own lives! Of Porson, occasion he undertook to write a dozen lines, upon a subject which who has been dead thirty years, little more is known to the tyro of he had much turned in his mind, and with which he was exceed. the present generation than that he was merely a Greek Professor, ingly familiar. But the number of erasures and interlineations a learned man, a prolound scholar, and an eccentric character all was so great as to render it hardly legible; yet, when completed, his lifetime. There are some incidents in his history, however, it was, and is, a memorial of his sagacity, acuteness, and erudithat may be read with interest at any time. A few anecdotes of tion. him may not now be unentertaining.

Porson had a very lofty mind, and was tenacious of bis proper That he was born on Christmas-day, 1759 -- that he early found dignity. Where he was familiar and intimate, he was exceedingly a patron who sent him to Eton, and afterwards to Cambridge, condescending and good-natured. He was kind to children, and where he became Greek Professor-that he died in London on the would often play with them ; but he was at no pains to conceal 19th of September, 1808, in the 49th year of his age, while his partiality, where there were several in one family. In one Librarian of the London Institution, a sinecure situation he had / which he often visited, there was a little girl, of whom he was for some years enjoyed--and that he was buried with academic exceedingly fond : he often brought her trifiing presents, wrote in honours at Cambridge—may soon be disposed of. The leading her books, and distinguished her on every occasion ; but she had features of his character may be gathered from what follows: a brother, to whom, for no assignable reason, be never spoke, nor

Although his parents were poor, they were persons of sound would in any respect notice. He was also fond of female society, sense. As soon as young Richard could speak, his father began and though too fiequently negligent of his person, was of the most to tutor him in reading and writing by means of a piece of chalk, obliging manners and behaviour, and would read a play, or recite, or with his finger in sand. This exercise delighting his fancy, an or do anything that was required. He was fond of reading the ardour of imitating whatever was put before hiin was excited to Greek physicians; and, when he lived in the Temple, slept with such a degree, that the walls of the house were covered with cha- Galen under his head: not that Galen was his favourite, but racters which attracted notice from the neatness and fidelity of because the folio relieved his asthma. delineation, and excellence in permanship was ever after one of There were blended in Porson very opposite qualities. In some his accomplishments. His father likewise taught him arithmetic things he appeared to be of the most unshaken tirmness; in others without a slate, up to the cube root, before he was nine years of be was wayward, capricious, and discovered the weakness of a age. His extraordinary memory soon developed itself; he was child. Although, in the former part of his life, more particularly, noticed by several gentlemen in Norfolk, who kept him at school, he would not unfrequently contine himself for days together in where he made rapid progress, and read and retained everything bis chamber, and not suffer himself to be intruded upon by his that came in his way. The same kind friends sent him to Eton, most intimate acquaintance, he hardly ever could resist the allure. and subsequently to Cambridge.

ments of social converse, or the late and irregular hours to which At Eton, as he was going to his tutor's to construe a Horace they occasionally lead. lesson preparatory to the business of school, one of the senior boys That he was friendly to late hours, and generally exhibited Dr. took Porson's Horace from him, and thrust into bis hands some Johnson's reluctance to go to bed, might naturally arise from the English book. The tutor called upon him to construe, and the circumstance of his being from a child a very bad sleeper. He other boys were much amused in considering the figure he would frequently spent his evenings with the venerable Dean of Westmake in this emergency. Porson, however, who had Horace by minster, with Dr. Wingfield, with Bennett Langton, and with

COMPARATIVE CLAIMS OF RANK AND GENIUS.

66

another friend in Westminster; yet he hardly ever failed passing guilty of that for which a schoolboy would have been soundly some hours afterwards at the Cider Cellar in Maiden Lane. flogged. One day he accompanied his friend Beloe in a walk to

The above individuals, being all of them very regular in their Highgate : on their return they were overtaken by a most violent hours, used to give him to understand that he was not to stay rain, and both of them were thoroughly drenched. As soon as after eleven o'clock, with the exception of Bennett Langton, who they arrived at home, warm and dry garments were prepared for suffered him to remain till twelve ; corrupted in this instance, per- both ; but Porson obstinately refused to change his clothes. He haps, by Dr. Jobpson. But so precise was Porson in this parti- drank three glasses of brandy, but sat in his wet apparel all the cular, that although he never attempted to exceed the hour limited, evening: The exhalations of course were not the most agreeable ; he would never stir before. On one occasion, when from some but he did not apparently suffer any subsequent inconvenience. incidental circumstance, the lady of the house gave a gentle bint He was exceedingly capricious. He would visit the theatres for that she wished him to retire a little earlier, he looked at the many nights together, and leave off all of a sudden. In like manclock, and observed, with some quickness, that it wanted a quarter ner, after visiting a friend's house for a week or so together, he of an hour of eleven.

would abruptly absent himself for as many weeks. He was minute In the former period of his early residence in the metropolis, even in trifles, and could tell how many steps it was to a friend's the absence of sleep hardly seemed to annoy him. The first house. eveniog which he spent with Horne Tooke, he never thought of He latterly became a hoarder of money, and when he died had retiring till the appearance of day gave warning to depart. Norne £2000 in the funds. His library, which' was valuable, was sold, Tooke, on another occasion, contrived to find out the opportunity and brought £1254 188. 6d. of requesting his company, when he knew he had been sitting up With all his singularities, Porson was a man of the most inflex. the whole of the night before. This, however, made no differ- ible integrity, had an inviolable regard for truth, and possessed ence; Porson sat up the second night also till the hour of sunrise. the most determined independence. But he would have been a

What shall we call it-waywardness, inconsiderateness, or un- greater had he been a better man. graciousness? but it is a well-known fact, that he spent the day of his marriage with a very learned friend, a judge, without either communicating the circumstance of his change of condition, or attempting to stir till the hour prescribed by the family obliged

Goldsmith one day was complaining in company, that Lord him to depart.

Camden had neglected him. “ I met him,” he said, "at Lord The following anecdote he would often relate himself with the Clare's house in the country, and he took no more notice of me greatest good humour. He was not remarkably attentive to the

than if I had been an ordinary man.” The company laughed, decoration of bis person; indeed, he was at times disagreeably neg.

but Dr. Johnson interfered. Nay, gentlemen, Dr. Goldsmith ligent. On one occasion, he went to visit the above-mentioned is in the right. A nobleman ought to have made up to such a learned friend, where a gentleman, who did not know Porson, was

man as Goldsmith ; and I think it is much against Lord Camden waiting in anxious and impatient expectation of the barber. On that he neglected him." Porson's entering the library where the gentleman was sitting, he Dr. Johnson treated a nobleman in company with rudeness, started up, and hastily said to Porson, “ Are you the barber :” affecting not to know him, on account of the plainness of his * No, Sir," replied Porson, “but I am a cunning shaver, much at dress and manner. On the nobleman's departure, he was told your service."

who he was—and then he justified himself by asking how was he When there was considerable fermentation in the literary world to know it? what were stars and garters for ? Now, that was on the subject of the supposed Shakspeare manuscripts, and many rudeness without a reason. Speaking of some noblemen he said, of the most distinguished individuals had visited Mr. Ireland's “ Lord Southwell is the highest-bred man without insolence that bouse to inspect them, Porson, with a friend, went also. Many I ever was in company with ; the most qualitied I ever saw. So persons had been so imposed upon as to be induced to subscribe was Lord Chesterfield, but he was insolent. [Chesterfield called their names to a form, previously drawn up, avowing their belief Johnson a respectable Hottentot.) Lord Shelburne (the second in the authenticity of the papers exhibited. Porson was called earl, afterwards first marquis of Landsdowne) is a man of coarse upon to do so likewise. "No," replied the professor, “I am

but a man of abilities and information. I don't say he always very reluctant in subscribing my name, and more particu- is a man I would set at the head of a nation, though perhaps he larly to articles of faith."

may be as good as the next prime minister that comes. He bad undertaken to make out and copy the almost obliterated Ms. of the invaluable Lexicon of Phorius, which he had borrowed almost a monomaniac on the subject of hereditary honours, says,

Sir Egerton Brydges, a clever, singular, eccentric man, who was from the library of Trinity College, and this he had with unparal.

“ I never yet thought that there was any excuse for the insolence of leled dificulty just completed, when the beautiful copy, which had cost bim ten

months of incessant toil, was burnt in the house of birth; I never dreamed that it was to be set up, but as a protection Mr. Perry, at Merton. The original, being a unique entrusted against insult. I could never pay Burns or Bloomfield one atom less

of respect on account of their low origin; nay, to surmount its obstacles, to him by his college, he carried with him wherever he went, and

and to have noble thoughts and refined sentiments in the midst of he was fortunately absent from Merton on the morning of the fire. early and habitual poverty and meanness, increased, instead of having Unruffled by the loss, he sat down without a murmur, and made a

diminished, the grounds of admiration for them. If in anything they Susud copy as beautiful as the first.

were entitled to less attention, it was only so far as their manners He was not easily provoked to asperity of language by contra

partook of their origin. To look back with complacence on historical diction in argument, but he once was. A person of some literary

ancestors, is no mark of cither prido, insolence, or vanity. It is an pretensions, but who either did not know Porson's value, or neg

exercise of intellect and imagination, which it would be strictly and lected to show the estimate of it which it merited, at a dinner absolutely stupid not to indulge. To be uuconcerned for the past, and party, harassed, teazed, and tormented him, till at length he

to feel no interest in those from whom we draw our blood, is a sort of could endure it no longer, and rising from his chair, exclaimed insensibility which approaches to brutal ignorance. And where other with vehemence, “ It is not in the power of thought to conceive, qualities are equal, the state which would not prefer those of most cr words to express, the contempt I have for you, Mr. who, in his boyish days, had shown him great kindness, and who the merits of their ancestors, may be said to search in the root of thio On his being appointed to the Greek professorship, a gentleman illustrious birth is deficient in wisdoni and justice."

“ An ingenious French writer observes, that those who depend on indeed, being the agent of his first patron, was the dispenser also

treo for those fruits which the branches ought to produce."— Andrews' of that personage's liberality to Porson, wrote him a kind letter of

Anecdotes. congratulation. At the same time, not being acquainted with the nature of such things, he offered, if a sum of money was required

manners,

The celebrated answer of our old Barous, when it was proposed to introduce to discharge the fees, or was necessary on his first entrance upon

some part of the Roman laws, " Nolumus leges Angliæ mutare," is by no the office, to accommodate him with it. Of this letter Porson took

means so strongly adverse to innovation as an institution of Charondas, legis. no notice. A second letter was despatched, repeating the same lator of Thurium, a city of Magna Græcia, Whoever proposed a new law, kind offer. Of this also no notice was taken. The gentleman was was obliged to come into the Senate House with a rope about his neck, and exasperated, and so far resented the neglect, that it is more than remain in tbat situation during the debate ; if the law was approved, he was probable his representation of this matter was one of the causes of set at libèrty, but if it was negatived he was immediately strangled. Porson's losing a very handsome legacy intended for him. Porson was altogether an eccentric character. He was at times

* Diod. Sic. Hist. lib. xii.

LAWS.

DISCOVERY OF AUSTRALIA FELIX.

brushwood and brambles. Cotton is cultivated to a great extent, and is exported “We had at length discovered a country ready for the immediate reception of in return for grain, of which a sufficiency is not grown for home consumption. civilised man, and it to become erentually one of the great nations of the “The Cutchees are simple in their habits of life; their common food is rice, earth. Unincumbered with too much wood, yet possessing enough for all pur- parched grain, or a few vegetables, cooked with a little ghee, and eaten with cakes poses; with an exuberant soil under a temperate climate ; bounded by the of coarse dour; the better sort of people sometimes indulge in curry and sweetsea-coast and mighty rivers, and watered abundantly by streams from lofty meats. They profess themselves water-drinkers, but are really addicted to the mountains : this highly interesting region lay before me with all its features use of intoxicating liquors, which they distil in all the villages from various vegenew and untouched as they fell from the hand of the Creator ! of this Eden it table productions. They drink also freely of toddy, which is procured in large scemed that I was only the Adam; and it was indeed a sort of paradise to me, quantities from the date and the cocoa-nut palm. Opium is prepared by them, permitted thus to be the first to explore its mountains and streams to behold and used, both as kusumba, and in its simple state, iu large quantities. It seems its scenery-to investigate its geological character-and, finally, by my survey, less injurious, however, than the Turkish drug, and its effects are less percepto develop those natural advantages all still unknown to the civilised world, tible. The men carry the opium in little boxes about their persons, and take it but yet certain to become, at no distant date, of vast importance to a new at all times. With this means of refreshment, they are capable of great fatigue, people. The lofty mountain range which I had seen on the 11th was now and can journey long and rapidly without food, smoking as they go, and stopbefore us, but still distant between thirty and forty miles ; and as the catile ping only for a draught of water from the numerous wells. The Cutchees appear required rest, I determined on an excursion to its lofty easteru summit. to feel respect for the European character, and are obliging in their intercourse

“ We now trarelled over a country quite open, slightly undulating, and well with us. Amongst other notions of our superiority, they believe us all to be corered with grass. To the westward, the noble outline of the Grampians astrologers and doctors. In both astrology and medicine, however, they bare terminated a view extending over vast open plains, fringed with forests, and their adepts, and great men never hazard a journey without choosing a favourembellished with lakes. To the northward, appeared other more accessible- able conjunction of the planets for their departure. There are no fewer than looking hills, some being slightly wooded, others green and open to their sum- thirty-five hakeems, or medicos, in the city of Bhooj; but unluckily for their mits, long grassy vales and ridges intervening : while to the eastward, the open fever patients, not one Sangrado amongst them all. In this strait the sufferers plain extended as far as the eye could reach. Our way lay between distant apply to a carpenter, who has somewhere learnt the art of phlebotomy, and rarges, which, in that direction, mingled with the clouds. Thus I had both operates on them with a phlem. They are equally at a loss for dentists, and the open country and the hills within reach, and might choose either for our the absence of a polished key is remedied by the use of a bent and rusty nail, route, according to the state of the ground, weather, &c. Certainly, a land urged against the offending tooth, by an unskilled practitioner. None of the more favourable for colonisation could not be found. Flocks might be turned sciences, either curious or useful, is known, even in its simplest elements, to ont upon its hills, or the plough at once set a-going in the plains. No primeral these poor people, yet they show a desire for information, when one wiser than forests required to be first rooted out here, although there was enough of wood themselves excites their curiosity, which might, ably directed, prove a channel for all purposes of utility, and adorning the country just as much as even a for their general improvement."- Mrs. Postan's Random Sketches. painter could wish. One feature peculiar to that country appeared on these

THE LAMA. open downs; this consisted of hollows, which, being usually surrounded by a The lama is the only animal associated with man, and undebased by the line of 'yarra' gum-trees, or white bark eucalyptus, seemed, at a distance, to contact. The lamas will bear neither beating nor ill-treatment. They will contain lakes, but instead of water, I found only blocks of vesicular trap, con- go in troops, an Indian walking a long distance a-head as guide. If tired they sisting, apparently, of granular felspar, and hornblend rock also appeared in stop, and the Indian stops also. If the delay is great, the Indian becoming the banks enclosing theni. Some of these hollows were of a winding character, uneasy toward sunset, after all sorts of precaution, resolves on supplicating the as if they had been the remains of ancient water-courses; but if ever currents beasts to resume their journey. He stands about fifty or sixty paces off, in an flowed there, the surface must have undergone considerable alteration since, attitude of humility, waves his band coaxingly towards the lamas, looks at them for the downs where these hollows appeared were elevated at least 900 feet with tenderness, and at the same time in the softest tone, and, with a patience above the sea, and surrounded on all sides by lower ground. There was an I never failed to admire, reiterates ic-ic-ic-ic. If the lamas are disposed to appearance of moisture among the rocks in some of the hollows ; and whether, continue their course, they follow the Indian in good order, at a regular pace, by digging a few feet, permanent wells might be made there, may be a question and very fast, for their legs are extremely long ; but when they are in ill humour, worth attention when colonisation extends to that country.”—Mojor Mitchell's they do not even turn towards the speaker, but remain motionless, huddled Expeditions.

together, standing or lying down, and gazing on heaven with looks so tender, SPEAK THE TRUTH.

50 melancholy, that we might imagine these singular animals had the consciThe worthy Sir Henry Wotton incurred the displeasure of King James, by ousness of another life, or a happier existence. The straight neck, and a facetious sentence of innocent meaning, that was capable to be interpreted in its gentle majesty of bearing, the long down of their always clean and glossy favour of falsehood—“An ambassador is an honest man sent to lie abroad for skin, their supple and timid motions, all give them an air at once noble and the good of his country.” Besides, it is an argument of a cowardly poor spirit, sensitive. It must be so, in fact, for the lama is the only creature employed and though it may chance to serve a present turn, yet enhances the guilt of by man that he dares not strike. If it happens (which is very seldom) that an the crime, and when it is detected makes a man look like a pitiful baffled fellow ; Indian wishes to obtain, either by force or threats, what the lama will not whereas the brave and magnanimous person does not sneak, but speaks truth, willingly perform, the instant the animal finds itself affronted by word or ges. and is bold as a lion; and this is appositely expressed in the counsel of the ture, he raises his head with dignity, and without attempting to escape ill treatdivine poet :

ment by flight (the lama is nerer tied or fettered), he lies down, turping his looks “Dare to be true, nothing can want a lie;

towards heaven. Large tears flow freely down his beautiful eyes, sighs issue A fault that wants it most grows two thereby."

from his breast, and in a hall or three quarters of an hour at most, he expires. Epaminondas and Aristides were so tender in this respect that they would not Happy creatures, who so easily avoid suffering by death! Happy creatures, tell a lie so much as in merriment. Equivocal speeches and mental reservations who appear to have accepted life on condition of its being happy! The respect become none, much less great men. Egyptian princes were wont to wear a shewn these animals by the Peruvian Indians, amounts absolutely to super. golden chain, beset with precious stones, which they styled truth, intimating stitious reverence. When the Indians load them, two approach and caress the that to be the most illustrious and royal ornament.

animal, hiding his head that he may not see the burthen on his back; if he PRINTERS' DEVILS.

did, he would fall down and die. It is the same in unloading: if the burthen There are two accounts of the origin of this title. One of them says, there

exceeds a certain weight, the animal throws itself down and dies. The ludians was one Mons. Leville, or Deville, who came over with William the Conqueror,

of the Cordilleras alone possess enough patience and gentleness to manage the in company with De Laune, De Vau, De Val, De Ashwood, De Utine, D'Um.

lama. It is, doubtless, from this extraordinary companion that he has learned poding, &c. A descendant of this Monsieur Deville, in the direct line, was

10 die when overtasked.-Foreign Quarterly Revicu. taken by the famous Caxton, in 1471, who, proving very expert, became after

" lor's wife.” wards his apprentice, and in time an eminent printer; from him the order of

Mr. Colman, in his agricultural address last week, illustrated the folly of printer's Devilles, or devils, took their names. The other account says, if they modern fashionable female education by an anecdote.

A young man who had took it from infernal devils, it was not because they were messengers frequently for a long while remained in that useless state designated by "a hall pair of sent in darkness, and appearing as scoffers would suggest, but upon a very

scissors," at last seriously determined he would procure him a wise. He got reputable account; for John Faust, or Faustus, of Mainz, in Germany, was

the “refusal” of one who was beautiful and fashionably accomplished, and the first inventor of the art of printing; which art of printing so surprised the took her upon trial to his home. Soon learning that she kuew nothing, either world that they thought him a coujuror, and called him Dr. Faustus, and his how to darn a stocking, or boil a potatoe, or roast a bit of beef, he returned her art the black art. As he kept a constant succession of boys to run errands, who to her father's house, as having beeu weighed in the balance and found wantwere always very black, some of whom being raised to be his apprentices, and

ing. A suit was commenced by the good lady, but the husband alleged that afterwards raised themselves in the world, he was very properly said to have

she was not “ up to the sample," and of course the obligation to retain the raised many a devil.- American Paper.

commodity was not binding. The jury inflicted a fine of a few dollars, but he CUTCH AND THE CUTCHEES.

would have given a fortune rather than not to be liberated from such an “Cutch is a small state, under the subsidised protection of the British Gorern

irksome engagement. "As well might the farmer have the original Venus de ment, in the northern extremity of Western India. The Koree, or castern

Medicis placed in his kitchen,"caid the orator, “ as some of the modera fashion. outlet of the Indus, washes it on the west ; the Great Sandy Desert bounds it

able women.” “Indeed," continued he, “it would be much better to have Lot's on the north ; and the sea, and Gulf of Cutch, to the south and east. Its length

wife standing there, for she might answer one useful purpose ; she might salt is about 160, and its extreme breadth, 65 miles. The population is estimated

his bacon ! "-American Paper. at about 400,000. The northern part of the country is an extensive salt morass, London : WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER called the Runn, flooded during the rainy season. The soil of the more habit. AND Co. Dublin : CURRY AND Co. - Printed by BRADBURY AND Evans, able part is clay, covered with a deep sand. There is little wood, except ' Whitefriars.

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tribes have acquired from Europeans, to the account of Christianity A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF OUR COLONIES.

and civilisation. Christianity washes her hands of all participation One of the most remarkable facts in the history of the world, is, in them : Civilisation, in like manner, has nothing to do with them; that its greatest ancient empire, by unjust aggression, conquest, and

“ Heaven is high, and Europe is far off," said a Dutch mercolonisation, produced its greatest modern one. We do not know chant on the gold coast of Africa, when expostulated with : it is what Britain might have become, had she never been invaded by only because men, ignorant of the true tendencies of civilisation, Rome. We know that, in the early part of the Christian era, this and unacquainted with its spirit, have perverted the use of some of island enjoyed for centuries the civilisation and protecting care of its powers and appliances when they came in contact with other the then mistress of the earth ; that the roots of that civilisation men, sometimes far less deserving the name of savages than their struck too deep to be upturned by Saxon, Dave, or Norman ; and conquerors and exterminators. We might as well lay any of the that, of several of our cities which owe their origin to Roman plan-evils which afflict civilised life itself to the credit of civilisation, tation, London has been for between sixteen and seventeen hundred

as the destruction or corruption of the coloured tribes. War, years an important receptacle of men, and now presents a mightier that monstrous evil, which has always been carried on in the most combination of them than ever did the “ Eternal City" herself.

formidable manner between civilised nations, has not been caused The “ decline and fall" of the British empire may occupy the by civilisation, and will one day be conquered by it. We might labours of some future historian, who may come, perhaps, across as well put to the credit of civilisation all the evils which have the sea to survey the ruined monuments of greatness strewed over befallen colonies and emigrants, when, by bad management and the surface of the “ tight little island.” He may sit down amid worse calculation, colonies have been broken up, or individuals the tombs and fallen columns of Westminster bey, to muse have suffered the miseries of destitution and sickness. over that vast field in the history of man which shall there spread

" It seems to be an opinion,” says the first Report of the before his mental vision. To him will be afforded a far larger Aborigines' Protection Society, “founded rather on past experi. view, and a clearer perception, of the connecting links in that ence than on any essential principle in the nature of the case, that strange and eventful history, which is running its course, to be the coloured races must inevitably perish as civilisation and Found up when the roll of time is called. He will see that there Christianity advance. Whatever past facts may be, and unquesis as little “ annihilation" in the moral as in the natural world ; tionably they are painful enough, they are not evidence that no and, like some of our own geologists, trace the supplies of artificial better scheme of colonisation can be found, compatible with the heat and light which animate his own age to gigantic forests which safety and improvement of the aborigines. We cannot admit the grew in a former period, and have long since been engulfed. doctrine that the establishment of a civilised community in the

Meantime Britain, like Rome, has her appointed work to do; neighbourhood of uncivilised tribes, must be injurious to the latter, and one important branch of that work is, to plant Christianity without supposing something extremely defective and improper in and the arts of civilised life in various quarters of the globe. Our the regulations aud principles of the former. Let these be corsocial state and our vast possessions are unerring indications of rected, and the evils must be diminished. The capacity for intel. this. Accumulated in a single island are great wealth, restless lectual, moral, and social improvement in the coloured races, activity and enterprise, moral and physical machinery in powerful cannot be denied. Sufficient experiments have already been made. combination, much poverty and distress, a perpetually growing and to prove that, with fair means of culture, they can attain a rank of advancing population, pressing on the means of subsistence, and equality with the other races. The Canadas and South Africa endangering the artificial structure of oựr society. No sane man afford illustrations sufficiently in point. Peter Jones, John Sun. can dispute that Emigration forms a natural relieving outlet for day, Andrew Stoffels, Jan Tzatzoe, Waterboer, and many others, such a state of things ; and but few can hesitate to admit, that our are names familiar to the British public. What these have become COLONIES are destined to be foci, concentrating British civilisa- by the pains bestowed on them, others may also become by the tion, and transmitting it to future ages and countries. It is in same process. It is education they require ; intellectual and moral this point of view, that we wish to dedicate a portion of our culture will prove their defence. H. Hendrick, a na:ive Hottentot, columns, from time to time, to the subject of emigration, and residing at Griqua Town, justly, though by a bold figure, conveyed descriptions of our colonies. These must soon assume a far higher that sentiment to Macomo, when, holding up a pen to him, he interest and importance to us than ever they have hitherto done ; remarked, * Learn to wield this, and it will afford you more proand in the progressive enlargement of our knowledge of just prin- tection to your country than all the assagais of Caffreland.' He ciples of emigration, and the strong action of enlightened public remarked also, ' Thank God, I have lived to see the day when I opinion on the subject of colonisation, and the treatment of have learned to know, that mind is more powerful than body.”” aborigines, readers who would formerly have cared but little for Ignorance has acted as a two-edged sword on emigrants. An these things, are now paying considerable attention to them. ignorant man is generally one on whom local associations have a

It seems of but little use to advert to the past history of civilisa- powerful influence, but who, at the same time, has his imagination, unless with an express intention to make use of the information easily inflamed by tempting accounts of distant countries. tion in guarding us from committing similar blunders and similar Driven by the pressure of distress, or urged by ambition, he goes crimes. The whole subject is deeply painful, exhibiting, in a con- out to the land of promise, and cold reality has unveiled everycentrated form, man's selfishness, cupidity, cruelty, and short thing, and made all appear even more plainly distinct than might sighted ignorance-showing to us how, under certain circumstances, otherwise have been the case. Then, when toiling in the forest, all that is most mean and base in our nature can be so strongly the local associations have risen with tenfold power ; the memory developed, as to extinguish whatever is better and nobler in feeling recollects the most trivial object, and attaches to it an intense and action. But it is very absurd and ridiculous, as some writers interest : and often the whole future life of the emigrant has been have done, to charge these excesses, and the vices which savage

a bitter struggle with home sickness. And just as individuals

D

VOL. I.

(Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars.)

have been affected, so have communities. Bad calculation, bad about ten degrees of longitude, and about two degrees of latitude, management, and ignorance of the proper and most productive or containing an area of more than a hundred thousand square miles, modes of colonisation, have caused the waste of much capital, with a population of only about one hundred and sixty thousand. created much misery, retarded, perhaps for a century, the growth Leaving the Cape, we must stretch across the phosphorescent of one settlement, and sometimes extinguished others. The way waters of the Indian Ocean, where, in an expanse of about 1800 to look at the question, is to consider the greater portion of miles long and 2000 broad, only a few islands break the watery British colonisation to have been carried on during the thought- continuity, amongst which are our possessions of the Mauritius, lessness, ignorance, and folly of nonage. We have now risen to with a population of nearly a hundred thousand. As we draw that time of life in the history of our nation, when all that we do near the shores of India, may we not ask, Is not that vast empire should be planned with thought and carried on with prudence; to many of us in England little more than a name? Here, on and when the wicked and wanton trifling with the lives and morals the eastern extremity of that great peninsula, is ancient Ceylon, of aborigines, the stupid waste of capital and resources, the with its fragrant cinnamon and its pearl fisheries. It was known heedless sacrifice of the natural love of country, and affection for to the Greeks and Romans, visited and praised by Marco Polo home, should be either utterly abolished, or modified by all the and Sir John Mandeville, and now, in the hands of the British, is means within our power. The great fact is before our eyes, that exemplifying what the powers of civilisation, rightly directed, will Britain must be an emigrating and colonising country. This is effect, in triumphing over the supposed immobility of the East. one of the conditions of our national existence ; and upon the For the British have done and are doing, in Ceylon, more than manner in which we fulfil these conditions depends much of our the Romans did in Britain. They have interposed the hand of national prosperity, and much of the slower or more rapid pro- gentle authority between the natives and that cruel and ignorant gress of the world at large.

native despotism which ground them to the earth ; they have We have no colonies in Europe. If the Channel islands are abolished pernicious native monopolies, and set free the labourers | considered a portion of Great Britain, then our foreign posses- of the soil ; they have opened the island, by penetrating it with sions or dependencies are, the little island of Heligoland off the roads, which are now covered with the vehicles of commerce; coast of Holstein ; the rock of Gibraltar ; Malta and Gozo, in the introduced a savings bank ; effected economical reforms; and Mediterranean ; and the Ionian islands off the coast of Greece. improved the administration of civil and judicial affairs. Ceylon

On the fatal long extent of the western coast of Africa—a coast is in extent of surface somewhat less than Ireland; when it is whose records present so humiliating a picture of man, when half properly cultivated, and drained, and its jungles cut down, it will civilised, as were the Europeans who committed such atrocities, become, not merely more fertile than it is now, rich and exubein their greedy eagerness after gold, and the bodies of their fellow. rant as is its natural character, but it will become a very healthy men--we have but a few possessions. The first is Bathurst, on island perhaps as healthy as England. Its area is supposed to the island of St. Mary, at the mouth of the river Gambia, where contain upwards of 24,000 square miles, and its population there is a population of about 3000: gold, ivory, bees-wax, and approaches a million and a half. hides, are exported to England. Lower down-nearer the Shall we venture on the neighbouring continent? That empire equator-is Sierra Leone-the “white man's grave"-with a is not a colony, and it is too large for us to glance at. Strange, population of perhaps 30,000; and still nearer the equator are that there should not be above forty thousand British subjects, to our settlements on the Gold Coast–one of the hottest regions govern and regulate between eighty and ninety millions of people, on the globe, and from whence, for nearly a century, upwards spread over half a million of square miles. And not only so, but of a hundred thousand persons were annually carried off as there are tributaries, allies, and independent states, to control, slaves. Our settlements here are known as Cape Coast Castle check, and keep in awe, whose population raises the entire num. and Accra; the fortress of Cape Coast Castle is built on a rock ber more or less in connexion with us to upwards of one hundred close to the sea. The European possessions on the Gold and thirty-four million souls! It is a tremendous responsibility! Coast are limited to a few fortresses, and some houses; in We may relieve ourselves from a consideration almost painful the interior are the great native kingdoms of Ashantee and by hastening across the ocean to the great island-call it a conti. Dahomey. Below Cape Coast Castle, in that upper portion or nent rather-of Australia. Surely this is destined to be the seat curve of the Gulf of Guinea, called the Bight of Benin, is the of a new empire, where all the elements of civilisation will enter island of Fernando Po, taken possession of by the English in into fresh, if not new, combinations. Is it not vexing to think 1827_-considered of some importance, as the Quorra or Joliba, that we should have begun such an empire, by laying down an one of the largest of African rivers, falls into the sea by several infected root! New South Wales has thriven by convict labour, in mouths, opposite the island. Crossing the equator, and standing spite of its horrible immorality—but it requires no sage to tell well out to sea, for it is upwards of 1400 miles from the African that that prosperity contains a cancer within it, which must be cut coast, is the little speck of Ascension, where we have had a out, or death will ensue. Here, on the southern shores, is that garrison since 1815, which has not only successfully disputed new colony, whose progress we are all so deeply interested in, for possession with the turtle and the rats, but has been the means every friend of humanity is deeply interested in the working of of converting what was lately a “ desert cinder" into a green any experiment, which is professedly endeavouring to show what and fertile island. Ascension is nearly 700 miles north-west of may be the result of a right adaptation of human powers and far-famed St. Helena.

On the boundaries of the South Australian province We are now in the southern hemisphere, and about to make the lies Major Mitchell's newly discovered paradise, Australia Felix. passage of the Cape of Good Hope. How beautifully transparent “We traversed it in two directions,” he says, “ with heavy carts, is the atmosphere! how brilliant is the sky at night! The naked meeting no other obstruction than the softness of the rich soil; eye can perceive stars of two degrees less magnitude than in the and in returning over flowery plains and green hills, fanned by northern hemisphere, and Jupiter and Venus shine out with start- the breezes of early spring, I named it Australia Felix, the better ling refulgence. As we turn round the promontory, we may to distinguish it from the parched deserts of the interior country, perceive that one of its three mountains has the shape of a lion, where we had wandered so unprofitably and so long." But opione of nature's colossal carvings. On the northern side of Corsica, nions differ as to the general capabilities of Australia, taken as a close to Bastia, there is another lion of nature's making, but on a whole. “Our present knowledge," says the “ Colonial Gazette," much smaller scale than the one at the Cape—it is a rock which of the immense Australian Continent does not extend to onehas the distinct appearance of a lion in repose. The colony of sixth part of its surface; and, how little it has hitherto been the Cape of Good Hope, though it has increased greatly in made available for colonisation appears from the fact that, of interest and importance, is of an awkward extent-stretching over 694,969 persons who emigrated to all the British Colonies in the

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