Imagens das páginas


A certaine woman did eat much before her husband, and he complained

of her to her mother; shee told him itt was her fault, for shee advisd him The web-foot of a water-fowl is an inimitable paddle, and all the ingenuity of the present day exerted to improve our steam-boats makes nothing to

to let her have her home to worme her; and she advisd her to eat little approach it. The flexor tendon of the toes of the duck is so directed over

before her husband, but to pay itt in private : and so shee did, which very the heads of the bones of the thigh and leg, that it is made tight when the

much pleased him, insomuch that hee forgave tenne pound of her portion creature bends its legs, and is relaxed when the leg is stretched out. When

which was left behind, for worming her.- Diary of the Rev. J. Ward. the bird draws its foot up, the toes are drawn together, in consequence of the

THE TROPHY OF VICTORY. bent position of the bones of the leg pressing on the tendon. When, on the The following instance of the fidelity and courage of a terrier occurred at contrary, it pushes the leg out straight, in making the stroke, the tendons

Glasgow :-One evening, as a young gentleman of the name of Hardie was are relieved from the pressure of the heel-bone, and the toes are permitted passing through St. Andrew's Square, on his way home to his father's house to be fully extended and at the same time expanded, so that the web between

in Charlotte-street, he was stopped opposite the north-west corner of them meets the resistance of a large volume of water.-Lord Brougham. St. Andrew's church by a man armed with a large stick, who seized him by FIRST APPEARANCE AT COURT.

the breast, and striking him a violent blow on the head, desired him Lennard Solikoffer, a Swiss nobleman, who, on the conclusion of the Swiss instantly to deliver his watch. As he was preparing to repeat the blow, a union, went to Paris as ambassador, had a large dog, which on his depar

terrier belonging to Mr. Hardie sprang at the ruffian, and seized him by the ture he ordered to be shut up for eight days. This was done ; yet, at the

throat, and his master at the same time giving him a violent push, he fell end of that period, the dog traced his way to the French capital (400 miles),

backwards and dropt his stick, which the other immediately seized and carand on the day of audience, rushed in, all covered with mud, and leaped up

ried off. The terrier soon after followed him home, bearing in his tecth, as mad for joy upon his master. In the family castle of Thuringia there is a

a trophy of his courage, nearly half the front of the man's waistcoat, in the painting of the story.- Anecdotes of Animals.

lining of which half-a-guinea was found carefully sewed up. The waistcoat

was of coarse woollen stuff, with a black stripe, much worn and tattered, THUNDER STORMS.

and not at all corresponding with the elegance of the walking-stick, which To determine the distance of a thunder storm, it is only necessary to had a gilt head, and contained a handsome small sword.—Anecdotes of Dogs. ascertain the number of seconds which intervene between the sight of the

ADVANTAGE OF THE MODERNS. lightning and hearing the sound, and these multiplied by 1090, the number of feet that sound travels in a second, will give in feet an approximate esti

Though there were many giants of old in physics and philosophy, yet I say mate of the distance of the electrified cloud from the place of observation.

with Didacus Stella, "a dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant, may sco The Earth, by W. M. Higgins.

further than the giant himself."-Burton. INSTINCTIVE DREAD OF HYDROPHOBIA.

BEGIN NOTHING OF WHICH THOU HAST NOT WELL A man, who used to come every day to the celebrated Dr. James's house,

CONSIDERED THE END. was so beloved by three cocker spaniels which he kept, that they never failed A certain Cham of Tartary, travelling with his nobles, was met by a dervise, to jump into his lap, and caress hin the whole time he staid. It happened who cried with a loud voice, “Whoever will give me a hundred pieces of that this man was bitten by a mad dog, and the very first night be came gold, I will give him a piece of advice." The Cham ordered him the sum, under the influence of the distemper, they all ran away from him to the very upon which the dervise said, top of the garret-stairs, barking and howling, and showing signs of distress

Begin nothing of which thou hast not well considered the end." and consternation. The man was cured, but the dogs were not reconciled to

The courtiers hearing this plain sentence, smiled, and said with a sneer, him for three years afterwards.-Browne's Anecdotes of Dogs.

“ The dervise is well paid for his maxim." But the king was so well pleased A JOKE, NO JOKE.

with the answer, that he ordered it to be written in golden letters on several I heard of one neer Oxford who borrowed 501. of his father-in-law, so itt parts of his palace, and engraved on all his plate. Not long after, the was to be concluded when it was to be paid, and they being a little knavish Cham's surgeon was bribed to kill him with a poisoned lancet at the time concluded the 30th of next February; hee being an ignorant feilow, assented, he let him blood. One day, when the Cham's arm was bound, and the fatal the lawyer drew the writings accordingly, but the fellow cannot get his

lancet in the surgeon's hand, he read on the basin, money to this day, hee lives at Marston, near Oxford.--Diary of the Rev. Begin nothing of which thou hast not well considered the end." J. Ward.

He immediately started, and let the lancet fall out of his hand. The Cham VISIONS OF ANGELS.

observing his confusion, inquired the reason: the surgeon fell prostrato, Our modern young gentlemen are but ill plants, grow, like cucumbers

confessed the whole affair, and was pardoned; but the conspirators were pot more to belly than head, and have but little pips for hearts. It was quito to death. The Cham, turning to his courtiers, who had heard the advice different in my younger days. Who would believe it now? But we were with contempt, told them, that counsel could not be too highly valued certainly in some way gifted then. We saw angels-and now one scarcely

which had saved a Cham's life.-Spectator. even hears of them. It was an angel-seeing age; I have myself seen many.

INTELLECTUAL MODESTY. I first began to see them about seventeen years of age ; and that was in the

We should never estimate the soundness of principles by our own ability year-but no, there is no occasion to mention the year; the angels might not

to defend them; or consider an objection as unanswerable, to which we can like again to visit me if I did, and I still live in hope. I cannot exactly say

find no reply. It is an absurd self-confidence, especially in a young person, how many I saw before I was twenty ; but they all struck me as having very beautiful hair; their eyes were heavenly : but, if the first sight was en

to abandon his principles as soon as he may find himself worsted in argu.

ment. There is no defence against flippant sophistry so effectual as an intelchanting, the first touch of the little finger of one thrilled me all over, and then I kuew and felt it was an angel.-Blackwood.

ligent modesty. Indeed, genuine firmness of mind consists greatly in an

habitual recollection of our own moderate powers and acquirements.THE MEMORY OF THE DEAD.

Taylor's Elements of Thought. It is an exquisite and beautiful thing in our nature, that when the heart is

HABIT. touched and softened by some tranquil happiness or affectionate feeling, the We are so wonderfully formed, that, while we are creatures vehemently memory of the dead comes over it most powerfully and irresistibly. It desirous of novelty, we are as strongly attached to habit and custom. But would almost seem as though our better thoughts and sympathies were it is the nature of things which hold us by custom, to affect us very little churms, in virtue of which the soul is enabled to hold some vague and mys- while we are in possession of them, but strongly when they are absent. I terious intercourse with the spirits of those whom we dearly loved in life. remember to have frequented a certain place every day for a long time to co Alas! how often and how long may those patient angels hover above us, ther : and I may truly say, that so far from finding pleasure in it, I was watching for the spell which is so seldom uttered, and so soon forgotten !- affected with a sort of uneasiness and disgust : I came, I went, I returned Dickens.

without pleasure ; yet if by any means I passed by the usual time of my EGOTISM.

going thither, I was remarkably uneasy, and was not quiet till I had got Contempt is egotism in ill-humour. Appetite without moral affection, into my old track. They who use snuff, take it almost without being sen. social sympathy, and even without passion and imagination-in plain sible that they take it, and the acute sense of smell is deadened, so as to feel English, mere lust,-is the basest form of egotism, and being infra human, hardly anything from so sharp a stimulus : yet deprive the snuff-taker of or below humanity, should be pronounced with the harsh breathing, as he

his box, and he is the most uneasy mortal in the world.-Burke. goat-ism.-Coleridge.


UNITED STATES. I should violate my own arm rather than a church, nor willingly defaco The cost of advertising quack medicines in the twenty-four States, the memory of saint or martyr. At the sight of a cross or crucifix I can dis

annually, is supposed to amount to two hundred thousand dollars. A park pense with my hat, but scarce with the thought or memory of my Saviour; of pills a day is considered necessary for Boston, and half a bushel for New I cannot laugh at but rather pity the fruitless journeys of pilgrims, or con- York. On an average, only one in twenty-five who take them is actually temin the miserable condition of friars ; for, though misplaced in circum- sick ; and the proportion of those who dispense with some necessary of life stance, there is something in it of devotion. I could never hear the Ave

to purchase nostrums which do them a positive injury, is in the ratio of Maria bell without an elevation, or think it a sufticient warrant because they erred in one circumstance, for me to err in all, that is, in silence and

eighty-seven to every hundred throughout the country.-- American Medical

Journal. dumb contempt; whilst, therefore, they directed their devotions to her, I offered mine to God, and rectified the errors of their prayers by rightly London : WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. ordering mine own.-Browne's Religio Medici.

& Co. Dublin : CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars


Edinburgh: FRASES

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]




always attending; the men are mustered in squads as their names stand on the books, and kept in readiness to be called forward singly to receive their quotas. As nothing is deducted from the

two months' advance for slops, or other charges, the business “Come all hands ahoy to the anchor,

proceeds rapidly, and in a ship of this class is finished in two or From friends and relations to go."-DIBDIN.

three hours. It is usual to keep open some of the petty officers' Our ship is now ready for sea, and the last thing to be per- rating until this day, in reserve for volunteers that may appear ; formed, before proceeding on a cruise, is to pay the crew the but now every man's rating must be assigned him, as upon that customary advance of wages.

depends the amount he receives. It has always been the practice to delay this important event

When the superintendant departs, and the day advances, the until the vessel is on the point of quitting the port ; not only to dealing, like Tam O'Shanter's mirth, grows “ fast and furious ;” prevent desertion, but owing to the difficulty of restraining seamen oonsiderable relaxation of discipline is tolerated, for it is difficult when they have money at command ; and also because it is to prevent the introduction of spirits upon such an occasion as probable—nay certain—that many of them would dissipate every this, when many strangers are admitted, and the “right of shilling, regardless of providing clothes, and the necessaries they search," so rigorously maintained at other seasons, cannot be require, during their contemplated absence from England.

strictly exercised. The payment of this small sum is, however, but an indifferent

Every man is expected to provide himself with the following affair, compared to the scenes which our recollections associate articles of wearing apparel, and if he cannot afford to purchase with pay-days of former times, when seamen received the arrears all he wants to complete his “ kit," as his wardrobe is called, of several years' wages in a lump, and lavished the whole in a few out of the advance, the deficiency is made up of slops supplied hours, after the usual manner of this prodigal and thoughtless by the purser, and charged against his accruing wages :

:-Two class, who are truly said to

blue jackets, two blue trowsers, one waistcoat, four shirts, one “ Earn their money at sea like horses,

pair of shoes, two hats, one scrubbing-brush. If the ship is To squander it idly like assos on shore."

ordered to a warm climate, four white duck frocks, instead of Nevertheless, between two and three thousand pounds being shirts, and four ditto trousers. These articles are indispensable, circulated in the issue of two months' advance, the atfair still but most of the seamen have more, and nearly all have, in merits the attention of the children of Israel, who, by long pre- addition, pea-jackets. scription, claim an exclusive right to the appropriation of seamen's In the appropriation of purchases, the ladies of course assert their earnings in London, as well as the outports, and maintain it 80 claim for a share, and the Jew dealers fail not to display such artipertinaciously as to render the competition of other dealers cles of female attire as women delight to adorn themselves withal. bopeless.

On occasions when large payments are made, these are to be had in About ten o'clock in the forenoon, the superintendant of the every variety, and what with one outlay or another, poor Jack dock-yard, attended by several pay-clerks from the Cheque is generally minus of his receipts before sunset, when strangers Office, provided with the cash and duplicates of the ship's books, are ordered to quit, and the first-lieutenant congratulates himself, arrive on board ; but long before they make their appearance not without reason, that the business of the day—a weary one to generally from the first dawn of day--the ship is surrounded and him—is over. beset with shore boats, the occupant of each being most inde. The seaman is your true philosopher--the morning finds him fatigable and incessant in his prayer to be admitted on board, renovated by rest, minus his money to be sure, but little regretassuring the officers he has the best and cheapest goods that canting the want of it, and resolved, in the words of the song, "to go possibly be provided for the seaman's wants. It is remarkable to sea for more.” Preparations are now made for unmooring, and that, by some mode of obtaining intelligence through their brethren boats arrive to take the women on shore. We confess we have in the metropolis, the Jews are always acquainted with the day never happened to witness a realisation of the affecting “partings" appointed for making payments of wages, or prize money, to a described by the poot; on the contrary, this matter has always ship of war, even before the post-admiral himself, much less the appeared to us accomplished somewhat in a style of indifference. officers belonging to the vessel.

However that may be, a scene such as a poetical imagination The Jews succeed generally in obtaining admittance in the course might conceive seldom or never occurs—some waving of handsof the day, in sufficient numbers to occupy, with their wares, the very different from lily white-there is," and there an end;" — spaces between the guns on the main-deck, which now assumes the work of the ship soon absorbs the seaman's attention. As the appearance of a fair, or bazaar, where all sorts of articles, the morning advances, Blue Peter is hoisted, the captain and all such as wearing apparel, gown pieces for the ladies, watches, and persons belonging to the vessel repair on board, the pilot shortly trinkets that attract the seamen's attention, are ostentatiously after appears, the sails are loosed and set, the ponderous anchor exhibited.

hove up (lifted) to the bows, and, wind and tide permitting, the The payment of wages takes place in the fore-cabin, the captain ship proceeds to sea.



Bradbury and Evans, Prlaters, Wbitofriars.

[ocr errors]

Until fairly clear of the port, the vessel is under the pilot's are holy-stoned * in addition to the broom-scrubbing, and under charge; when that is effected he takes his leave, receiving a certi- this treatment they very soon assume a beautiful whiteness, the ficate entitling him to his fee. A course for the destination is grain of the wood relieved by the black streaks of pitch seams. then shaped by the master, and the watch is set, or called, as it As daylight begins to dawn, look-out men are ordered to the fore is styled. During the time the ship is in the neighbourhood of and main-top-gallant-masts' head, and those stationed around the the land, and in soundings, it is usual to keep a leadsman heaving gang ways &c. withdrawn. In war time it is usual for an active the lead, and ever and anon denoting the depth of water by a mate or midshipman to go aloft and sweep the horizon with his peculiar song, the correct performance of which is considered telescope as the dawn breaks, for sometimes a fast-sailing vessel, essential in an able seaman.

which would escape in chase, is brought under the guns, and It generally takes the whole of the first day at sea to stow away captured, before she becomes aware that an enemy is so near. different articles, and get matters to rights; as soon as this is for this reason a wary cruiser keeps everything prepared for accomplished, on the morrow generally, things assume a certain making sail on the instant, and a couple of guns on each side routine. We shall describe the usual occurrences of one day, always ready to be brought to bear on a vessel discovered under noting generally such variations as are made weekly, or monthly; such circumstances. prior to which it may be as well to specify briefly the duties of The first lieutenant and master generally appear on deck at the different classes into which the ship's company is divided, daylight, and the former takes charge of the watch whilst the reserving a more minute detail of the several duties of the officers proper officer goes below to make his toilet. The boatswain and for a future occasion.

carpenter are also required to make a visit of scrutiny to each The crew are divided into starboard and larboard watch, and mast-head every morning, and to report any defect that they may each watch has a certain proportion of men in the following discover in the spars, sails, or rigging, whilst the gunner goes classes :--Gunner's crew, 9; carpenter's crew, 4; forecastle men, round the decks to inspect the artillery. Meanwbile, the cooks 22; fore-top men, 22 ; main-top men, 25 ; mizen-top men, 9; are preparing breakfast, and at six the people below are aroused, after-guard, 30; waisters, 58 ; marines, 50.

and required to lash up their hammocks, which are brought up The boatswain's mates and quarter-masters, being always kept by notice of the boatswain's pipe at half-past six, or seven o'clock. on the alert, are generally placed in three watches, as well as the The watch below is then set to clean the lower deck, and prepare lieutenants, mates, and midshipmen. When it is necessary to the mess places for breakfast, whilst those on deck coil down the obtain more strength during the watch, the idlers are called, a

ropes, set the required quantity of sail neatly, and clean the smallbody of about 40 persons, composed of the mechanics, servants, arms, usually kept at hand ready for use, a measure of daily &c., who are excused from keeping regular watch, but liable to necessity to prevent their rusting in the saline atmosphere. all calls during the night.

The captain may, or may not, make his appearance thus early. The denominations we have enumerated require men of various His motions are entirely regulated by his will

, for he is supreme abilities to perform their duties properly. The quarter-master's on board. The officers, denominated idlers (the marine officers, and gunner's crew are composed of the best and oldest seamen, surgeon, assistant-surgeon, chaplain, and purser, and naval and these have no very active duties to perform, that require instructor, as well as the young gentlemen volunteers too young to great physical exertion. The boatswain's mates are good seamen, be stationed in watches), usually come on deck about an hour selected for strength and activity, and it falls to their duty to before breakfast, to inhale the fresh air. At half-past seven the wield the “cat” at punishment. The forecastle men are the cook appears with a sample of the morning's meal, which he most distinguished in the able seamen's ratings, and generally tenders to the officer of the watch for his approval, and the men supply leadsmen, steersmen, &c.; they are heavier men than the intended to relieve the sentinels, the wheel, and the look-outs, are fore and main-top men, also smart active sailors, though not ordered to get their meal. At eight o'clock precisely, if no special necessarily thorough seamen, their principal duty being aloft about duty interferes to prevent it, the word is given to “pipe to breakthe sails and rigging. The mizen-top men are lads, or first-class fast," and the boatswain and his mates perform a flourish of boys, who emulate the fore-top men, and as they grow strong and whistling upon their silver calls, peculiar to the occasion, which perfect themselves they are advanced to that station, and obtain though not particularly musical, is a very acceptable hearing to the the rating of “ ordinaries."

men with appetites sharpened by the healthy breezes of the sea. The afterguard and waisters are half seamen, or landmen, Thus ends the morning watch, eight o'clock being the hour when more particularly the latter, upon whom, and the marines, the all classes, officers and men, retire to breakfast, and at which, or principal heavy work of pulling and hauling falls. The waisters at other meals, they are never disturbed, unless on special occaperform all the dirty drudgery of the ship. Each of these classes sions, when it cannot be avoided. The first-lieutenant generally, has leaders, called captains and second captains, being good sea- and sometimes the officer and one of the midshipmen of the men, capable of directing the others how and where to apply morning watch, breakfast with the captain, and it is usual for the their labour. The strongest portion of the second-class boys, mate or one of the midshipmen to be invited to breakfast in the not required for servants, are stationed in different parts of the ward-room. watch, for the purpose of instruction, and as these are capable of We should have stated, that the duty of heaving the log, and becoming smart active men-of-war seainen, if properly attended to, marking the ship's rate of progress on the log-board, devolves upon it behoves the captain of every ship to insure that this shall the mate of the watch ; and this is afterwards copied into the logbe done.

book, by the second master, who hands it to every officer of a It would be entering more minutely than our design warrants Watch, in order that he may attach his initials to certify its correct. to describe at length how the men are stationed, either at "all ness. The mate of the watch also calls the lieutenant who is to hands," “ the watch,” or “the watch and idlers,” for different keep the next watch, whilst a quarter-master wars the midshipevolutions ; suffice it to say, that, although no general arrange- At half-past eight the forenoon-watch is piped up, and the ment is specified, this is accomplished in all ships much in the officers of the morning-watch relieved. Between this and noon same manner, every precaution being taken that nothing shall be is the busiest period of the day, for all the crew, above and below, ieft undone that may insure speed, decision, and uniformity, in are in full employment. A division is exercised at the guns, or at the various evolutions ; for upon perfection in these matters the small-arms, the mechanics are engaged at their several crafts, the credit of a ship, as to discipline and consequent ability to perform captain receives the reports of the surgeon and others, visits the any service of which a vessel is capable, depends.

sick-bay (hospital), and occasionally every part of the ship, whilst Taking the routine for one day, and commencing with the the people below are employed in cleaning the lower-deck, orlops, morning watch, which relieves the middle watch at four o'clock; and store-rooms, and various minor affairs. In the course of the the watch is mustered by one of the midshipmen, each man forenoon, the captain and ward-room stewards deliver the message passing before the lieutenant as he answers to his name, and the of invitation to those selected to dine in the cabin and ward-room. captains of different classes testifying for those placed on look At half-past eleven, the officers and young gentlemen are summoned outs, in the sick list, or absent from any sufficient cause. The

on deck with their sextants and quadrants, to take the altitude of ropes are then coiled up, and preparations made for washing the sun. The cook appears again on the quarter-deck with a decks, an operation invariably performed every morning, when the weather permits, by scrubbing the quarter-deck, main-deck; using them the men go on their knees. “ Hand-bibles” are billets of wood.

Holy-stones" are square pieces of freestone, and so called because in poop, and forecastle, with sand and brooms, followed by plentiful about the size of bricks, and used to rub the sand on the deck in the same ablutions of water, thrown about in all directions, so as thoroughly position. The seamen have assigned these names to the articlos, which are to cleanse away the dirt. Twice or three times a week the decks known afloat by no other.,

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]


sample of the soup prepared for dinner, and as noon approaches, drunk, so long as he can stand upright, or walk a plank, which all work is suspended, and the decks cleared up and swept. means keeping his feet within the lines made by the seams on each

Reporting noon, is an amusing routine, and exemplifies the great side of a plank in the deck. By the time all these matters are authority of the captain, for he actually assumes the power which accomplished, in the first or second dog-watch, the period geneJoshua possessed of making time stand still. It is usual for the rally arrives for putting the ship under the sail intended to be master, when he has ascertained that the sun's ascension is at carried during the night, and should time permit, or the work be its height, to salute the captain, or officer of the watch, informing lubberly performed, the men when aloft are exercised at reefing, him that it is "twelve o'clock.” If all things are ready, he until they effect what is desired, to the satisfaction of the captain. replies, “Make it so, and pipe to dinner;" but if anything re- The hammocks are next piped down, and as it grows dark, look-out mains to be done which requires a few minutes' labour, he hesitates men are withdrawn from the mast- head, and others placed around not to suspend the event until such is accomplished ; and when the ship, who call out every half hour during the night from their ready, and not before, he declares his pleasure, that it shall be stations as follows: Starboard-quarter, starboard-gangway, star

board-bow, larboard-bow, larboard-gangway, larboard-quarterWe have already detailed the ship’s allowance ; in serving it out, life-buoy. These look-out men are relieved every hour, and kept the utmost fairness and impartiality is observed. An indifferent alert by constant visits from the midshipmen of the watch. The person being selected, he takes in his hand the cook's fork, a large person stationed at the life-buoy has the charge of that instrument, iron instrument called by the seamen "the tormentors," and as which is suspended at the stern, and primed by a gunner's mate at each mess is called, pricks for a piece of meat out of a tub, where quarters every night: it is capable of being instantly detached by it has been all thrown promiscuously together.* Vegetables and pulling a trigger-line, that also fires off a lock igniting a blue puddings are boiled in nets, or bags, having attached to them a line light, which burns for a considerable time, directing the man in with a copper label bearing a number, and the cook of each mess the water to a means of help, as well as the boats despatched from attends with his utensils to receive these and the allowance of meat, the ship, to what point to row to his assistance, and to pick up the which are all appropriated and removed in a few minutes. Mean- life-buoy. while, the important operation of mixing the grog is going forward, The second dog-watch ends at eight o'clock, and at the begin. a master's mate superintending the whole; whilst a quarter-master, ning of the first watch the captain issues his written or verbal orders another petty officer, and a sergeant or corporal of marines, attend for the night, which the officer of every succeeding watch commuon behalf of the crew, and the purser's steward on the part of the nicates to the one who relieves him. At midnight, the middle purser, on this, and indeed every other occasion where provisions watch succeeds to the first, and at four o'clock we arrive at the are served out, to see that justice is done to both parties. The point where we commenced our routine, namely, the morning mates and midshipmen invited to dine in the cabin and ward-room, watch. During the first and middle watch the decks below are relieve those who have the watch, in order that they may get their visited every half-hour, and no work is done beyond pumping out dinner.

the ship should it be required. Prior to the introduction of tanks, At one bell (half-past twelve), a boatswain's mate gives one chirp and force-pumps, which communicate with the coppers, it was on his call, and sings out “grog ho.” The summons is obeyed usual to hoist up butts of water during the middle watch: at preinstanter, and the allowance delivered to the cook of each mess, sent the men are not disturbed with any work of this kind; but all who carries it below, and divides it amongst his messmates, using a those not on the look-outs, or in bad weather stationed in positions measure somewhat smaller than that above, by which means due to reduce the sails suddenly, are permitted to lie down in their allowance is made for waste, and a portion of surplus, called for pea-jackets under cover from the weather. shortness “plus” is reserved as the perquisite of the cook, in This is the daily routine, only varied by washing clothes on consideration of his extra labour. As may be supposed, the Mondays and Fridays; Divisions at which every man is expected office of cook is coveted, and appropriated in rotation, day after to appear clean shaved and with a clean shirt, Thursdays and day.

Sundays. Divine service on the latter day. Washing the lower At one o'clock the afternoon-watch is called, and the business deck on Saturdays, after which it is thoroughly ventilated and of exercising, &c. resumed. At two o'clock (usually the ward dried; also slinging clean hammocks, and airing bedding. A room dinner hour), the officer of the forenoon-watch, who is invited monthly muster of clothes and serving out of slops and tobacco. to the captain's table, relieves the lieutenant in charge of the deck, One evening in each week is allowed the crew to mend their clothes. who resumes his post at three, when the captain's dinner is All other matters which require a more minute detail will be announced. As the afternoon-watch approaches its termination of described under the head of the Duty of each Officer belonging to four o'clock, the decks are again cleared up and swept, and at four the Ship. the boatswain's mate pipes to supper, when the men either receive tea ready prepared, or hot water from the cook, in proportion to

MORE'S UTOPIA. the number in each mess. The next is the first dog-watch, during which the work to be performed depends upon the season of the

THE Utopia " is a pbilosophical romance, in which More, year. Iu some ships the men are allowed all the time after four after the manner of Plato, erects an imaginary republic, arranges o'clock for relaxation or pastime, until the drum beats to quarters, a society in a form entirely new, and endows it with institutions when every person flies to his station, and answers to his name, as more likely to secure its happiness than any which mankind have it is called over by one of the midshipmen attached to his divison. hitherto experienced. But, with all the model of Plato, the When an examination has taken place as to the condition of the republic of the Utopians assumes an actual existence : it is discoguns, and the stores ordered to be kept in readiness, and the lieu- vered by an adventurous navigator in a distant part of the new tenant of every division has made his report, the men are formed hemisphere, where it had for many ages continued to flourish; in a line, and the captain, or should he decline, the first-lieutenant, and More duly communicates to the world what he learned from usually accompanied by the surgeon, passes along in front of the the narrative of this intelligent eye-witness. The work is divided ranks, minutely scrutinising the features of every man in order to into two books, of which the first is occupied by a dialogue, conascertain his sobriety, for it is extremely dangerous to leave a taining a number of strictures on the most prominent defects in drunken man free from restraint on board a ship, not only on his the political institutions of the old world. The pleasing manner own account, but on account of the mischief he might do to others; in which this part of the work is written, the felicity of the style, indeed, the safety of the ship requires that every one in that con

the elegance of the satire, the acuteness of the remarks on men dition should be deprived of the power of doing injury. It is in and manners, the freedom and manliness of the opinions, would credible in what a short space of time the officers are familiar not have raised it to distinction in any age ; but in the rude and ignoonly with the features, but the voice of every man in the ship, and rant period when it appeared, they entitle it to high admiration. it is necessary that they should become so as early as possible in similar praise is due to various passages in the second part, order to judge correctly, for a seaman will never admit that he is where the country, the manners, and the political institutions of

the Utopians are described. Yet, while we allow much to the The casks of salt meal contain fifty-two pieces of pork, four pounds ingenuity, much to the judgment of the author, it must be each, or thirty-eight pieces of beef, eight pounds each. In cutting up, these acknowledged, that many of the laws and practices of this new four men. The scraps are called “ skewer pieces, and, being made into republic are by no means improvements ; that the author has been lots, are served to every mess in its turn. Of these the nien make “ sea

more successful in exposing defects than in providing remedies ; pics " and " lobscouse ;” nautical dishes peculiar to themselves. In cutting and that his regulations are often fitted rather for beings of his up fresh beef, one pound extra in every seven (or five, according to the

own fancy, than for those with whom the Creator has peopled this quality,' is changed for prime pieces.

world.—John Macdiarmid.


the politician. On the publication of “ Endymion," from which

poem all our quotations are taken, Keats was assailed by the then Books are your true magicians : here are we now seated in a Quarterly Reviewer, and the morbidly-acute sensitiveness of his small room, scarcely eight feet square, yet large enough, by the victim enhanced a thousandfold the effect of the attack. The poet's assistance of these Magi, to contain all the greatest minds of the life, destined by disease to be short, was made shorter ; the poi. earth. Little is our wealth, but we have only to utter our "Open inhale, as he had wished, “ the warm south :” he died at the early

soned arrows struck deep into his heart; in vain he went abroad to Sesame !"—the leaves fly asunder,—and what mines of Golconda age of twenty-four, though not without creating for the world, are half so rich as the heaped-up store the poets have here spread even in the short time allotted him, poems that it certainly will before us? What monarchs can claim the possession of jewels never "willingly let die," and which, if equalled in one instance so bright, rich, priceless, and enduring as their thoughts? A (Shelley's), have never been surpassed by any of our ".

young dazzling treasure! We possess ourselves of as much of it as we poets." Measuring what he had done only by the standard of are able ; we fill our hearts and souls with it, and, what is once

perfection he had set up in his mind, he was unjust to himself,

and his assailants had the gratification of fancying that the young thus possessed, no earthly power can lessen or deprive us of: yet all the while the glittering heap dwindles not; we invite others to poet, in the bitterness of his heart, whilst lying on his death-bed,

had paid homage to their prowess, in desiring that his epitaph share with us, and the wealth, instead of diminishing, grows- should be "Here lies one whose name was writ in water!" ay, visibly swells—as more and more is taken away! Blessed and did not all this fling a "pall” over his spirit, which no and beautiful ordination of God, that our truest perceptions should shape" could move away? Was the poet's faith still unbe those received in the light of a common sympathy; that our changed? Leigh Hunt has recorded that, "a little before be highest, purest, and fullest enjoyments should increase as they died, he said he felt the daisies growing over him!'" become more social !

The subject of the poem before us is one of the most beautiful But are these dumb enchantments—books only “wealth” to youth enamoured of the Moon-and exquisitely has our author

passages of the beautiful mythology of Greece-Endymion is the us; are they not friends, to sorrow with us when we sorrow, to touched it! Here is part of an invocation to Pan. joy with us when we joy ; are they not at all times sweet and

"O thou, whose mighty palace-roof doth hang elevating society? When worn out by the toils or anxieties of

From Jagged trunks, and overshadoweth the day, never do they refuse to discourse us their most eloquent

Eternal whispers, glooms, the birth, life, death music. What a world of ennobling impulses there is contained in

Of unseen flowers in heavy peacefulness ; the thought that Shakspeare and Milton, Wordsworth, Shelley,

Who lovest to see the hamadryads dross and Scott, are content to dwell with the meanest of us ! No roof

Their ruffled locks where meeting hazels darken ; can be too poor for them, no hearth too humble: we may have

And through whole solemn hours dost sit, and hearken them telling, whenever we please, of the wonders of that nature it

The dreary melody of bedded reeds is their mission to expound.

In desolated places; where dank moisture breeds We select, on the present occasion, Keats' “ Endymion," and

The pipy hemlock to strange overgrowth, have opened the leaves at its commencement.

Bethinking thee how melancholy loth

Thou wast to lose fair Syrinx,--do thou now, " A thing of beauty is a joy for ever!"

By thy love's milky brow! is the poet's utterance as he bounds forth, expressing, in those few

By all the trembling mazes that she ran, and simple, but exquisite words, the faith that has o'erinformed

Hear us, great Pan!" his own spirit, and now bids him go on his way rejoicing to teach it to others.

Hamadryads are no more, fugitive maidens no longer escape by

metamorphosis into trees or plants, Pan himself has not only “ A thing of beauty is a joy for ever :

lost his divinity, but his very existence is shrewdly questioned. Its loveliness increases; it will never

But let us cry with our author,
Pass into nothingness ; but still will keep
A bower quiet for us, and a sleep

“0, sweet Fancy! let her loose !"
Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing ;

She may still delight in these charming poetical fictions ; still Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing

people the woods with ideal forms; still afford to us some spiritual A flowery band to bind us to the earth,

glimpses, without which the world were indeed forlorn. In the Spite of despondence, of th' inhuman dearth

following passage, Endymion describes to his sister the dream, or Of noble natures, of the gloomy days,

vision, in which the divine object of his adoration appeared to him Of all the unhealthy and o'er-darken'd ways

in her earthly guise. Made for our searching: yes, in spite of all,

“Methought I lay
Some shape of beauty moves away the pall

Watching the zenith, where the milky way
From our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon,

Among the stars in virgin splendour pours;'
Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon

And travelling my eye, until the doors
For simple sheep; and such are daffodils

Of heaven appear'd to open for my flight,
With the green world they live on; and clear rills

I became loth and fearful to alight
That for themselves a cooling covert make

From such high soaring by a downward glance:
'Gainst the hot season ; the mid-forest brako,

So kept me stedfast in that airy trance,
Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms:

Spreading imaginary pinions wide.
And such, too, is the grandeur of the dooms

When, presently, the stars began to glide,
We have imagined for the mighty dead;

And faint away, before my eager view:
All lovely tales that we have heard or read :

At which I sigh'd that I could not pursue,
An endless fountain of immortal drink,

And dropt my vision to the horizon's verge;
Pouring unto us from the heavens' brink."

And lo! from opening clouds, I saw emergo

The loveliest moon that ever silver'd o'er These are beautiful lines,—"a joy,” indeed, "for ever,” to all who can receive them into their hearts with a cordial apprehension of

A shell for Neptune's goblet; she did soar

So passionately bright, my dazzled soul their truth, of their surpassing loveliness and power. How deeply their author felt what he inculcated, his biography affectingly

Commingling with her argent spheres did roll proves. Born in one of the humbler ranks of life, his genius

Through clear and cloudy, even when she went

At last into a dark and vapoury tent, hurst the trammels of circumstance, and elevated him to a position in the loftiest department of literature ;— he was emphatically acknowledged to be a poet ! Unfortunately for him, during the

Again I looked,--and, O ye deities, period of the publication of his poems, party politics raged high

Who from Olympus watch our destinies! his opinions were too ardent to be concealed, and, according to Whence that completed form of all completeness ? the infamous custom of the time, the poet was to be crushed for Whence came that high perfection of all sweetness?

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »