Imagens das páginas

ache, and become incapable of appreciating the merits of the is difficult to view the few indifferent pictures hung there ; let us paintings, before we reach the end.

hasten on through three or four more comparatively small apartIn the King's Presence Chamber, which we enter immediately ments, until we reach the gallery containing the glorious works from the Guard Room, hang full-length portraits of the beauties of Raphael, the incomparable Cartoons. There hang those seven of the Court of King William and Queen Mary. re noble works and the first glance shows you how magnificent they all painted by Kaeller, and are none of them remarkable, except are, How grand in conception; how admirable in drawing, and as good specimens of that master's style, save one, that of a how beautiful they have been in colouring! That glory bas, alas! Duchess of St. Albans. We know not her history, but she is faded in some degree, but enough is left for imagination to supply represented as very young, with a figure petite and delicate, a the lost harmonious tints. You look down on the engravings, sweet countenance, but a mournful thoughtfulness over-spreading which are placed below on easels ; you see Holloway's and Bur. it, like a shadow foretelling a premature death. We are likely net's copies ; how exact, yet how unlike. In opposite styles of enough to be wrong in our supposition, but such is the impression art, yet both excellent, they give you no idea of the cartoons. produced upon our minds. The picture is well, and, what is How then can words do it? We must come again and spead a rare with the works of the master, chastely painted. A portrait day in this room. Now let us gaze in silence-We must at last by Titian, and another by Giorgione, are worth attention, though depart; this door leads us to the Queen's staircase ; it is very not to be ranked with the best of these artists performances. fine, very—but we cannot look at it. Giorgione's “portrait," as it is termed in the catalogue, repre- And here we find ourselves once more in the Fountain-court. sents a saint clothed in armour; there is a glory round the head. Let us glance at the Clock Court and Western Quadrangle, enThe views of ruins over the doors in this and the next apartment, circled by the apartments of those fortunate individuals who dwell are by Rousseau, a French artist, protected and patronised by in this princely palace; take a look into the Conservatory, and William III., and are not ill painted. We must not leave this admire the gigantic vine, the prince of all its kind. It is above room without bestowing a glance on the state canopy, the same

110 feet long; at three feet from the ground, the stem is twenty. beneath which William III. was accustomed to give audience, seven inches in circumference; it is of the kind known as the

In the next chamber we remark an admirable work of Cor. Black Hamburgh, and in some seasons has produced 2,500 regio's, a most characteristic portrait of the sculptor Baccio Bandi- bunches of grapes, -at least so says our “Guide.” And now let nelli; he sought to rival Michel Angelo Buonarotti, but did not us wander among these pleasant walks, refreshing our eyes with come within many degrees of that great artist. He was, notwith the cool green. Shall we venture into the “Maze ?There is standing, a good architect, and possessed considerable merit as a & plan of it on the back page of the Guide, but even with that aid sculptor, but his disposition was mean and envious. A portrait we should, we fear, be puzzled to get either in or out. But see, the of Alexander de Medici, by Titian, is very excellent; and our sun declines. Let us stroll to the river-side, and then take boat attention is attracted by a very fine duplicate of Vandyke's oele- for Richmond, and thence home by coach or steam-boat ; but, if brated portrait of Charles I. on horseback. In the audience. you like it better, there are coaches direct into London. No, we chamber, a portrait of Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, will take the water, and, as we glide along, meditate on the beauties painted by Titian, deserves minute and particular attention. It of Hampton Court.-Good night; may your slumbers be light, and interests us to behold so characteristic a portrait of this remarkable your dreams happy. man, and as a picture it is every way admirable.

In the King's drawing-room we are involuntarily attracted by a painting of Joseph and Potiphar's wife, by Gentileschi. It has The chegoe looks exactly like a very small flea, and a stranger many faults as a painting, but is singularly striking. The Angels would take it for one. However, in about four-and-twenty hours, appearing to the Shepherds, by N. Poussin, must on no account he would have several broad hints that he had made a mistake in be passed over. It is an excellent specimen of that great master, his ideas of the animal. It attacks different parts of the body, though not in his usual style.

but chiefly the feet, betwixt the toe-nails and the flesh. There it In King William's bed-room we admire the celebrated beauties day or two, after examining the part, you perceive a place about

buries itself, and at first causes an itching not unpleasant. In a of the court of Charles II., amongst which are many of the best the size of a pea, somewhat discoloured, rather of a blue appearspecimens of Lely's painting. The ceiling is by Verrio, and Sometimes it happens that the itching is so trivial, you are beautifully painted.

not aware that the miner is at ork. Time, they say, makes great Passing through the King's dressing-room and writing-closet, discoveries. The discoloured part turns out to be the nest of the and Queen Mary's closet, we reach her Majesty's gallery, rich in chegoe, containing hundreds of eggs, which if allowed to hatch Holbeins, all worthy of attention. We would particularly point there, the young ones will soon begin to form other nests, and in out the picture of his father and mother, in which warm filial have got the chegoe in your flesh, you must take a needle or a

time form a spreading ulcer. As soon as you perceive that you feelings seem to have put vigour into the painter's pencil, and sharp-pointed knife, and take it out. If the nest be formed, great softened the usual harshness of his style. There are several other care must be taken not to break it; otherwise some of the eggs excellent pictures here. The Queen's bed-room contains the remain in the flesh, and then you will soon be annoyed with more state-bed of Queen Anne, and several paintings ; one, a Venus turpentine into the hole; that will most effectually destroy any

chegoes. After removing the nest, it is well to drop spirit of and Cupid, is curious from having been sketched by Michel chegoe that may be lurking there. Sometimes I have taken four Angelo. We pass into the Queen's drawing-room, filled with nests out of my feet in the course of the day. paintings by West, many being portraits of the family of George examine my feet, and see that they were clear of chegoes. Now

Every evening, before sundown, it was a part of my toilette to III. ; thence through the Queen's audience-chamber, which does and then a nest would escape the scrutiny, and then I had to smart not contain much to interest us, we reach the public dining-room, for it a day or two after. A chegoe once lit upon the back of my in which are models of the new Buckingham Palace, and other hand : wishful to see how he worked, I allowed him to take poss buildings; but a portrait of Duns Scotus, by Caravaggio, will not session. He immediately set to work, head foremost, and in about

half an hour he had completely buried himself in the skin. I then permit us to attend to anything else. It is a wonderfully power- let him feel the point of my penknife, and exterminated him. ful performance. The Queen's private chapel is so dark, that it

Waterton's Wanderings.



glasses, we also know that the bulb is not their only root, but AN ENTHUSIAST'S VIEW OF CLASSICAL

that, when they begin to grow, they send down others, long, LITERATURE.

white, and succulent, at the extremities of which are the sponAmongst the various objects to which the human mind is gioles, or mouths, by which the plant takes its food. The bulb directed, there are not very many that can outshine a general then cannot exercise the usual functions of a root,-viz. that of acquaintance with the literature of antiquity. It emanated from supplying the plant with food; and the question is, what its some of the noblest fountains of human knowledge and human

use is ? Linnæus considered bulbs as winter store-houses, ingreatness ; it comprises works which, as objects of study, may tended to preserve the germ of the future flower while vegetation challenge competition with those produced through the long is at rest, and to afford it its first nourishment. It is, indeed, like ages that have succeeded. While man is man, there must be the egg destined to feed the incipient chicken, full of albuminous a charm in those great and glorious productions, which it would matter, sufficient to nourish the flower itself; for it is well known be a disgrace not to feel, which it would be yet more dis-that, if all the fibrous roots are cut off, the bulb itself, if supplied graceful to attempt to depreciate. The Homerian poems have with sufficient heat and moisture, will expand the flower, though a freshness of human geníus, which yet resounds in our ears like it exhausts itself in so doing. The bulb which has produced a the multitudinous swell and roar of the billows of a distant foam. Aower solely from itself, and without deriving any nourishment ing ocean ; which appeal to men's hearts by comparisons of human from the ground, does not appear diminished in size outwardly; feeling and character, which intertwine with these the most but it will be found to have lost its weight, and, when examined, splendid passions of the imagination. While there is a power to the upper part will be found to consist only of empty coats. appreciate whatever is beautiful in imagination, represented in all

The real roots of the hyacinth do not spread horizontally, like its powers and its abilities to teach pathetic feelings most con

most other fibrous roots, but go straight down, penetrating into nected with our sympathies ; while there is anything else that the ground to a great depth. For this reason, the Dutch prepare responds to the ablest strains of oratory, and whatever is most a deep bed of light soil for the roots to go through, with a rich mighty in the application of a powerful mind to the business of a layer of manure, to afford food to be sucked up by the spongioles. community, in which the accumulation of facts and arguments to Mr. Corsten follows the example of his countrymen, and has had demonstration is blended with those spirit-stirring scenes of peril a trench, six feet deep, dug out ; and, after putting a deep layer of and danger in the battle-field, so fresh and so vigorous within cow.dung at the bottom, has filled it with sandy peat. In this bed them; while there is a pleasure in sitting at the feet of garrulous bis hyacinths have acquired an extraordinary luxuriance of growth. age, hearing recounted every tale of distant lands and ages, of wild The kind he calls the Queen has a spike of dark purple flowers, adventure ;—so long will the effusions of the oldest of poets, histo- a foot long; while that called the Duchess of Kent is of the most rians, and orators, excite enthusiasm,--so long will they be prized brilliant scarlet, or rather carmine. Others are yellow, buff, as among the most instructive treasures to force and excite the brick red, and a kind called the Robinson is of a most beautiful fancy, animate the aspirations of the soul, or satisfy the contem

metallic blue ; another called Tubiflora, with very large flowers, plations of the understanding.

is of a delicate French white. In short, the whole forms one of the most splendid sights of the season, and it is well worthy of

being visited by every admirer of beautiful flowers.
RAMBLING lately along the Uxbridge road, in search of
an old thatched public-house, which I remembered stood on

Shepherd' 's-Bush Green, my attention was caught by the name of
Hyacinth Villa. The name struck me. Hyacinth Villa," said

The mother died when the child was born,
I;-" I have already seen Cato Cottage, Homer Villa, and

And left me her baby to keep ; Addison Road, but this name belongs to another genus :” and so

I rocked its cradle the night and morn, saying, I examined a ticket which was affixed to the gate, and

Or, silent, hung o'er it to weep. which informed the reader that a show of hyacinths was within, admission to which might be obtained by paying the sum of five

'Twas a sickly child through its infancy, shillings. How different was all this to the image my fancy had

Its cheeks were so ashy pale ; pictured when I set out to examine this favoured haunt of boy

Till it broke from my arms to walk in glee, hood! How vividly was the whole scene, as it had appeared in

Out in the sharp fresh gale. my boyish days, impressed on my imagination !—and how great was the change. I almost fancied that I had mistaken the place ;

And then my little girl grew strong, but there was the village green, with the geese stalking across it,

And laughed the hours away; as in former times; and there was the old public-house, with its

Or sung me the merry lark's mounting song, high-hipped roof; but the thatch was gone, and its place was sup

Which he taught her at break of day. plied by blue slates ; and, instead of an old willow which had stood beside it, was Hyacinth Villa, the residence of a Dutch

When she wreathed her hair in thicket bowers, seedsman, who exhibited his hyacinths to the curious at five

With the hedge-rose and hare-bell, blue ; shillings each.

I called her my May, in her crown of flowers, It was a deathblow to romance ; I could not get up my feelings

And her smile so soft and new. again ; and so, that I might not lose my walk, I paid my five shillings, and was ushered into the presence of Mr. Corsten's And the rose, I thought, never shamed her cheek, hyacinths. Here romance of a different kind was excited. Ima.

But rosy and rosier made it; gine a tent nearly two hundred feet long, and about thirty wide, with

And her eye of blue did more brightly break a walk covered with matting in the centre, and above three thousand

Through the bluebell that strove to shade it. hyacinths, of the most beautiful forms and brilliant colours, arranged in two beds, each 150 feet long, on each side. It was a

One evening I left her asleep in her smiles, temple of Flora, worthy of the presence of the goddess herself.

And walked through the mountains, lonely; At first my eyes were dazzled with the splendour of the colours,

I was far from my darling, ah! many long miles, and I was unable to examine the individual flowers; but when I

And I thought of her, and her only. had calmed down sufficiently to examine them, I was astonished to find of what variety the flower of the hyacinth was susceptible. I

She darkened my path like a troubled dream, now began to consider in what the perfections of a hyacinth con

In that solitude far and drear ; sisted, and to examine the splendid flowers before me, according

I spoke to my child ! but she did not seem to my imaginary standard of perfection ; and then to try to recol

To hearken with human ear, lect all I had heard or read of the flower. I first began to think of the nature and use of a bulb. We all

She only looked with a dead, dead eye, Mow that the main root of the hyacinth is a bulb, which is taken

And a wan, wan cheek of sorrow ;up when the plant has done fowering, and planted again in

I knew her " fetch !'' she was called to die, autumn, to produce its beautiful flowers the following spring.

And she died upon the morrow. We know this ; and, if we have grown these roots in hyacinth

From Tales by the O'Hara Family.

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P. with 15s. 6d., they started off about twelve at noon, in the PRACTICES OF HABITUAL DEPREDATORS.

winter or end of autumn. At Wandsworth they sold a mat for In the Report of the Commissioners for inquiring into the best 1s. 4d., and a broom for 11d. They went on to Wimbledon, and means of establishing a Constabulary Force throughout England called at a public-house, where they had a pint of beer, for which and Wales, there is a variety of particulars respecting the prac- they gave a bad sixpence. The landlady served them, and then tices of habitual depredators, which it may be useful to be made went into the inner bar and continued serving. The boy H. acquainted with. The following are a few specimens, which may reached round, and took four silver salt-spoons which were on a serve as a sort of appendix to the article in our previous Number. shelf ; he would have taken the salt-cellars, but was afraid they We lay them before our readers, with the double view of assisting might soon be missed. They decamped, bought some bread and them to guard against these practices, and of stimulating them to cheese, and hastoned out of the town in about ten minutes after aid in schemes for the prevention rather than the punishment of the robbery. At Kingston they went to a travellers' house, and crime.

sold the spoons to their landlord, who gave them board and In the Appendix to the Report there is a paper, communicated lodging for the night and next day, with 58. for the bargain. by Mr. Chesterton, the governor of Coldbath-fields' Prison, con- They proceeded on their journey, and about half-past ten a taining a general statement of the career of thieves and their coach passed them on the road; a small trunk was fastened on practices. It was drawn up by an intelligent prisoner, from the behind the seat. P. ran after the coach, climbed up, and cut it narratives of other prisoners.

down. It contained a quantity of papers, and nothing else. Most thieves commence their career at seven or eight years of They tore the papers into shreds, and, having destroyed the box, age, and are engaged for some time in petty thefts of loose articles they hid the pieces. This box was subsequently advertised, and a from shop-doors, windows, stands, &c. imprisonment confirms reward of 501. offered for the recovery. their character, and extends their range of acquaintanceship; and| At the next town (the boy did not recollect the names of the on being released, they generally take a higher degree in their places), about eleven or twelve miles from Kingston, they went to profession. When a young thief commences picking pockets, he a public-house; it was market-day. H. made cloth caps, and in is launched into the routine of dissipation of a regular thief's life; the course of the evening be sold a dozen and a half, at Is. 6d. he becomes united to a “mob," of which there are many in each, to the countrymen in the tap-room. They stole a great-coat London ; some named from the house they use, but more generally which belonged to one of their customers, and bid it in the false from the neighbourhood to which they belong. He frequents the bottom of their cart. There was a hue-and-cry for it; some flash-houses, where he is taught to drink, dance, smoke, and suspected the boys, but the landlady said she could be answerable gamble ; here cards, dice, shove-halfpenny, and other games, are that the poor lads were innocent. Having proceeded next day on always going on, so that sufficient opportunity exists of getting their route, they sold it to a passing countryman for 3s. H. CORrid of superfluous money. It is a common opinion, that schools siders it to have been worth about 7s. for the tuition of the younger thieves exist at these houses, but no For three weeks they lived entirely on the produce of what regular system of such instruction is now carried on. Some years they sold, and ultimately arrived at Kidderminster. ago, it was customary for old thieves to select young ones, and They put up for a short time at a travellers' house. Houses of form them into a mob, to act under their direction, and then a this description are in every town, price 3d. or 4d. a-night; they system of teaching was practised. But, since the establishment of have a common kitchen, where the trampers cook and live. (P. the new police, the same facilities do not present themselves, and confirmed this, and stated that the better sort pay 6d., and have no regular system is now in practice. Occasionally, when an old the attendance of a girl to cook.) thief is present amongst a number of young ones, the latter practise At every lodging-house on the road, H. met plenty of trampers, their craft upon one another, and sometimes receive gratuitous and he did not see one face that he had not seen at St. Giles's. instruction.

They also recognised him, and compared notes. Some were The confession of one individual presents an affecting instance hawkers, some were going half-naked, some were ballad-singers, of the prevalence of evil associations and habits over good parental some were going about with false letters, others as broken-down example and education. : His father was a banker's clerk; and tradesmen, some as old soldiers, and some as shipwrecked sailors; both parents were sober, industrious, and religious. He received and every night they told each other of good houses. They all a smattering of a classical education; and, having a predilection lived well, never ate any broken victuals, but had meat breakfasts, for reading, went through a great many books,--such, for instance, good dinners, hot suppers, and frequently ended by going to bed as the Waverley Novels. He chose a seafaring life, and went "very drunk. Not one spent less than 3s. a-day, many a great deal voyages to Lisbon, Genoa, Leghorn, Zante, and Constantinople, more. They sometimes make 5s., and average 3s. 6d. per day; the Brazils, &c. He afterwards enlisted, in 1836, in the British some often get a sovereign where humane people reside. Auxiliary Legion, and remained in Spain for ten months; when, P. having been employed at a carpet manufactory before he tired of the hardships of the Spanish service, he deserted, along came to London, went to visit his old friends, and was soon able to with sixteen others, escaping into France, and finding his way back introduce H. Every day these boys stole balls of twine and string to England. Now commenced his career of crime. He soon got from this place. They daily went there to take whatever they acquainted with bad characters ; and, from the facility with which could lay their hands upon, and have brought out two or three he obtained money by depredation, soon became a regular and dozen balls of a day in their great-coat pockets, finding a ready accomplished thief. One week with another, he obtained from market for their plunder in the rag-shops. The first lot they sold 31. to 4l. : on one occasion, he and a companion picked the pocket was worth about ll., and they got 108. 6d. for it. They did not of a foreign lady, who had come from Manchester to Liverpool by dispose of any stock-in-trade while in the town, but lived by the railway; they obtained a small pocket-book, which contained plundering the manufactory and picking pockets in the streets. 2731. They afterwards saw bills posted up, offering a reward for Some of the property they pawned, some they sold to trampers at the recovery of the money, which was-supposed to have been lost. the lodging-houses. His share was rapidly spent in reckless dissipation. Not quite a P. and H. were very punctual in attendance at the churches, fortnight elapsed from entering upon a course of crime to his first where they always robbed. They took three watches ; one was apprehension ; but it was ten months before he was convicted. pawned for 15s., the other two for 11. a-piece. P. is very clever Eighteen months is, perhaps, on an average, the time before a at "easing a yokel [i. e. a countryman) of his watch." depredator is convicted; he may be frequently apprehended, They went to a fair about fifteen miles from Kidderminster, leaving without being convicted, but some are apprehended and convicted their dogs and cart at a public-house about two miles from the scene. for their first crime, while others go on for three, six, or even ten P., who can play "prick in the garter," soon got a mob, and soon or twelve years.

found “bettors." He allowed them to win nearly all the money Two boys, who were confined together in Coldbath-fields' he had, and then won it back with double interest. In the mean prison, planned a thieving excursion to Kidderminster. They got time H. (who never appeared to know P.) was very busy riflimng the a dog-cart, stole two dogs from Smithfield, and bought hardware, farmers' pockets of their money bags. (He minutely described brooms, &c. at a shop near Farringdon-street, to the amount of the bags, as being to him a matter of great singularity.) He took 17s. While they were purchasing these articles, two companions eight bags in a short time, but the richest of the eight cunts ined stole for them a dozen and a half of hand-brooms from the door ; only 15s. ; he also took seven handkerchiefs. One of the party they valued them at 5s., making, as four were concerned, 1s. 3d. having lost a bet, applied to his pocket, but missed his purse a each. P. and H. paid them 28. 6d. They also took with them row ensued, every one felt his pockets ; the robbed and the swintwenty sixpences and ten shillings bad money, which they concealed dled gave vent to their anger, and, baving secured P., took him to in a large false bottom of the cart. Thus equipped, H. with 5s, ' a pond and ducked him. H. decamped when the storm was

brewing, as he had all the bags and property about him. This they get at different houses; they are not always thieves, they will occurred at about four in the afternoon, and at about nine, P., not push themselves forward to steal, and one-half of them, if they having concealed himself after his ducking, joined H. at the public saw another stealing, would tell of him, and yet, if they could do it house, and off they set in their vehicle.

themselves they would. The gipsies are the worst of thieves : they They left the neighbourhood, and shaped their course for live by fortune-telling ; they make rings out of brass buttons and London. On their journey back, they entered a gentleman's pewter, and the wives sell them as gold and silver ; they have files house, about half-past eight in the evening. It stood upon a hill, and other implements for cutting them out ; the metal ones are and was to let. They opened the kitchen window, and rummaged cast; many of them make bad money. They will coin the money all over the house for about an hour, taking away a great-coat, in lanes, or buy it of the dealers in towns in the rough, and make some glass decanters, and a hearth-rug. On arriving at the next it up themselves. This is extensively done, most “up” the town, which was about ten miles off, (and they travelled in the country, the south and west of England; more round Sussex, night after this robbery,) they told their landlord they had some- Essex, Kent, Surrey, Northampton. They have no religion ; are thing to sell. His wife went out, and returned shortly after with heavy cursers ; go in families ; never marry; many of them are a man, who bought the lot for 11. 55. 6d.; but H. remarked, “the sheep-stealers. The two families of the Boslems and Smiths, fellow swindled us, for the decanters were worth all the money; about sixty in each, are about Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire ; but we were glad to get rid of them at any price." At some dis- hardly an assize or sessions, but some of this set are had up; in tance from this town they came near a large village, and saw winter they live in towns, if very severe. They will be in one tent several persons coming towards them, when P. put down the table when out; as soon as old enough they “pair,” and if they don't for the "garter story. H. began betting, and the people, when like each other, after a fight the woman will go to her own tribe they came up, stopped to see the fun. Shortly they began to play, again, and the man selects another woman. Play cards and drink and H. began to thieve; at length they became exasperated at the Sundays. Travellers" will not “ do business” on Sundays. their losses to P. H. had retreated, and, having packed away the There are some who will rob houses at chapel-time on that day, property in the dog-cart, was moving off, when the storm broke because they cannot get in at others. I know two sent from out, and P. again got into a scrape. He was severely thumped and Leicester last March for a robbery on Sunday night. One got 15, beaten ; H. was accused of being an accomplice, and they were the other 10 years. Amongst thieves there are several kinds. Ist. both locked up in the cage till next-day, when the magistrates Those confined to picking pockets have boys to work for them, acquitted them ; remarking that P., if guilty, had received punish- and close round them, that no one shall see them. This is very ment enough, and as for H., there was no charge against him. gainful ; large towns furnish them, and they frequent all fairs, It remained a mystery amongst them what had become of the wakes, and races. They travel various ways, some with spring and stolent property, for neither boy had been out of their sight, and covered carts. “Muffling" the cart is of use only when there is yet nothing was found either on them or in the cart. They never no watchman; the wheels and horses' feet are all clothed. I have suspected the false bottom.

not heard of its being done this long time. 2d. Robbers of the About thirty miles off, they stopped a night at a public-house, person with violence, mostly three together; two will hold the man, and became friendly with some soldiers who were billeted at the and the third rifle his pockets. All three will, perhaps, be behind house, being on a march with their regiment. While the soldiers when the attack is made, and one will put his arms round him, or were telling their adventures, the boys stole 21. from them. The he would hit him from behind with a stone in a handkerchief, or next morning the alarm was given, and P. was again the scapegoat. a heavy stick, to stun or "drop" him, and when the plunder is H. fled, and hid the purses here and there about the stable grounds got, throw him out of the way. If a man is in a gig, one will get as quickly as possible; some he threw down the privy, and they behind, and get his arms round him and drag him out, or one will were found by one of the soldiers. The landlady in this instance hold the horse and cut the reins. A horseman will do well to take took part with the boys, and, as no other person had been in the to the fields, but in a gig a man has only the chance of selfcompany, the soldiers (though there was no proof) had no alter- defence ; few “ travellers," i. e. thieves, will venture their lives if native but to suspect the boys, or one of their own comrades : a pistol is shown. Few “travellers" are confined to one kind of however, the boys got clear off.

robbing: in some places you will see the same persons with boys At a short distance (that is, about twenty miles) from London, picking pockets, and others with a three-thimble table, gambling they stopped at a gentleman's house to hawk some things, and, at fairs and races. It would be a good thing to stop it uniwhile the servant went up stairs with some hearth-brooms, P. versally; they are thieves to a man; it would draw them to other slipped into the parlour, and brought out a watch and a silver things. egg-stand. The servant bought about 5s. worth of things on her Take one with another, Manchester is the worst town in return, and they made the best of their way from the premises. England for a thief. Liverpool is a better place for a thief than In five days after, they were in London; having added to their Manchester, if he be a stranger. If you say in any other part of plunder from the gentleman's house a pair of silver salt-cellars, England that you are from Manchester, you are at once supposed which they stole from a public-house where they slept. This to be a thief; it is the same with London, Birmingham, and plunder they brought to London. The silver was sold for 3s. 6d. Liverpool ; but they say that Manchester and Birmingham turn the ounce; the watch for 151.

out more thieves than London and Liverpool. The Manchester Another depredator, the son of respectable parents, thus tells and Liverpool are reckoned the most expert; they are thought to his story.

be of Irish parents, and to have most cunning. In fact, I'll be For the last four years, up to 1839, I have “travelled" for a bound to say, that three parts of those who are travelling now maintenance. I carried a covered hawker's basket with an oil-case throughout the kingdom have Irish blood in them, either from on the top, with cutlery, trinkets, braces, Birmingham fancy goods, father, mother, or grandmother. buttons, pearl, bone, and wood. This pack was not what I and I should think there are some thousands of “travellers" in others chiefly depended on; it was the excuse for travelling; and England, not to mention Ireland and Scotland ; there are more in also something to fall back upon in case we could do no business Scotland than Ireland, (Ireland is too poor, unless in the larger of other kinds. The value of the contents would vary from 21. to towns). I have seen 150 of different sorts at one place : at 41. I have sold silk goods "stolen," bought of the shop-lifters ; Boughton Green fair, near Northampton, in June every year, there are these in all towns, small as well as large. They will not thousands of people assemble there; the police from London come sell to any unless they know them; if they supposed a man to be to it. Then there is Lincoln, April fair ; Boston, May fair ; "a traveller,” they will come up to him and say, perhaps, " Will Newmarket in May; then to Birmingham or Sheffield fairs ; then you stand for some handkerchiefs, ribbon, anything in gold, or to Coventry, to Newport Pagnell (Bucks), then back to Boughton, silver, or wearing apparel ?" There are ring-stealers, on pretence and there is a place called " Stow Green Fair.” Then Peterboro' of buying them. Needle-stealers from drapers' shops "buy 100, summer fair, then Fairlop Forest, ten miles from London, where and steal a couple of thousand." There are cant words for everyo | I have seen the most gipsies, hundreds at a time. Then to thing you use or do. I have seen some old cant in print, but it is Liverpool spring meeting, and then follow the races in all the midnothing to the cant now used. There are three sorts of cant, the land and northern counties, ending up with Doncaster. Then gipsies', the beggars' (such as pretended sailors and others), and come on the winter fairs,— Nottingham goose fair, Leicester the thieves'. The cants are distinct in many words, but alike in cheese fair, Mansfield statties, (all this was detailed from memory others. A stranger to the cant words could not understand the without the least hesitation); Rotherham statties, Leeds fair, gipsies or others, save a few words here and there. The gipsies Ottley statties, (statties mean fairs held by statute where servants have a cant word for every word they speak. The vagrant cant is are hired), Knaresborough, York; then come down to Sheffield a lower style than the thieves'; they use it to tell one another what I fair, 28th November, then end up until Wrexham fair begins the year on the 6th of March. I have gone this round three times, guard the eyes against that inconvenience. In addition to this all except Wrexham.

there may be another object, which we shall understand when we Although, for the most part, a thief confines himself to the prac- recollect that the refraction is greater in water than in the air, so tice of one kind of thieving at any particular time, yet, as will be that the eye of a fish has a lens that refracts more than that of an perceived, he can practise, as occasion may require, many differ- animal living out of water, in order to give the rays the due degree ent branches of the profession. Although the modes already of convergence. When the fish is out of water, this necessity is described are the principal descriptions of thieving, they are by no dispensed with, and the eye is no longer adapted for seeing dis. means all; the varieties are innumerable, many equally deserving tinctly, Too great a convergence is thus given in their passage of notice. Stealing wet linen is a distinct game; dog-stealing is through the lens to all rays except those that coincide very nearly another; but of all those minor depredating crimes undescribed, with the axis of the eye, which, by the contrivance of half-shutting there is none so extensively carried on, and more manifestly inju- the eye, are excluded, while the former only are admitted. And rious, than uttering bad money; this is a trade for the indolent, in that I may not take the reader into optical considerations that are which hundreds are constantly employed. The money passes out of his way, I need only refer him to the case of near-sighted through several hands: first there are the makers,—silver is chiefly young people, where the imperfection of sight results from too much made in London, but gold at Birmingham; then we have the convexity in the parts of the eye. These generally look at objects, wholesale dealer, next the retail dealer, and last, the smasher or when they wish to see distinctly, with the eye nearly closed. The utterer, who, as usual, receives least of the "sweets” and most of little fish we are describing is, when out of the water, in the situathe gall attending the prosecution of this game; most of the tion of a near-sighted person ; and his Maker bas given him the dealers are Jews, and from the maker to the utterer each has his same means of abating the inconvenience. profit, but as a general rule the retail dealer purchases 61. of base In the goby we have a very obvious mark for family distinction, soin for ll. sterling. One individual has for some time supplied in the union of the two fins that are seated on the breast into one, most of the town smashers; he meets them regularly every morn- which in form may be compared to a lady's fan. The periopbing at an appointed house, and supplies each according to their thalmus is like the goby in this particular, as it also is in the means of purchase for that day's issue, the sovereigns at 4s., the length of the second fin upon the back, and the soft nature of the crown at 10d., half-crowns at 5d., shillings at 2}d. &c.

rays. The individual that I have before me was taken upon an To guard successfully against the above plunderers of society is island not far from Macao. The general colour above is bluish, a task of no little difficulty: we must allow experience to be a good passing into a silvery white below. The second fin upon the back, guide. Pickpockets say, that if a handkerchief be carried in the and that of the tail, are deep blue, with a range of white spots. inside coat-pocket, hat, or even pioned in the outer pocket, they The first fin is blue and speckled with white, and has three soft are foiled. Shop-thieves say, if a till be locked or a nail at the rays prolonged into threads. The tail is pointed, and the anal fin

is narrow and white. The teeth are very small and closely packed back part to prevent it drawing entirely out, they are balked. together. The scales are small, and the body is covered with a Pickpockets say, if they get a man into a push, he must be robbed, slime to counteract the effect which drought would have upon the unless he be aware of them; if so, their cant words will save him : integument. The gill openings are small, and shut closely, so as if he keeps out of a push, his cash in an inside pocket, his watch to exclude the air from the bronchia; hence it can live a long time out well guarded by a chain, or wears a cloak in the season, they are of water, and may be packed in a piece of paper and carried some foiled. The house-breaker says, a plate of sheet-iron on the inside hours in the pocket, and when taken out will be fresh and lively: of the door foils him in his attempt at panelling, and that Chubb's Had the fins been prepared for moving upon the land, and no

so that it is every way fitted for taking excursions upon the shore. lock gives a great deal of trouble in opening, but Bramah's has as

defence given against the air, the adaptation would have been of no yet defeated all their attempts. The thief who robs shop-windows use to it; and had no care been taken to cover the eyes, their says, wire gauze curtain inside the glass foils him ; the thief who position upon the front of the head would have exposed them so robs shops by“ palming,” that the shopkeeper must be aware of the much to the light, and the appulse of diverging rays, that there game of palming to guard against his attacks. And the most noto. again would have been a means of pain, and not of advantage. rious smashers say, that bad gold is known by its deficient standard Thus, in the case of a little fish, has God so tempered the parts,

and so nicely adapted thein to one another, that they all conspire weight, bad silver by its malleability and greasy feel.

to produce one end. If so much wisdom and goodness are dis

played in behalf of a creature so inconsiderable, what may we not THE CLOSE-EYED GUDGEON.

expect for ourselves, who are of more value than many fish, not (Periophthalmus.)

only in the conformation of the body and the furniture of the mind,

but also in all the providential adjustments by which we are fitted In the island of Ternate, you seldom advance towards the edge for usefulness here and for enjoyment hereafter:--Voyage of the of an estuary, or small inlet of sea-water, without putting to flight

Himmaleh. a swarm of little fish, which, alarmed at the sound of your feet, thus hurry away to take shelter in their native element. Their size

SPRING FLOWERS. is so small, and their motions so rapid, that without a previous

Bowing adorers of the gale, acquaintance the spectator can hardly persuade himself that they are fish. "A fish out of water," is a condition so unnatural, that

Ye cowslips delicately pale, by tradition it has long been applied to a man in uncomfortable

Upraise your loaded stems; circumstances, and especially such as were not of his own

Unfold your cups in splendour : speak! choosing ; yet in the close-eyed gudgeon, we have an example

Who decked you with that ruddy streak, where the members of the “ finny drove" come forth to bask in

And gilt your golden gems ? the sun, to catch their food, which consists chiefly of small shrimps, or to escape from their enemies at home. The pectoral or prin

Violets, sweet tenants of the shade, cipal pair of fins have their base longer than it is in the generality of

In purple's richest pride arrayed, fish, and so furnished with muscles as to be capable of pointing

Your errand here fulfil ; towards the ground. In this position they answer the purpose of

Go, bid the artist's simple stain fore-legs, and teach us, that in use as well as position they

Your lustre imitate, in vain, correspond to the arms of man, and the first pair of legs in the

And match your Maker's skill. higher order of the animal creation. The head, like most of the family, which includes the gobies and the blennies, is obtuse, and

Daisies, ye flowers of lowly birth, higher than the body. Upon the front, the eyes are placed close

Embroiders of the carpet earth, together,-a circumstance that is referred to in the meaning of the

That stud the velvet sod ; generic name, Periophthalmus. They are prominent, and have a lid that will cover the eye at the pleasure of its owner. As this

Open to spring's refreshing air, fish lives a part of its time in the midst of light strongly reflected

In sweetest smiling bloom declare from the surface of the water, this provision may be intended to

Your Maker, and my God.


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