Imagens das páginas

industry and economy which she pursued to the end of her life,

THE PRESENT STATE AND FUTURE PROSPECTS and on account of which she has frequently incurred the unworthy

OF PERU.* reproach of avarice. It is true she worked incessantly, and saved every possible penny; but for what did she do this ? For her own Nations, like men, have their infantine period; and if freed gratification ?-—to enjoy the sordid pleasure of gloating over her from restraint before they attain to the age of discretion, they are increasing treasure? Was it for this she denied herself comforts, pretty sure to play “fantastic freaks." Such has becn the case and sometimes even necessaries? No. Her exertions were all with the Spanish and Portuguese American colonies. We have made, and her gains were all applied, for the relief of her aged and lately had occasion to notice Paraguay, where one man has monoinfirm relatives. Speaking of one of them in a letter to a friend, polised the freaks of the whole nation, and in his own proper she thus expresses herself :-“ Poor woman, she is now so infirm person has exhibited such a succession of enormities as to raise all that she cannot walk a few paces without resting-her hair as white voices against him. He has certainly succeeded in his professed as snow, and her teeth are all gone." And again—"Many a time object—the prevention of popular disturbances, but he has purthis winter, when I cried with cold, I said to myself, “But, thank chased a specious tranquillity at a fearful price. We now turn to God, my sister has not to stir from her room; she has her fire Peru, where the people have had it their own way, but the result lighted every morning, all her provision bought, and brought to is only better inasmuch as there is still a possibility that the rising her ready cooked : she would be less able to bear what I bear.' generation, born free, will have a better opportunity of learningAnd how much more would I have to suffer, but from this reflec- and we hope of exercising-the rights of freemen than their fathers. tion! It almost made me warm when I reflected that she felt no But a long series of years must elapse, and probably exterior incold.”—" I say no, to all the vanities of the world, and perhaps fluence, or perhaps coercion, will be required, before they can soon shall have to say that I allow my poor infirm sister a hundred enjoy the real blessings of rational liberty,-- before they can be a year. I have raised my allowance to eighty, but, in the rapid capable of appreciating the difference between the name and the stride of her wants, and my obligation as a Christian to make no

thing, the shadow and the substance. selfish refusal to the poor, a few months, I foresee, must make the The volumes before us contain the results of many years' obsersum a hundred.” For such objects as these did this noble-minded vation, during a protracted residence in various parts of Peru. woman toil and save.

The author, Dr. Archibald Smith, left England in 1825, and When she settled in London, she began to occupy her leisure accompanied the ill-fated Pasco Peruvian Mining Expedition, in honrs in the composition of dramatic pieces; and though full half. the capacity of medical officer. On the dissolution of the company, a-dozen of the MSS., written in a vile cramped hand, on whitey he for some time betook himself to agricultural pursuits, and brown paper (for the sake of economy), and full of orthographical resided for a considerable time in the delightful valley of Huanoco; errors , had been rejected, still she persevered, and at length pre able, he gave up his hacienda," and pursued the practice of his

but the disturbed state of the country rendering farming unprofit. vailed on Colman, the manager of the Haymarket Theatre, to read a farce called " The Mogul's Tale :" it was performed with profession in several parts of the country, but chiefly in Lima. great applause in 1784, and Mrs. Inchbald received a hundred Hence his opportunities of observation have been good, and the guineas. Fortune now began to smile on her ; the rejected plays notes which he has now made public are well worth attention. were brought forward, and managers no longer took friglit at the We shall now proceed to glean from his pages some passages on whitey..brown paper. Mrs. Inchbald rapidly produced a variety the more interesting topics connected with the fine but disturbed, of drainatic pieces, for which she received sums increasing in and consequently impoverished, country of which he treats. amount as her fame became better established : for the comedy of

When the general disturbance in the Spanish and Portuguese I'll tell you What,” produced in 1785, she received three hun. colonies took place, Peru was at first tranquil

, and showed dred pounds, besides a considerable sum for copyright. She bad

no disposition to throw off the rule of the Spaniards, arbi. begun her first novel, " The Simple Story," several years before, trary as that was in principle; but it must be recollected that and had shown the sketch of it to John Kemble, in one of her it was mild in practice, and well suited to the people ruled : provincial tours, soon after her return from France. She now the influence of the priests over the Indians was exceedingly drew forth the neglected MS., and completed the “ Simple Story,"

beneficial, and was exercised in a benignant and almost paternal which was published in 1791. Her second novel, “ Nature and spirit. Slavery existed, but the chain was so light as to be Art," did not appear until 1796. Besides producing these works considered more as a tie of affection than as the fe:ter of and numerous dramatic pieces, she edited a very good collection of bondage. The personal character of the old Spaniards was of a English plays, with short notices of each. This edition is still held high order, and their probity and uprightness in commerce was in esteem.

remarkable. Nothing, in fact, could have induced the natives Mrs. Inchbald did not depart, in the days of her prosperity, to have revolted, either in Peru or the other Spanish colonies, from the retirement and economy she had formerly practised. She except the vexatious restrictions on trade ; and to these the strictly limited her expenses, which seldom exceeded thirty shillings Peruvians were very indifferent, until they were urged forward by a week, and to effect this submitted to many personal inconvenio their neighbours. Although as early as the year 1810 the Buenos ences. Although she seldom went into company, she kept up an

Ayreans carried the insurgent flag into Upper Peru, yet Lower acquaintance with many distinguished characters of the day, among Peru, or that which is now called the Peruvian Republic

, was slow whom the Kembles, Mrs. Siddons, Miss Edgeworth, Mrs. Opie

, in following their example. In Lima, where Spanish influence and several others, were numbered. An interesting anecdote is and loyalty were strongly concentrated, it was not till 1819, when related of an interview between her and Madame de Staël, which Lord Cochrane appeared with a liberating squadron on the shores had been contrived by Mrs. Opie. Madame de Staël, who greatly of Peru, that any

movement was made ; and the presence of St. respected the authoress of “ The Simple Story,” begged her to

Martin and his Buenos Ayrian troops was necessary before that explain her motives for shunning society. “Because," she re- became general. Nay, the assistance of a third benevolent neigh. plied, “I dread the loneliness that will follow." “What! will bour was found necessary to complete the downfall of the Spaniards, you feel your solitude more when you return from this company,

and the “Liberator" Bolivar had the honour of putting the than you did before you came hither?" "Yes." "I should finishing hand to the work. think it would elevate your spirits : why will you feel your loneli.

This happened in 1824, and since that time the prosperity of the ness more ?" “ Because I have no one to tell that I have seen country has been retrograde. Old establishments have broken you,- no one to describe your person to,-no one to whom I can down, and no care has been taken to supply their place. Ambi. repeat the many encomiums you have passed on my · Simple tion has made men aspire to stations for which they were totally -no one to enjoy any of your praises, but myself.” “Ah!

the resources of the government have been exhausted in the ah! you have no children!” and she turned to an elegant young

support of troops required for the suppression of continual insurwoman, her daughter, with pathetic tenderness. Mrs. Inchbald, rections, and the most destructive and oppressive means are taken however deeply she felt the pains of solitude, had reason soon to

to extort extravagant taxes and imposts, to the utter ruin of trade remember that it is not alone the possession of children that can and agriculture-especially the latter. “ In short," says Dr. ensure happiness. Two or three days after this interview, she

Smith, “so great is the disorder in every department of the social called on Madame de Staël, but she could not see her : she was and political system in Peru, that, to express the sentiments of a ill-sick of grief. Her son, a young man of nineteen, had fallen friend of ours, and a distinguished Peruvian statesman—' In Peru in a duel.

there cannot, for a long time to come, be any other than a military Mrs. Inchbald continued her life of honourable seclusicn and government : every state pretends to regulate itself by a moral virtuous self.denial till the year 1821, when she died at her resi. dence, Kensington, in her sixty-ninth year.

* Peru as it is; by Archibald Smith, M.D. Two vols. 12mo.-Bentley. London, 1839


government, but, as we have little or no morality in our land, the or pregonero would instantly give the alarm, which was conbayonet must inevitably direct us. Here we have no industry, - veyed by the vocal brotherhood with the rapidity of lightningthere is not more than one man in ten that labours for his bread ; and · Hay viene el negro Escobar y los ladrones i' (Here comes and putting out of the question the “empleados," or those who the negro Escobar and the robbers!) was soon ringing through all fill public stations under government, and who are supported at parts of the city–whereupon in every direction would follow the the cost of the state, there is not one in thirty of those mapnikins running tumult of. Cierra puertas !' -—Shut doors !—and then the who are daily seen loitering about the streets that live by their own creaking and heavy clash of massy doors, and the jarring of chains proper industry. Give to the Indian, in whose arm rests our and bolts, as every street and area entrance were closed and barriphysical strength, an idea of his wants,-let him know the conve- caded. During these moments of self-imprisonment, suspense, niences of civilised life,-in short, enlighten the mass of our people and anxiety, the streets were entirely abandoned by the unarmed so as to let them understand something at least of the nature and populace; and the noise from the pavement, caused by the gently end of government, and then we shall not have daily revolutions progressive motion of an ambling hack, was exaggerated in fancy, But, situated as we are at present, we have neither capital, indus- so as to imitate the clang and tread of a hundred horses. It protry, nor private security. All is insecure,-all is loose and duced the same startliog effect in the over-excited imagination of common, unhinged, unprotected, and without order. Good men those within (who, to see what passed without, hardly ventured have nothing to hope for : the few individuals who have access to to peep through a key-hole, or from the corner of a latticed bal. our rulers are guided by none but the most sordid motives. It is cony), as the unwelcome rattling of a wheeled carriage or the dull the ruin of my lacerated country that no man looks beyond his Pantheon car, on the morning succeeding a desolating earthquake, personal interest,—that no one attaches himself to the government never fails to produce on sensitive frames while under the still with sound intentions, or with any view except that of plunder.'" abiding influence of recent alarm. Under such circumstances of

In the latter end of 1835, Lima itself became the seat of war. general consternation it was that the timely arrival of irregular Salaverry, a man of extraordinary energy, and possessing a sur- troops, montonera,' under the command of a patriot general, prising influence over his countrymen, raised the standard of Vidal, delivered Lima out of the hands of a formidable band of revolt. The government was paralysed. “Don Jose Louis freebooters under the celebrated negro Escobar, who had already Orbegoso, in his address to the Peruvians, dated Tarma, January begun the work of depredation, and whose sanguinary disposition, 4th, 1836, and published in the Redactor of Lima on the 9th day | if excited by drink or excess, threatened to realise the worst antiof the same month, solemnly affirmed and promulgated that the cipations of the dismayed citizens. In this very condition of very laws, dictated with the pure intention of securing happiness infuriated exultation and inebriety, being in the act of plundering to the commonwealth, had concentrated within themselves the a house in open day, he was surprised, and in less than an hour elements of her destruction. These laws had proved a safeguard afterwards shot in the plaza ; where, only the day before, he had to the seditious, and had been the bulwarks of rebellion. Through showed off very proudly under the balconies of the archbishop's their operation the executive had been forced to feel the volcano at palace, mounted on a magnificent black steed, which he had taken its feet, though unable to prevent an eruption. Yes, under the by force from the prelate's own stable. But now in his last mooverseeing eye of the government, the revolutions had been hatched ments his only intelligible prayer was said to be that he might and brought forth, reared and strengthened into maturity.' receive forgiveness from the archbishop, whose sacred dignity he

This acknowledgment, from a president duly invested with had so recently insulted ; and, probably, of all the unhappy extraordinary or dictatorial powers, renounced every rational idea Peruvians who are brought to suffer death at the banquillo,' there of government, and virtually declared the incapacity of the falls not one but shows some mysterious respect for the church; supreme authority to protect the person, property, or rights of the and the greatest criminal among them is never, perhaps, entirely citizen, or to sustain the necessary subordination of society. By forgetful of his tutelar saint. Whatever their career of life may this government, which so frankly declared its own imbecility, have been, their faith, well or ill founded, yields them hope at the men either faithless or inept were, perhaps for want of better, last hour; and it is allowed by those who witness their tragic end, appointed to fill offices of high trust and power; and in this way that they generally die the death of the wicked with the compowas kindled the train of that sanguinary revolution, which, in the sure of martyrs. year 1835, burst forth like the flaming combustibles and poisonous “ On the day that General Vidal, with his orderly montonera, eractations of an overwhelming volcano; spreading consternation, entered at the invitation of the municipality-cabildo, '-for the outrage, and desolation, over the wide range of its fearful sweep. protection of the terrified city, it was interesting to observe the But, during the whole of this tumultuous period, the Limenian contrast presented by the negro Cimarones, when arrayed, in the mob-made up, though it be, of mixed and most variegated castes cathedral square of the capital, by the side of the freemen of -illustrated by their example how slow the mind is to cast off early Huamantanga, and the poor but independent Indians of Yugos, and deeply-rooted habits; for, after the lapse of so many years of who, of all their tribe and fellow aborigines, are the least passive civil dissension, they showed that, as a whole, they still retained under political oppression. In the laughing negroes, the perpe. the feelings of public subjection (unfortunately not turned to tual motion of their long and dangling limbs, never at rest in the account by any steady government) to which, in olden times, they saddle, betokened an exuberance and locomotive waste of nervous were habituated under the jurisdiction of the Spaniards. For energy; while, on the other hand, the contemplative-looking and several days during this period there was no sort of police in the compact little Indian, mounted on his hardy nag, just emerged capital. The government and garrison had abandoned it, and shut from the solitary and rugged wilds of the mountains, though sur. themselves up within the fortress and castles of Callao; but yet rounded with the novelty and excitement of a great city in confu. the populace slowed a singular measure of forbearance, and the sion, never for a moment lost the composure and serenity of his instances of outrage and pillage committed in the streets were countenance and demeanour." These highland bands, together exceedingly few. At this conjuncture of danger and uncertainty, with a few other brave but undisciplined volunteers, inspired the foreign property in the capital was guarded by marines, English, lower order of the Limenians with that transient enthusiasm to French, and American, from their respective vessels of war on the which, on extraordinary occasions, they have more than once station : but, for several months previously to these days of general shown themselves capable of being raised; and simultaneously panic and dismay, the capital had been the theatre of daily broils; they rushed to arms as the bells from every spire, tolling the solemn the banditti and soldiery being engaged in ceaseless though irre. • llamada a fuego,' or the alarm of conflagration, summoned them gular contest for the mastery both within and without the walls. to the defence of their beloved Lima, which was menaced, and The inhabitants were affected with a sort of nervous infirmity, or ultimately attacked, by a formidable sortie from the castles of morbid susceptibility of impression, proceeding from the unsub- Callao. The assailants were led on by Solar the governor, and dued feeling of impending danger.

“ A pillar of dust rising in the distance, or the smoke of burn. * “Ever since Europeans became acquainted with the Indian race, selfing weeds in the neighbouring farms, were sure to be attributed by possession has been noticed as one of their most striking characteristics. the anxious spectator in the city to the less harmless fire of mus

Atahualpa was unmoved in the midst of every danger; and Santa-Cruz (of ketry and skirmishers. On the appearance of any such sign, feature of character in the Inca family. Finding himself for a moment

Cacique blood) bas, in our own day, signally illustrated the same high notice was immediately given from the lofty steeple of La Merced, isolated in the field of battle, and on the point of being pierced through or the arcade of the bridge opposite the palace balconies. If a by a trooper, he called out in a commanding voice, Alza esa lanza y sigue playful black boy was seen to gallop on his donkey by the trees of me!' (Raise that lance, and follow me!) Thus, his presence of mind savod the old Alameda, or suburbs of Malambo, then some mercachile his life; for the mysterious power of a superior mind triumphed over the

hostile arm of the infuriated suldier; who now, as we are told, occupies a The mercachifle is a licensed pedlar, and the pregonero a news-crier. place in the body-guard of Santa-Cruz."


cousin to the spurious president Salaverry, whose illegitimate cause, in our twelfth Number; and consequently we shall content our. now on the eve of being lost for ever, his less energetic relative but selves with transcribing a passage descriptive of the effect of faintly sustained. It is worthy of remark, that, even on this rapid transition from a maritime town to the upper regions of the momentous occasion, the spirit-stirring 6th of January, 1836, the Andes. patrician youth (los hijos de familia ') took no active part. " We had not left Casacancha far behind, when one of our Educated with the utmost tenderness of indulgence, they are more

fellow-travellers experienced the most distressing headache : bis inclined to love than arms. In short, the business of their life is face became turgid, the temporal arteries throbbed with violence, pleasure.

the respiration was difficult, and it seemed to him as if the chest “ Until the last memorable rally and sanguinary struggle at was too narrow for its contents. The other gentleman complained Socabaya, near Arequipa, under that Limenian lusus naturæ, less ; it was only a vexatious headache that disturbed bim, but his General Felipe Santiago Salaverry, the military name of the patriot eyes were blood-shot. The writer was still differently affected officers of Peru had been rapidly sinking into utter contempt. from either of his fellow-travellers. His headache was moderate ; By far the greater number of their spirited and intelligent country. but his extremities soon became quite cold as the sun declined; women decried the turncoat fraternity, and regretted that they the skin sbrank, and then came on a sense of sickness and oppres. themselves were not born to carry arms, that they might redeem sion about the stomach and heart, with a short, hurried, and the fallen honour of their country. These degenerate officers panting respiration. His kind associates on this occasion forgot seemed to take pleasure in calling every now and then the atten- their own ailments in attending to his more urgent wants. They tion of the public to their vile • pronunciamientios,' or open abju. had him carefully wrapped in warm sheep-skins, which formed the ration of honourable allegiance to those placed in just authority usual bedding of the poor Indian family within, and renovated his over them. Such vain and faithless vaunters, whose proudest strength by a cordial basin of hot tea. In this manner, and imachievements were but to forsake their duty, bind their chiefs, mersed at the time in the pungent smoke that filled the whole hut, and desolate their native land, became the objects of public scorn, the natural warmth of the extremities and surface was soon restored, and were despised even by the softer sex, as being fitter to wield so that he became comparatively easy, and passed a better night the distaff than the sword. But Salaverry, a man of vast though than either of his two obliging friends. ill-directed energy and reckless spirit, made the sky re-echo to his shout of· War to the death !' And such complete ascendancy did he acquire over the minds of his countrymen, by his almost insane part of the Cordillera, and, profiting by bis first lesson, he took

" The writer had frequent occasion afterwards to cross this same impetuosity and appalling executions,* that he not only constrained them to a state of awe and submission, but (what is more remark.

care always to start early in the morning on his day's journey, so

as to arrive early in the evening at his quarters for the night. He able) inspired them, when he pleased, with martial ardour, and made them emulate the deeds of Zepita, Junin, and Ayacucho. got refreshment, and turned into bed as soon as possible after bis During the gloomy reign of the black hanner, and continuance of arrival ; and took care that he slept warm and dry. By thus the revolution of Salaverry, the Limenian women, uneasy beneath avoiding cold and wet, which check perspiration and overload the the accumulating evils of political oppression, made their way into deep-seated blood-vessels, he ever after on this route avoided the the ranks of the insurgents. Disguised in their mysterious man

Cordillera sickness. tos,' they circulated patriotic proclamations, and whispered abroad

“More than once we have witnessed the most affecting scenes the lov and solemn murmur of public opinion,-until at length, of moaning and suffering, without the additional misery of the on the famous 6th of January, 1836, when the populace rushed to

veta, when some wet and cold traveller arrived at Casacancha at a the walls, it was shouted aloud from every mouth-ay, the cannon's

late hour, and threw down as his couch his already half-soaked mouth,—to the confusion of rapacious upstarts struggling for pellon on a damp mud floor, or earthen bench, and covered bin. ascendancy. And still the won.en played their part,—as they self up for the night with his drenched ponchos. In the morning, raised the whirlwind, so they rode on it; for, without any meta

a traveller so circumstanced may find bis ponchos half-frozen over phor, they were to be seen armed and on horseback amidst the him ; and when he arises, and looks out, be often sees the plain crowd.

covered with snow which has locked up the herbage from the reach “ Two days after this display of popular feeling, so unusual in

of the shivering cattle that stand fettered on the plain.” Lima, the provisional president made his entrance into the city

The highly rarefied state of the atmosphere in these high regions amid loud rejoicings that nothing could exceed. A few weeks frequently causes great distress for a long period, until the sufferer after this event, the eminently brave General Moran by a gallant becomes acclimatised; but the very sudden charge, both in the assault forced the castles of Callao, then under the command of the temperature and density of the air, must produce very deleterious insurgent Solar, to capitulate ; and, on the 7th of February,

effects on the constitutions of those frequently subjected to it. General Salaverry lost the hard-contested battle of Socabaya, also

The journey from Pasco to Lima generally occupies four days, but called Altos de la Luna, or Heights of the Moon,-a namo singu- it has been performed in fifty hours. Só rapid an alternation of larly in character with that high and lunatic excitement which climates is sufficient to disorder the best-organised frame. hurried to his doom this enthusiastic child of ambition. He If the Limenians were frequently subjected to this trial, we should escaped from the field of action with many of his officers, and the not be surprised at learning that they suffer much from indigestion remainder of his wearied troops; and, when nearly in sight of and consumption ; but, although Dr. Smith bears honourable their shipping at Islay, they were taken prisoners by our country- testimony to many excellent qualities possessed by the Limenians, man, General Miller, under circumstances which demanded on the both of Spanish and mixed blood, yet he cannot conceal the fact, part of this very distinguished officer the exercise of that active that they are generally, especially the pure Spaniards, indolent to vigilance, coolness, intrepidity, and self-possession, for which he an excess, and so absorbed by the pursuit of pleasure, as to render has been so remarkable throughout his honourable military any attempt at the introduction, or at least the maintenance, of

any regular system of education almost abortive. It is safficient "On Thursday, February 18, 1836, General Salaverry, and

to say, that the children of the best families require to be coaxed eight of his principal officers, were by sentence of court-martial

and bribed before they will consent to go to school in the morning, condemned to deatb,--and accordingly were publicly shot in the

to show the lamentable state of society, and the total want of that great square of Arequipa. This event, though lamented by a few, moral energy which alone renders a nation worthy to be free. And was matter of rejoicing to the many, who now looked forwards to

now the question naturally arises, how is it that such a people the re-organization of the political state of Peru, under the pro- masters, and take upon themselves the weight of self-government.

ever summoned up enough resolution to throw off their tasktection of General Santa-Cruz, the president of Bolivia.”

Here we must quote Malvolio—Some are born great, some In giving some particulars respecting the physical characteris achieve greatness, and others have greatness thrust upon them. tics of this distracted country, we should naturally commence with The latter was the case of the Peruvians : they were tranquil and a description of the mines of Pasco, had we not anticipated that happy under the rule of the Spaniards ; grumbling occasionally at subject in a very graphic description translated from the French, shut out all of mixed blood from participation in the honours of

the restrictions under which they taboured, especially those which * "Only three weeks before he made his revolution, he had suppressed the state, and even from the exercise of all professions, except the another in the castles of Callao, and shot every fifth man engaged in it. His medical, which, strange to say, was, and is, almost wholly in the own treason, while it succeeded, he called patriotism; but he was doomed hands of people of colour, men and women-the latter being to suffer the punishment of a rebel."

especially esteemed. The Limenians are singularly delicate in


their constitutions, and are so fond of being doctored, that they In Lima, as elsewhere, it will readily enough be admitted in are very seldom well : the advice of one physician is never enough, general terms that all must die ; but regarding this proposition, -they are fond of seeking the prescriptions of several, and, as the wben death strikes any one in particular, difficulties at once sugone knows not that the other is employed, the jumble of medicines gest themselves ; for the surviving friends are ever ready to assiga and contrary systems of treatment pursued, must assuredly send many reasons why they are quite sure the deceased mig have many to their long-home, who might have lived and done well, did escaped, had it not been for this or that physician that misundernot this extraordinary, mania possess them. They cannot even die stood his malady. Hence it may be said that it is only in wellwith satisfaction unless they die according to rule-Morir en regulated juntas, and in public hospitals, that the people of Lima regla.

are supposed to glide to their latter end by fair and natural means. “This expression, which means to die according to rule, is one Upon this subject we heard it remarked by a sagacious native, which all good Catholics are most solicitous to realize for them- • Should a gambler lose at a cock-fight, he does not attribute the selves and friends; and the custom it refers to is deemed of the loss to any fault in the cock, but to some trick done to him; if a utmost importance in a religious and professional point of view. horse lose in a race, his owner never acknowledges the cause of " When a physician visits a patient, and finds him in a doubtful thrown in his way: and surely, when we know that on such com.

the failure to be in the animal, but assigns it to some accident or critical state, he must never omit to warn the patient or his paratively trivial occasions men thus talk and think, it is but friends of his real situation, with a view to enable them to call a natural for them, in an affair of such moment and interest as life medical consultation, and allow time for testamentary preparations itself, never to believe that a friend or relative loses his existence and spiritual confession. The neglect of this precautionary mea. sure would, in the event of the disease terminating fatally, bring rather that his demise should be charged, as we see it is, though

from any fault of his own, or any defect in his organization, but great blame on the physician ; but, after he has notified what he often unjustly, on the blind and stumbling ignorance, or unparconsiders to be the patient's real condition, then, whether the pardonable carelessness and indifference, of the physicians.' ties interested in such communication choose to act upon his advice or not, he has acquitted himself properly; and when the “One common consequence of this mode of thinking is, that, patient, previously confessed and sacramented, dies with the benefit by a single fatal case in practice, all the former success of the of a consultation, or duly assisted by a medical junta, he is said to practitioner is overlooked, at least for a time ; from which it fol. die according to rule, that is, morir en regla.

lows that various medical advisers are sure to replace one another The great medical juntas in Lima, by which we understand often in those families where death is a frequent visitor. consultations where more than four or five doctors are met toge. “We seldom meet in families that shyness or reserve in divulging ther, are remarkable occasions of oratorical display. The warmest bodily ailments which can render them reluctant to change their discussion frequently turns on the dose, composition, or medicinal family physician; and no physician, though specially intrusted. operation of some common drug; and all the learning, method, with a patient, can be sure that others of the profession do not, and criticism, sometimes discovered at these solemn debates, ter- at secret interviews, tamper with his peculiar treatment. This minate not unfrequently in the most simple practice, by which baneful custom leads to professional jealousies and mutual distrust. the nurse is enjoined to have recourse to the jeringa, and the patient We believe many families countenance it from motives of consitold he must drink agua de pollo,' or chicken-tea, until the deration for the doctor ostensibly in trust, whose self-love they return of the junta. In former times such consultations were propose to spare by this clandestine practice, where they think & called oftener than necessary, because a great junta became a sort more open manner of proceeding would be repulsive to his feele of ostentatious exhibition, in which all who could afford to cite a ings. There is, however, another very obvious reason which lende group of doctors desired to imitate the great and the wealthy. its influence to this furtive system of visiting the sick ; and it is,

A sample, on a little scale, of such fashionable follies, is that by this means the opinion of several advisers may be had at familiar to the Limenian in the well-known local story of the two comparatively little expense. Should only two individuals be doctors, who, for a month or more, daily met in consultation at called to meet at the bedside of the patient at an appointed hour the house of a family in town, where, as they retired to the sup- to consult on his case, the meeting is a bond-fide junta, and each posed privacy of a consulting-room, the one would clear his throat, member of it is entitled to his four or four-and-a-half dollars ; and ask the other, . Come el enfermo hoy?'—May the patient eat whereas the single visits are only valued at one dollar each, and to-day ?-to which the second doctor would reply; • Como no si, such detached visits are in many instances not paid by the sick, comera.'-Why not? yes, he shall eat. Thus, day after day, but by the friends at whose request the professional calls are made. began and ended the consultation, as far at least as its topics of Here then is great economy; eight opinions (and if the patient discussion concerned the patient; while the good old doctors spun be poor, so that he is only expected to pay a half-dollar fee for a out a regular allowance of time before they rejoined the patient, detached visit, sixteen opinions) may be procured for the standard or his attendants, serenely to announce the well-matured result of price of two when given in consultation; and custom, as well as their conference. A man of noús, accustomed to listen behind the reason and prudence, require that several opinions should be taken scenes, at length broke in upon their consultation ; and dismissed in cases of hazard and difficulty. them one day by paying to each his usual fee, and telling them “ Owing in a considerable degree to the comparative poverty of both how happy he was to find that he now knew as much as them, the present times, medical juntas are by no means so frequent as selves, for that he could repeat as well as anybody, 'Come el they used to be ; but yet it is a common saying on serious occaenfermo hoy?-Como no ? is, comera.'

sions, where the assistance of more than one medical adviser is “A medical junta in Lina is commonly continued morning and thought necessary, that more is seen by four eyes than by two.evening, and from day to day, till the patient is pronounced to be Mas se ve con cuatro ojos que con dos.' By multiplying skill out of danger. As the junta breaks up after each separate according to this rule, a score of eyes may be assembled in one meeting, it is customary for the president of the meeting, or one junta to search into the patient's obscure malady, so as to point of the physicians, to say, as he leaves his seat, Vamos a consolar out the cause and the remedy; or, if there should be no other al enfermo,'-Let us go to console the patient ; and then all the alternative, let him die according to rule." doctors present re-enter the patient's apartment to soothe and to

We must here conclude, although we have been obliged, from console him; and after this one of the number steps forward to

want of space, to omit the mention of many topics to which we lay down the regimen—' a dar el regimen’-agreed upon in con- should have been glad to allude. Peru has once more been sultation, and which one or more nurses and attendants are now

disturbed by an invading swarm of Chilians, who took possession ready to receive from the mouth of the physician. After the for- of Lima, plundered the country, and ill-treated the people. The mality of a junta is thought no longer necessary, it often happens latest intelligence is, however, that Santa-Cruz had all but that, by wish of the patient or his relatives, two or more of the destroyed the invaders. We earnestly hope that Dr. Smith's medical advisers return at separate hours, but by mutual agree anticipations will be realised, and that, under the protection ment, for several days, by way of further security to the sick, or

of Santa-Cruz, Peru will enjoy tranquillity, and the blessings as a source of satisfaction to his family.

of a settled and energetic government, acting with wise and liberal After all the care possible bestowed on the part of doctors, it views. This alone we believe to be necessary to call forth the often happens that, when the patient recovers, San Antonio, or dormant resources of the country, to revive her fainting com. any other saint after whom the individual is named, has all the merce, to restore her ruined agriculture, and improve her ill-. credit of the cure; but, when the case is unprosperous, then all managed mines. Whilst the rest of the world is marching onward, the evil is ascribed to human agency.

let us hope that Peru will no longer continue to lag behind,

can get in his own dear country. His master sent for him, and he PADDY AND THE BEAR; OR, HOW TO TELL A STORY.* says, mighty sharp, “Well, Thady, what's this I hear about you?'

Or all story-tellers, commend me to an Irishman ! There is a "Och, my jewel, you can hear nothing about me but myself, roundness and a fulness in his brogue, a twinkling humour in his and I'm nol speaking.' eye, a richness and a raciness in every word he utters, which “ . But you are going away, Thady,-you are going away, they renders him the glory of a social circle-the very heart-strings and say.' life-blood of merriment! I presume all your readers have seen "• You may say that, sir, for I'm two stone lighter than when I the caricature of the Scotchman, the Englishman, and the Irish- came to you.' man, admiring the pretty girl in the mercer's shop, and all anxious «« • But what's taking you away, Thady?' to have a chat with her. They must also have read the humorous "Just my own feet and legs, dear!' anecdote of the experiment being tried which of the representatives "• You are very short with me this morning, Thady.' of the three nations would give the best answer to the proposition ""Why, then, I think I'm as long as I was yesterday. But, to stand all night naked, during a storm, on the top of a steeple. master dear, I'm going to Amerikay, to get a bit o' land for myself John's ideas of the thing centred in his belly,-give him bread, and Judy, and where we'll get praties for the childer just for cheese, and ale, and a certain sum, and he would try the job.” the digging, and have a sweet little cabin of our own, far in the Sandy, with his usual caution, looked over his shoulder, and, woods, and the never a morsel o' rint to pay! instead of saying what he would take, inquired, “What will ye gi'e • But, Thady, are you not afraid of the blackamoor wild ųs?” But Paddy, ready-witted Paddy, replies, “ Take! take! | Indians that live in the woods? They will come down some dark what would I take, is it? Arrah, I'd take a very great cowld." night, and tomahawk you !'

Sitting one night, lately, in company with Scotchmen, English- "* • Afraid ! is it an Irishman afraid? They tummayhawk me! men, and Irishmen, a dispute arose whether the Irish brogue or There's not a man among them all could play long bullets with my Scotch patois was best adapted for telling a story. This, of brother Phelemy, and show me one o' them could touch me at the course, led to a very animated introductory discussion, in which it first fisteen! But sure, master dear, I would not know one o' was admitted that the Doric dialect of the Scotch had been ren- them from Adam when I seen them.' dered classical by the great writers who have introduced it into Oh, Thady, they are wild-looking black rascals, and you had their works, or made it the vehicle of conveying their ideas ; and, better stay at home than venture among them.' of course, Burns, Galt, the Ettrick Shepherd, and Sir Walter

“Stay at home, is it? Arrah, my dear, poor Thady has no Scott, were duly honoured. But the pride of an Englishman was

home to go to; for the landlord put poor Judy out for three and roused; he volunteered to tell a story of his own as humorous sixpence, and now I'l stay no longer here. Och! sweet Mulligan, as any an Irishman or a Scotchman could tell, and he thus began: sweet Mulligan, and the days o' my youth, when I was fed like a

“Why," says he, "one dark and stormy night I found myself fighting-cock, and Judy was my darling, and the world was light in the town of Paisley, the region of shawls and pullicates, and and easy on us! It was then that we had the great big poggins o' other woven commodities. The house of entertainment for man

broth for dinner, instead o' the crabbed, pock-marked praties that and beast,' into which I had the honour of being received, was

the pigs in Mullingar wouldn't eat, and butter-milk as thin and graced by the presence of a little red-haired fellow, who from

sour as crame o'thartar! Farewell, master dear, and may God being weaver had turned waiter, and certainly there was more of Almighty be wid yees all !' the loom than of the bar about him. Hallo, waiter,' says I,

“So over the salt seas poor Thady went, and Judy, that never • what have you got in this here house ?' What's your wull, had been on the rowling ocean before, now saw nothing at all at all sir?' 'Wool, wool ! Zounds, sirrah, do you take me for a wool for weeks but the green sea and blue sky, Och, but it's myself seller, a sheep, or a negro?' 'I was just speering, sir, what your could discourse about the sea and the sky !-how the whales, and wull was,' replied little carrotty, with all due humility. What's the dolphins, and the sharks, rowle in the water; and the pretty my will! Why, what's that to you do you want a legacy ? stars, and the moon, and the sun, look down upon the coral beds at Come, get supper, sirrah,' says I; and seeing as how he was an

the bottom o' the sea; and when the wind begins to blow like ignorant Scotch lump of a fellar, and didn't know nothing, I mad, and the waves go up and then go down, and the sails are determined to have a little sport with him. So when he came in

torn into shreds with a noise like thunder, and the masts go by the again, says I, “Pray, my little fellow, what's o'clock?' • It will board, and there's ten feet water in the hold, and the ship is be half ten, sir,' he replied. Half ten, sirrah ; is it but five' sucked down into the bubbling sea ; and, just before it goes down,

No, sir, it's half an hour from ten.' * And what is half an hour men, women, and children send up one dreadful scream, that rises from ten? Is it half an hour after nine, or half an hour past above the blast, and pierces the very gate of heaven! There's ten?' 'I only meant to say it will be half an hour after nine.''

description for you! “ Aisy, my darling,” said an Irishman in company, “maybe “But Thady arrived safe in Quebec, with Judy and the your thravels have been printed afore, or you've helped yourself to children, and then off they trudged into the woods, to try and get a leaf from Captain Grose." "'Pon my honour, this here adven.

a bit of land to settle on. Some Irish neighbours helped him to ture did happen to me; and if it didn't, may I never stir no more get up a cabin to shelter the family, and he says to one of them, from this here spot." “ Never mind it, my dear; but take an

• Where do thim blackamoor negur Indians live, that I beerd Irishman's advice. When you tell a story, invint, but never about in our own country?' borrow. When you write, let your pen be a diamond, and use the

“Och, beyant there in the woods.' fun for an ink-bottle. Och, my jewel, inrintion is the thing !

"• And Corny, tell me, have you ever seen any o' them?" I'll tell you a story that will just give you a bit of an idea of what

".Seen them! To be sure I have, there's scores o' them in the I mean,

woods, black, ugly devils they are !' “Once upon a time," said Paddy, and his face was lightened

"And what makes them black, Corny? Sure, couldn't the with a smile, ouce upon a time, my darlings, and it's not very dirty cratures keep themselves Christian white ?' long ago, an Irishman, and a friend of my own, took it into his

“• It's the climate, they say ; but what the climate is, myself head that he would leave his master dear, and try a better country. doesn't know. Something they rub on them when they are I do not mean to say that a better country there is under the

young.' whole face of heaven ; but times are bad, and many a dacent man

“The dirty heathen brutes ! But sure they must have the stuff thinks he might get a better bit and sup by enigration than he plenty among them—I wish we had some of it, and I would rub

* This little sketoh, by one of our regular contributors, has already little Barney with it, for an erperiment.' appeared in print..

“ From that day forward, Thady was very eager to see a blacka


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