Imagens das páginas


moor Indian. One day roaming the woods with his hatchet in his hand, he saw a quare looking trout reclining at his ease on the green

EXETER HALL. sod. Thady was sure he had now clapped his eyes on one of them, One of the most striking and picturesque of the three great and coming up, · Musha,' says he, • bud I never seen one o' your annual festivals of the Jews, was the Feast of Tabernacles. It sort afore—why, man, you'll get your death o' cowld lying there !'

took place immediately after harvest, when they had “gathered “The wild man of the woods looked up. "Queen o'glory, what in their corn and wine," and their hearts were gladdened by the a nose! They may talk o'Loughey Fudaghen's nose, but by the

gifts of mother Earth. From all quarters of the kingdom flocked powers, your nose beats the noses of all the Fudaghens put toge

the Jews to Jerusalem, there to live in tents or booths, and to ther! Get up, like a good fellow; I've an odd tester left, and if

make themselves merry there was a sheebeen near, I'd give you a snifterer.'

"" with wine and strong drink," as they “The quare chap did get up, but my jewel, he appeared disposed were commanded. Neither were they to appear “empty;" they to try a fall with Thady. * And is it for wrestling you are ? were to carry “gifts” in their hands; and all ranks, high and Cushendall for that, but stop, agrah, you grip too tight-take low, rich and poor, were to enjoy a week of mirth and rejoicing. your fist out o' my shoulder, or I'll have an unfair hoult o' you ! Our “ MAY MEETINGS" form the “ Feast of Tabernacles " Oh! bad luck to you, and the tailor that made your clothes, he to our modern religious world. The analogy is certainly not has left no waistband on your breeches-oh, murder, murder, quite complete : the Jews met in harvest, while we meet in spring; you're the jewel of a squeezer! But Thady contrived to get his and the wine and strong drink" are now supplanted by reports tobacco knife out, and gave him a prod in the right place, and down he fell, to rise no more..Oh, murder, murder! I've kilt banished from the precincts of Exeter Hall. Underneath that

and strong speeches. Yet is not “strong drink" altogether one o' them blackamoor blackguards! I'll be hanged, as I'm a living man, I'll be hanged-och, why did I leave ould Ireland great room, where the Temperance Society sometimes hold their Poor Judy and the childer will see me die an unnathral death for annual meetings, are vaults stored with bottled malt; and if the this blackamoor thief! Och hone! och hone! what will I do? what visitor wanders round by the back of the building, he will find will I do?' A neighbour in the woods came up. • And what ails out the entrance to Exeter Hall cellars, and see the placards of you, Thady? you roar like a bull in a bog.' Och! och! but I'm “Guinness's Extra Stout” outstaring those of the “ Prayer-book à sorrowful man this blessed day! I just gave one o' them thieves and Homily Society.” This, however, is a mere parenthetical a prod, and there he is.' Mercy on us, Thady! that's a bear, observation, and may be passed over. As to the other points in that ten men couldn't kill!' Musha, is that a bear? By the

the analogy between the Jewish and the Christian Feast of Taber. powers, I'll drop them to you for a tester the dozen !'"

nacles, we may remark that Exeter Hall is the Temple ; the Jews

met after harvest, when their hearts were disposed to be liberal, A GENTLEMan in the East India Company's service, equally and we meet about the borders of summer, when the biting and eminent for his hospitality and his love of practical jokes, derived blackening north-east winds are generally somewhat abated, when almost incessant amusement from playing tricks on the fresh comers from Europe. No sooner had he heard of the arrival of a

the “ town" is filling with visitors, and Hyde Park is in full fresh batch of “griffins," than he hastened to the beach, and, as feather on a Sunday. Then it is that reports are made up, and he was somewhat of a physiognomist, selected the most simple and Committees meet, and speeches are poured forth, and collections innocent-looking for the exercise of his talent. He once met a

are made ; day by day is the great room of Exeter Hall crowded young cadet, exceedingly puzzled about his luggage, which he was unwilling to trust to the coolies, or porters, who ply between the

with fair and fashionable audiences; placards on all walls announce beach and the town. The crafty old civilian, with affected sym- sermons by "great guns," who have come up from the provinces, pathy, inquired the nature of his distress, and related so many and the whole religious world of London is in a pleasurable state stories of trunks disappearing, and coolies running away, that the

of excitement. young cadet was quite terrified, and was easily persuaded to have his baggage placed inside the palanquin, while he proceeded to

The Religious WORLD!-what a curious phrase that is ! It town seated on the outside. This was just as if, in the days of is a self-contained world, and resolves in an orbit of its own. Like sedan-chairs, a person had placed his luggage within, and the planet Saturn, it has many satellites and a ring, nevertheless astounded the chairmen by perching himself on the top. In this singular guise, much to the amazement and amusement of all who it does not comprise the whole solar system. Hundreds, ay, and met him, the young man proceeded to report his arrival at the thousands, born and bred in London, hare never been in Exeter town-major's office, where he was informed of the trick that had Hall ; and at the very moment that lions are roaring within, and been played upon him, by which he was made the laughing-stock of the cheers of a crowded auditory are making the roof to riog again, Madras, and exposed to the danger of a coup de soleil into the bargain. the great tide of human existence sweeps up and down the Strand ;

Some years elapsed; the cadet became an officer in the command of an outpost, and one day examining the passports, without and if you were to step into some adjoining confectioner's shop to which, until very recently, no European was allowed to travel eat a bun, and ask, “What's a-doing in the Hall to-day,” the through the interior, he recognised the name of the civilian who

answer would probably be, “ Really, I don't know, Sir.” But, had given him so uncomfortable a ride. He went to the gentle for all that, the “ Religious World” is a large and influential one. man's tent, planning various schemes of retaliation, and found that he had gone to enjoy the luxury of bathing in a tank beyond the Like the tribes of Israel, it is composed of many bodies, some of village. The officer immediately had all the civilian's clothes whom do not regard others with a cordial affection ; but over the removed so craftily, that he did not discover his loss until he left entrance of Exeter Hall is inscribed the water. The scorching sun soon began to blister his naked body, and yet he could not venture to take the shortest road to his

ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΙΟΝ tent through a populous village, but was forced to make a circuit which, being interpreted, is supposed to signify the abode of the through thorny and pathless tracks. In the evening the clothes

brotherhood. were restored, with a polite note, and the following lines : “ You gave me a ride on a palanquia,

What amazing changes do certainly take place, when once the I gave you a walk in the sun ;

hand of alteration and improvement is let loose! Where, now, Now, neither can laugh at the other, I ween,

is Exeter 'Change, that huge, clumsy, ugly building, that once For both have been properly done. The difference between us I thus may express :

jutted out into the street, obstructing and deforming the Strand ? I was done very raw in the town;

Upwards of a century ago, a writer on the buildings of London And when you reflect, I am sure you'll confess

and Westminster complained bitterly of Exeter 'Change, as an In the country that you were done brown !" Major Bevan's Thirty Years in India.

abominable nuisance ; yet there it stood, till about ten years ago.


It is supposed to have been built in the reign of William and and management ? At the present moment, the religious world Mary, as a speculation, and took its name from some adjoining is more widely divided than at any time since these societies mansion of the Bishops of Exeter. The lower story, at the came into operation. Members of the establishment, who used to beginning of the last century, was appropriated to the shops of glory in their co-operation with dissenters, now begin to stand milliners ; and upholsterers had the upper. Here, also, exhibitions aloof, and look stern ; and dissenters, who used to join hand in were held; and at last a portion of it was parcelled off into cages hand with churchmen, are returning scowl for scowl. Antago. for a menagerie ; and all visitors of London were expected to see vistic sounds drop more frequently from speakers in Exeter Hall ; the wild beasts at Exeter 'Change, as well as the lions at the allusions to schisms, "even in our own university," draw forth an Tower. “ Passing one day," says Leigh Hunt, “by Exeter uproarious tumult of applause; and more frequently than ever are 'Change, we beheld a sight strange enough to witness in a great trumpet blasts heard, and " boot-and-saddle" calls made upon the thoroughfare—a fine horse startled and pawing the ground at the hearers to resist popery, Socinianism, and infidelity. All this is roar of lions and tigers. It was at the time, we suppose, when not exactly in the "spirit of meekness and love;" and if it spreads, the beasts were being fed.” But an “emancipation act the Greek inscription may be erased from the front of Exeter passed, and the beasts were not liberated, but somewhat enlarged; Hall, and " Ichabod " be written in its stead. Mr. Cross carried them from Exeter 'Change to the Mews at Exeter 'Change could not have exhibited a more varied comCharing Cross ; and when the ground on which stood the Mews bination of strange and contrary natures in its collection of "fine was wanted as a site for the National Gallery, Mr. Cross crossed animals,” than Exeter Hall does, in its various meetings. All the Thames, and, in imitation of the Zoological Gardens in the kinds of sounds and all kinds of action are uttered and exhibited Regent's Park, founded the Surrey Zoological Gardens.

by the speakers. Classic English, broad Scotch, and strong When it was resolved to pull down Exeter 'Change, and to Milesian accents are heard, mingled with Yorkshire, or Northum. widen the Strand, some of the influential leaders and movers in berland, or harsh north of Ireland ; some speakers roar, others the religious world started the scheme of building an “immense lisp, some stand perfectly composed, and others utter lachrymose edifice," for the meetings of the various societies. Hitherto, and trembling sounds, as if awed into fear by the " sea of heads” there had been no central point of union; some of the chief before them. It is curious, too, to remark how speakers tone societies held their meetings in the fine room of the Freemasons' their speeches to the particular character of the society in whose Tavern. But though this hall will hold 1,500 persons, it some- behalf they are speaking. At a " Protestant” meeting every times could not accommodate one half who clamoured for admit thing is screwed up to a high pitch ; crowds of elegantly dressed tance. In 1829 the project was taken up of building on the site ladies are ready to join the tremendous shouts that ring around of Exeter 'Change the present structure, which has received the the speaker, who has planted his foot on “ No surrender," and name of Exeter Hall. It was erected by a company, who sub- seems determined to give battle to his invisible foe. A Bible scribed shares : and additional expense was defrayed by donations. meeting is of a more quiet and sober character ; universal bene. The management of the Hall is under the direction of a committee volence is not supposed to let its voice be heard so loudly in the or society, of which Sir Thomas Baring, Bart., is Chairman. streets, neither does it make Exeter Hall to tremble under the The building was completed and opened in 1831.

cry of war. But it would be difficult, indeed, at any meeting, to The stranger, walking along the Strand, might miss Exeter restrain, if any body wanted to restrain, the spirit of applause, Hall, unless he looked sharp. The entrance is of an ornamental which effervesces at a touch. A solemn appeal to the feelings is character, but being narrow, and flanked by shops, it is apt to be answered by a whirring sound, which commences at the platform, passed in the bustle of the Strand. The entrance is a porch or and eddies round the hall; some anecdote, told in a taking portico, formed of two Corinthian pillars, with a flight of steps manner, provokes shouts of laughter, and the audience may be from the pavement. But the building extends a great way back. geen all looking at each other, and then at the speaker, some The principal room is 90 feet broad, 138 in length, and 48 high, faces stretched into broad grins, and others dimpled witla smiles ; and is lighted by 18 large windows. It will bold 3,000 with ease, and the announcement of the name of a favourite speaker is the signal 4,000 crowded. The platform is at the east end, and can accom- for a hurricane ; and when one sits down who has given the modate 500 persons : it is fenced from the rest of the Hall by a rail- audience anything like a good speech, he gets value received in a ing. Underneath the large hall is a smaller one, for meetings of a noise, which, if it makes his heart glad, may also make his head more limited character ; and there are various rooms appropriated ache. It is marvellous how some of the ladies get through the to the use of particular committees or societies. Sometimes, "May Meetings;" they sit for hours together in a crowded there are meetings in both the halls at the same moment; and a hall, and every now and again hear a noise that might waken the speaker in the lower room will occasionally be annoyed by the Seven Sleepers ; but the truth is, without the noises the meetings reverberations of the thunders of applause shaking the great room would be exceedingly dull. above him.

The characters who have appeared at Exeter Hall are as varied It is only societies of a religious and moral nature which hold as the societies that hold their meetings there. On one occasion their meetings in Exeter Hall; but though their objects are appa- we may see noble-looking Earl Winchelsea, with his high Prorently one and the same—the improvement of the human race—there testant principle and church conservatism ; on another, silveryare some strong and startling contrarieties in their modes of action, toned Dr. Wardlaw, who lately came all the way from Glasgow to their feelings and opinions. The only society which may be sup- break a lance with Dr. Chalmers. Now stands up the Bishop of posed to represent what is understood as the “catholic " character London, with his broad chest, high forehead, twinkling eyes, and of Exeter Hall, is the British AND Foreign BIBLE SOCIETY. determined air ; graceful, classic Lord Glenelg speaks, as he has Yet even this noble institution is losing its catholic character ; often spoken, in aid of the principles of universal philanthropy, its management has become more and more restricted in the hands and of the diffusion of the Bible round the globe ; thundering Dr. of particular parties ; and a cloud is now passing over it. If this Duff, whose slender serpentine figure and lion-like voice make a be the case with such an institution as this, what may we not strange contrast, comes from India to renovate bis health, and expect from other societies, more sectarian in their construction stir the public on behalf of the “ Church of Scotland Missions ;'

massive-made and brilliant Dr. Croly, whose glowing imagination The word " tavern," which we have applied to the best of our publicis more than a match for his judgment, pours out his stately houses, means in Italian the worst. “We remember,” says our sentences ; pale-faced and exact-looking Lord Ashley patronises gossip, "some Italians were much puzzled in reading in the newsthe Church Pastoral Aid Society; and startling Hugh M.Neile papers, that English princes, royal dukes, marquises, and lords, the blows his trumpet in behalf of the Protestant Association. But very pink of our nobility, thought nothing of dining at the Taverna space would fail us were we to attempt to enumerate either the di Londra (the London Tavern), which to their ears sounded every regular or occasional speakers at Exeter Hall. Burnet, the Inde- bit as vulgar as the Pig and Tinder-box, or the Cat and Mutton." pendent minister at Camberwell, a splendid platform speaker ; One word more about Exeter Hall before we part. After the Cumming, the Presbyterian minister of Crown Court, a clever bustle of May, it obtains a long period of tranquillity, being only fellow ; tall, graceful, earnest Baptist Wriothesley Noel, minister used at intervals for meetings of an extraordinary nature, arising of St. John-street chapel, Bedford-row ; pleasant Dr. Sumner, out of particular circumstances. Some of the rooms are occathe Bishop of Winchester ; and boisterous Hugh Stowell from sionally let for exhibitions of pictures, &c.; others are permanently Manchester. More remarkable characters appear at rarer intervals occupied by the committees and secretaries of certain societies. and extraordinary occasions. The Wandering Jew,” Joseph

QUACKS AND QUACK-MEDICINES. Wolff; doleful Sir Andrew Agnew, whose face has been described as the impersonation of despair ; broad, burly Daniel O'Connell,

It is a remarkable fact that England, which claims to be the

centre of civilisation, should contain a population more quackthe type of an Irishman in face, figure, and accent; and he, all ridden, more credulous as regards the efficacy of universal secret brain and nerves, who will never rest till he rests in the grave, specifics for the cure of disease, than that of any other country in splendid, extraordinary, restless Lord Brougham.

the world. Immense trading establishments are wholly supported But the reader would err grievously if he imagined that the by the sale of quack medicines ; most of the provincial newspapers

derive their principal profits from advertising these pretended May Meetings at Exeter Hall presented an invariable source of remedies ; and, as a winding-up of the climax, the government splendid intellectual excitement. A treat they are undoubtedly to finds a most unholy and disgraceful branch of revenue in the sale all who take an interest in the proceedings of societies, whose of compounds which our rulers know and admit to be impositions

upon the uninformed public. In the present enlightened age, there objects are the good of their fellow-men. But it is not always is no Englishman of liberal education to whom it is unknown that, that the meetings can boast of a succession of good speakers. Not as diseases frequently proceed from causes directly opposed to each seldom a kind-hearted prosy old man will spiu a tedious yarn ; or

other, the remedy that would cure one would aggravate another ; a timid young one, abashed at so many eyes staring full upon him, that, consequently, a universal remedy, applicable to all diseases,

is impossible. The legislature, therefore, in taxing secret remewill tremulously hesitate, and perhaps rally with difficulty, even

dies and permitting their sale, commits a dishonest act, and tamthough buoyed on by a cheer. Yet it does not require a large pers with che public morals as well as with the public health. amount of intellect to make a speech at Exeter Hall. “Here the “ They manage things better in France," is now a trite saying, poorest speakers have a certain degree of advantage, while those deration we may however apply it, without being taxed with

though often very unjustly applied. To the subject under consiof a superior order are heard under less favourable circumstances. injustice. In France, no secret remedies are allowed to be sold, He who could not plead the clearest cause at the bar, or discuss a under very heavy penalties, involving even corporeal punishment. simple question in the Houses of Legislature, may here make a

This is a security to the public against improper and even poisonvery respectable figure, by telling a few facts in an agreeable that the specification at the office of patents affords an equally

ous conipounds. It may be said, in justification of our own law, manner,

and appealing even quietly to the hearts or principles of good security. No such thing :-the specification is an absolute his hearers. On the other hand, a first-rate debater finds nothing mockery. Scarcely any inventor of a patent medicine specifies the to combat : there is no scope for argument or reply. Logic is true mode of preparing it, or the real matters of which it is comthought dry, and definitions tedious; and he who could convince a

posed. If the medicine consist of a known substance and be the

result of a secret process, this is almost impossible of detection; jury against their will, or carry a senate away by the resistless force as in the instance of James's Powder, a preparation of antimony, of his demonstrations, must here be content to take his stand on the which none of the chemists who aid the College of Physicians in same level with the man whom he may consider as a fifth or sixth compiling the Pharmacopæia can successfully imitate. "If, on the

other hand, the constituents of the medicine are unknown and conrate ; while, compelled to rely on his own declamatory talents, he sist of vegetable matters, it is equally difficult to discover them by may perhaps make a worse figure than those who possess not a ordinary chemical analysis, and, when discovered, to ascertain tithe of his abilities or gepius.”

their quantitative proportions. Then, again, who is to bear the · Perhaps the very best of all the meetings at Exeter Hall during and no official analysis therefore takes place. The specification is

expense of such analysis ? The government ought, but does not; the month of May, is that of the British and Foreign Bible then a mere idle cereniony, upon which it is dangerous to rely. Society. The magnitude of its operations, its professed freedom To such an extent is the blind infatuation carried in favour of from all merely local or narrow interests, and the principle of its secret remedies, that even perfumers, who certainly possess no action—the diffusion of the Bible, and the Bible alone, -render medical knowledge, nor an education that will qualify them for

acquiring it, boldly compose and advertise their nostrums for speits meetings not now exciting, but pleasing. Even he who refused cific disorders; the barber-surgeon of former times being thus to admit the Bible to be a revelation, might find much to excite replaced by the perfumer-physician of a more refined age. °Every reflection, on the fact of the existence of such a great engine for newspaper is eloquent on the miracles wrought by pills and extracts, its diffusion, and translation into the various languages of the

balsams and ointments, the fruit assuredly of intuitive knowledge

-if knowledge of any kind be the seed from which it sprang. earth. The meeting of the London Missionary Society is also an Nor are letters and certificates wanting to confirm the impudent exceedingly interesting one: the Hall is always crowded long lies set forth in the newspaper advertisements. They who trust to before the proceedings commence.

them, often find themselves suddenly afflicted with premature and From the latter end of April to the end of the month of May, up- dies, spend a life of torture and die a lingering and painful death.

irremediable infirmities; and many, from the effects of such remewards of thirty different religious societies have held their meetings Thus, not only is the public poisoned with impunity, but the inhere. One or two others have held their meetings in Freemasons'

ventors and sellers of the poisonous trash protected and encouraged Hall and Hanover-square Rooms, and the Society for the Protection duty, which, after all, comes from the purse of the dupe who

on account of the bribe paid to the state in the shape of a stamp of Religious Liberty met last at the “ London Tavern.” And this buys,--the price of the stamp being always added to that of the mention of the London Tavern reminds us of a traveller's story. medicine. By a singular inconsistency, many well-educated per

sons, who rail against quack-medicines, and are well aware that The former originates from an excess of the principle of life, in such remedies are entitled to no confidence, use them, neverthe- which the germ of disease engenders inflammation. All infiam. less, in secret. But the pseudo-doctors who compound them are matory diseases, therefore, are effects of sanguineous irritation and too wise to be guided by such an example, as the following anec- must be combated by depletion. Nervous irritation, on the other dote will show.

hand, owes its origin to a deficiency in the principle of life; and A brace of London advertising quacks, brothers we believe, sold, the fever or irritation arising from any of the diseases belonging to wholesale and retail, a balsam with a singular name, and claiming its class, requires strengthening and stimulating medicines. Now, as many virtues as the far-famed balm of Gilead compounded by sanguineous irritation may be immediately succeeded by nervous, Dr. Solomon and his successors. One of these self-styled doctors, or this latter by sanguineous, in the same patient; and the sympwho belong to the scattered remnant of the unconverted tribes of toms of both kinds of irritation bear sometimes so strong a resemIsrael, being in bad health, applied to a regular practitioner for blance to each other, that to distinguish them is a very nice test of advice. “Why don't you take your own balsam?” asked the pathological knowledge. Yet the necessity of not mistaking the Christian, for such was the medical man called in." “Because," one for the other is so great that, if depletion were applied to ner. the candid patient replied, "it will do me no good. Our balsam vous irritation or stimulants to sanguineous irritation, loss of life is made for sale. They who have faith in its virtues will purchase would be the consequence. it; and the benefit they derive will be proportionate to such faith. Medical men are fond of trite sayings and maxims, as well as of As I huve none, the balsam will not relieve me, and I have there systems; they delight to dazzle the understanding of uncultivated fore recourse to your professional skill.”

minds. The adage which for ages past has been the open Why quackery should have grown to such a goodly tree in sesame” of medical practice, is contraria contrariis curantur ;* England, is matter of interesting inquiry and research. Are we but Dr. Hahnemann has lately started forth with a fresh adage, more credulous than our neighbours, or is quackery a plant of upon which he founds one of the most absurd systems which it indigenous growth in our soil ?

ever entered the feeble imagination of man to conceive-that of In ages long gone by, when the house-leech was barber, surgeon, homeopathy. This new maxim is the exact opposite of the apothecary, and physician, and high-born dames were cunning in former: it is similia similibus curantur.t As men dearly love a the healing art—when ignorance and superstition paraded arm-in- paradox, especially when it floats upon novelty, Dr. Hahnemann's arm, as the joint guides of civilised man,-medical science con saying has spread, dragging along with his system. A race of sisted as much in charms and ceremonies as in the use, or, homeopathic practitioners have rapidly sprung up, because it according to the technical term employed at present, in the exhi. requires but comparatively little previous study and training for the bition of medicines and the application of medicaments.* This exhibition(!) of Dr. Hahnemann's infinitesimal doses of medicine, was the case throughout Europe ; it is still so in many parts of pathology being the loadstar of his system, and as much clouded England, among the ignorant rustics, in spite of the village from the sight of his followers as it is from the sight of very many apothecary, and is one of the consequences of the absence of edu- practitioners who pursue the old system. Anatomy, physiology, cation and useful knowledge.

and chemistry, cannot be necessary to the homeopathist, because In ages more recently past, even since the discovery of the when he has ascertained the disease of the patient, he has only to circulation of the blood, the practice of medicine has scarcely been turn to the good Dr. Hahnemann's tables, ascertain what drug will more rational. The Greek physicians of antiquity were to many communicale the same disease, and give his drug to his patient in the sole oracles of modern practice. The pretended science of the minute doses peculiar to the system he follows. The result alchemy was likewise connected with that of medicine, and the will, or will not, be a “similar cured by a similar,” that is to say, latter frequently wrapped up in as much mystery as the former. a disease cured by the agent that would produce it in a healthy As the fermentation of human intellect forced men's minds to person. According to this system, the best cure for the bite of a work, many vain theories were invented, and many books written | viper would be to let the reptile bite you again ; the best remedy by physicians whose names have descended to the generations for hydrophobia from the bite of a mad dog, that of being again which have followed them, because their theories, though far from bitten by a rabid animal. perfect and in many instances founded on error, have nevertheless True medical science despises all sayings and maxims such as we served as pioneers to clear a road for the discovery of the truth. have mentioned. It cures disease by first ascertaining its cause, During the period to which we refer, embracing the seventeenth which requires joint pathological, anatomical, and physiological and eighteenth centuries, and the beginning of the nineteenth, the knowledge, and then removing that cause by an application of such practiee of medicine was a pursuit of systems, rather than an knowledge under the guidance of chemical science. There are application of the discovered principles of pathology to idiosyn- many further requisites for a good physician, who should possess cratic cases. The consequence was frequent failure. Many a life, a general knowledge of the philosophy of matter. Trite sayings during this period, has been taken by the doctor, and not by the and maxims quoted in a dead language constitute, however, a part disease; many a bereavement has followed the physician's of that professional quackery which clothes ignorance in the garb attendance, which would not have occurred had nature been left to of learning to impose upon the uninstructed. This description of her own resources and exertions. Is it a subject for saping quackery exists more especially among the practitioners of thirty wonder, then, that quacks should have sprung up and undertaken or forty years' standing, but is rejected by those who have conto repair the blunders of the regular practitioners; or that many of stantly elevated their practice to a level with the successive discothese latter should themselves have become quacks; or that nos- veries that have been inade since they began to exercise their protrums for particular diseases, and pretended universal specifics, fession. Comparatively few of our medical men hare done this, should have been the consequence, and have been eagerly purchased but among that few we have some of the most distinguished Dames by sufferers who had tried the physician's golden knowledge, and in Europe. found it nothing but base metal ?

Though, in most countries on the Continent, the light of cheSuch indeed was the state of medical science throughout mistry has dissipated the illusions attached to the action of a great Europe ; and the ludicrous pictures of the professors of the healing variety of pharmaceutical preparations, and the most simple mediart drawn by Le Sage and other satirical writers are scarcely cari-cines are used to combat disease concurrently with the other catures. But when, at length, chemical science arose in its infant means indicated by science, the art of healing is still associated, in purity, and shook off the tinsel trappings with which its half-insane England, with the fancied necessity of swallowing nauseous drugs in mother, Alchemy, had bedizened it, the nostrums and secret uni- great quantities. In country places, besides the various nostrums versal specifics of quackery were submitted to the test of experi- compounded from simples, often assisted by a charm, and their ment and found wanting : ist, because they possessed no chemical preparation kept secret by those who have received them as a secret properties to produce the effects ascribed to them ; 2dly, because, since diseases of different natures often proceed from opposite

• Contraries are cured by contraries. causes, the remedy which would cure the one would aggravate the

| Similars are cured by similars. other. We will practically illustrate this latter point; the other

It will scarcely be credited that, in a work on pharmaceutics, publishod

in 1821, the following remedies are to be found. We have selected them from requires no illustration.

a great number of the same description. Dr. Broussais states irritation to be the cause of all general and

Cranium hominis. The powder, in doses of a drachm, organic disease, however produced. He further alleges that there used in epilepsy: those which have been long buried are to be preferred. are two kinds of irritation, the sanguineous and the nervous. HUMAN BLOOD. Sanguis hominis. Anti-cpileptic, dried, half a drachm in

water every morning. * The word "medicine" (Fr. médecine] signifies a remedy taken into the

PUPPIES. Calelli. Live puppies split and applied while warm, have been stomach ; the word " medicament" expresses a topical application.

employed as poultices to draw out ronom from sores or boils,


the acutest men of the present day: here is his “ opinion,” | until they are within a mile or two of it, but towards which, for without a fee :

thousands of miles, their voyage has been directed through the " In the mathematical and physical sciences, and in the arts pathless wilderness of waters." wbich are founded upon them, we may commonly trust the con- We believe in astronomers, because they appeal to our common clusions which we take upon authority. For the adepts in these sense—that is, to our sense of the fitness and propriety of things. sciences and arts mostly agree in their results, and lie under no At first sight, it does appear somewhat bold for a creature so temptation to cheat the ignorant with error. I firmly believe, for small as man, in relation to the bulk of the globe, to affirm that example, that the earth moves round the sun, though I know not he has weighed and measured a floating mass nearly 25,000 miles a tittle of the evidence from which the conclusion is inferred. in girth, and 8000 miles in diameter, and to lay down that “it And my belief is perfectly rational, though it rests upon mere does not occupy continually the same position in the centre of authority; for there is nothing in the alleged fact contrary to my the sphere of the visible heavens—that its centre, and the axis experience of nature : whilst all who have scrutinised the evidence within itself, about which its revolution takes place, are not at concur in affirming the fact, and have no conceivable motive to rest—that these are in fact moving at the rate of about nineteen assert and diffuse the conclusion, but the liberal and beneficent miles in each second of time—that this motion is not directly desire of maintaining and propagating truth *."

forward in space, but continually round in a curve which returns We must qualify a sentence in the foregoing “opinion.” Mr. into itself, and which is very nearly a circle, whose radius is Austen says, “ there is nothing in the alleged fact contrary to our 95,000,000 of miles—and that nevertheless this enormous circle experience of nature.” The revolutions of the Earth on its axis of the earth's revolution is itself as nothing in its dimensions, and in its orbit are not contrary to our reasonable experience of compared with the dimensions of the great sphere of the visible nature, but they are contrary to our visual and perceptive experi. heavens.” On the first mention of it, one might be excused ence. “One of the most involved and complicated problems,” exclaiming, with Godwin, “ Certainly the astronomers are a very says the Rev. Mr. Moseley, "ever proposed to the ingenuity of fortunate and privileged race of men, who talk to us in this man, was the problem of the Heavens. A hollow concave above oracular way of the unseen things of God from the creation of him, the whole of whose surface, go where he may, is apparently the world,' hanging up their conclusions upon invisible hooks, at the same comparatively small distance from him; the sun while the rest of mankind sit listening gravely to their responses, taking bis journey across it, in a path which is 'not daily the and unreservedly acknowledging that their science is the most same; returning day after day, through some unknown region, sublime, the most interesting, and the most useful, of all the to flood again the vast canopy of the heavens with light; stars sciences cultivated by man.” But then, if we refuse to believe seen in thousands at night, on this vast canopy, moving with one what the astronomers tell us, they have a right to call upon us for common motion slowly across it, between night-fall and day- some explanations. If the earth is not a sphere, how is it that break; this host of stars, different at different seasons of the we never arrive at some termination or boundary, but, go where year, but the same at the same season, preserving, in the general we may, have still the heavens concave above us, and a horizon alteration of their position, their relative distances, except six of where sky and earth appear to touch ? Or how can a vessel sail them, which wander about among the rest with a most devious out south-west to Cape Horn, go north-west to Van Diemen's motion, and are therefore called planets ; the moon, too, moving Land, or New Holland, and then, proceeding to the East Indies, with the common daily motion of the rest of the host of heaven; return home by the Cape of Good Hope? Ships have sailed in but, besides, revolving completely through it every month; winter, every direction over the earth's surface, and can find no terminaspring, summer, and autumn, connecting themselves somehow tion-no limit-no spot where the sky and earth touch, and with the variations of the daily path of the sun, and returning, obstruct all further progress. Then, if the earth be a sphere, it year after year, at their appointed seasons; and eclipses of the must rest upon nothing. We have gone round it-how could sun and moon, dependent by some inscrutable relation upon rela- we do so, if it rested on anything? But granted that the earth is tive positions of the sun and moon :-all these things requiring, a sphere, and rests on nothing, how do we prove that it moves ? as they must have done, and did, a great length of time, and something moves, that is very certain. Either the sun Ries over much and patient observation to discover, constitute in their our heads by day, and the stars by night, or our globe flies, and aggregate a relation of phenomena which as far surpasses every its motion deceives our sight, just as trees, banks, and houses, other offered to us in nature in its complication, and the vastness appear to fly past, when we are carried smoothly and rapidly and dignity of the truths which it embraces, as in the simplicity along. The popular arguments for the motion of the earth are, of the scheme into which it resolves itself.” Well, therefore, however, all derived from circumstantial or probable evidence, may it be added, that “the process of reasoning by which the or proof. There is direct evidence of the motion of the earth in complicated apparent motions of the sun, moon, and planets, are the aberration of light, discovered by Bradley, one of the greatest made to resolve themselves into their few real and elementary of astronomers : but it requires mathematical science to undermotions, is one of the highest and most successful efforts that has stand it. However, the popular arguments are of a very satisever been made by the intellect of man t."

factory nature, and may be understood by a child. It is just to We come now to our grounds of faith. We believe in astro- choose between two hypotheses-either to believe in the revolu. nomers, because of their prophetic power. They affirm that, by tion of the whole host of heaven round our earth, or the double laborious observation and calculation, they know accurately the revolution of our earth on its axis, and in its orbit ; and so roads which certain heavenly bodies travel, and also the rate at simple, so effective, so grand, is the latter, that it commends which they travel, and can therefore predict certain events years itself to the understanding of every school-boy who hears, for the before they happen. And this prophetic power is not a mere first time, a lecture on astronomy. empty sign, a thing of no account, beyond its serving as a seal of Our present space is exhausted, but we may, after this intro. the truth of their testimony, but, like a miracle of healing, is ductory paper, enter upon the vast and deeply interesting subject fruitful to man. “ The determination of the longitude and lati- in future numbers. tude by astronomical observation is the great problem of nautical

NECESSITY or self-CULTIVATION. astronomy; and with such accuracy is this problem now solved,

It was said, with truth, by Charles the Twelfth, of Sweden, that he who that ships are frequently months at sea without sight of land, and

was ignorant of the arithmetical art was but half a man. With how niuch yet is their course steered continually, and almost without wan- greater force may a similar expression be applied to him who carries to his dering, to some little speck of land, of which they see nothing grave the neglected and unprofitable seeds of faculties, which it depended

on himself to have reared to maturity, and of which the fruits bring accegAusten's Province of Jurisprudence Determined.

sions to human happiness-more precious than all the gratifications which Lectures on Astronomy, by the Rev. H. Moseley. London, 1839. power or wealth can command !-Dugald Stewart,

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