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WHY CHURCHES ARE NOT ALWAYS BUILT DUE EAST

USEFULNESS.
AND WEST.

How barren a tree is he that lives, and spreads, and cumbers the ground, One end of every church doth point to such place where the sun did rise yet leaves not one seed, nor one good work to genera te after him. I know at the time of the foundation thereof was laid, which is the reason why all all cannot leave alike, yet all may leave something, answering their prochurches do not directly point to the east. For if the foundation was laid portion, their kinds.Oven Feltham. in June, it pointed to the north-east, where the sun rises at that time of the

CHARACTERISTIC TRAIT OF BOSWELL. year; if it was laid in the spring or autumn it was directed full cast; and if in winter, south-east ; and by the standing of these churches it is known “On the road to Bath it occurring to me that it might be useful for me to at what time of the year the foundations of them were laid.-Chauncy's be early in seeing Sir W. Young, who is just come from the West Indies, and Hertfordshire.

that he was not a quarter of a mile out of the road, I drove to his house, A TAME WOLF.

Huntercombe, and staid all night. The visit did not turn out to answer any By way of enlivening the description of the structure of animals, he good purpose. Boswell there, a great enemy of the Abolition-said that he (M. de Candolle, Lecturer on Natural llistory at Geneva, introduced many

was at Kimber's trial, and gloried in it. Sir William read a letter from G. interesting particulars respecting what he called leur morale, or their natural

to his father-some wit, but affected, and full of levity and evil; written in dispositions, and the changes they underwent when under the dominion of 1773, when he was near sixty, alas! Bozzy talked of Johnson, &c. Sat up man. Among other instances of the affection which wolves had sometimes too late. Sir William very friendly-talked of Slave Trade, and mentioned shown to their masters, he mentioned one which took place in the vicinity having found a great number of children without relations on board several of Geneva. A lady, Mndame M--, had a tame wolf which seemed to have ships ho visited, who from irouiry appeared to have been kidnapped. as much attachment to its mistress as a spaniel. She had occasion to leave IVednesday. Had some serious talk with Bozzy, who admitted the depravity home for some weeks: the wolf evinced the greatest distress after her depar. of human nature, Last night he expressed his disbelief of eternal punisliture, and at first refused food. During the whole time she was absent, he ment. He asked Sir W. to take his boy home, and walked off into the West remained much dejected; on her return, as soon as the animal heard her of England with the Spirit of Athens' under his arm, and two shirts and a footsteps, he bounded into the room in an ecstacy of delight; springing up, nightcap in his pocket, sans servant."—Wilberforce's Diary. he placed one paw on each of her shoulders, but the next moment ho fell backwards and instantly expired.-Bakewell's Travels in the Tarentasse, fc.

THE MUSIC OF HUMANITY.

The rudest and the most advanced nations abound in songs. They are IDLENESS.

heard under the plantain throughout Africa, as in the streets of Paris. The There is no greater cause of melancholy than idleness; no better cure than boatmen on the Nile, and the children of Cairo on their way to school, cheer business, as Rhasis holds; and howbeit to be busied in toys is to small pur. the time with chants; as do the Germans in their vineyards, and in the pose, yet hear that divine Seneca,-“ Better do to no end than do nothing." | leisure hours of the university. The Negro sings of what he sees and feels,– -Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy.

the storm coming over the woods, the smile of his wife, and the coolness of

the drink she gives him. The Frenchman sings the woes of the state ANECDOTE OF BARRY TIE. PAINTER.

prisoner, and the shrewd self-cautionings of the citizens. The Songs of the While Barry was a young man, residing at Dublin, an incident occurred

Egyptian are amatory, and of the German varied as the accomplishments of which strikingly illustrates the character of the man. He was brought into the nation.—but in their moral tone earnest and pure. The more this modo contact with some young persons of dissipated habits, who on several occa

of expression is looked into, the more serviceable it will be found to the trasions enticed him to form one of their tavern parties. As he was returning veller's purposes of observation.-Miss Marlineau. home late at night from one of these carousals, he was struck by a sudden conviction of the folly of the course he was pursuing, in thus wasting tho

OLD AND NEW TIMES. time which might so much more properly be employed in laying the foun- An inhabitant of Horsham, in Sussex, now living, remembers, when a dation of his future respectability and independence. Diffident perhaps of boy, to have heard from a person whose father carried on the business of a his own power of foregoing the gratifications which he had the means of

butcher in that town, that in his time the oniy means of reaching the mepurchasing, and certain that the most effectual preventive would be to rid

tropolis was either by going on foot or riding on horseback, the latter of himself of the means at once,-he took all his moncy, which was probably which undertakings was not practicable at all periods of the year, nor in at that time no great sum, and threw it into the Liffey, and afterwards shut

every state of the weather-that the roads were not at any time in such a himself up with great persoverance to his professional studies. — Life of Barry. condition as to admit of sheep or cattle being driven upon them to the STRANGE MODE OF CURING A VICIOUS HORSE.

London markets, and that, for this reason, the farmers were prevented I have seen vicious horses in Egypt cured of the habit of biting, by being, in fact, their only market. Under these circumstances, a quarter of

sending thither the produce of their land, the immediate neighbourhood presenting to them, while in the act of doing so, a leg of mutton just taken

a fat ox was commonly sold for about 15s., and the price of mutton throughfrom the fire: the pain which a horse foels in biting through the hot meat,

out the year was only five farthings the pound. Horsham is 36 miles from causes it, after a fow lessons, to abandon the vicious habit.-Burckhardt.

London, and the journey between the two places now occupies less than four CONFOUNDING THE NATIVES.

hours; more than thirty stage-coaches travelling at this rate pass through

Horshain every day, on their way from and to the metropolis, in addition to “ I perceived the fires of the natives at no great distance from our camp,

numerous private carriages and post-chaises; the traffic of goods--principally and Dawkins went forward, with a tomahawk and a small loaf. He soon

coal and agricultural produce.--carried on in the district of which Horsham came upon a tribe of about thirty men, women, and children, seated by the

is the centre, exceeds 40,000 tons a-year, besides which, the road is conponds, with half a kangaroo and some cray-fish cooked before them, and also a large vessel of bark containing water. Now Dawkins must have been,

stantly covered with droves of cattle and flocks of sheep.---Porter's Progrees in appearance, so different to all the ideas these poor poople had of their

of the Nation. fellow-mon, that on the first sight of such an apparition it was not surprising

THE MOST UNHAPPY. that they, after a moment's stare, precipitately took to the pond, floundering Cosroes, king of Persia, in conversation with two philosophers and his through it, some up to the neck, to the opposite bank. He was a tall spare vizier, asked, "What situation of man is most to be deplored ?" One of figure, in a close white dress, surmounted by a broad-brimmed straw hat, the philosophers maintained, that it was old age accompanied with extremo the tout-ensemble somewhat resembling a mushroom; and these dwellers by poverty; the other, that it was to have the body oppressed by infirmities, the waters might well have believed, from his silent and unceremonious the mind worn out, and the heart broken by a series of misfortunes. “I intrusion, that he had risen from the earth in the same manner. The know a condition more to be pitied," said the Vizier, “and it is that of him curiosity of the natives, who had vanished as fast as they could, at length who has passed through life without doing good ; and who, unexpectedly overcame their terrors so far as to induce them to poep from behind the trees surprised by deuth, is sent to appear before the tribunal of the Sovereiga at their mysterious visitor, who, not in the least disconcerted, made himself Judge."- Miscellany of Eastern Learning. at home at the fires, and on seeing them on the other side, began his usual speech, .What for you jerran budgery white fellow?' • Why are you afraid

CURIOUS CLOCK. of a white man?' He next drew forth his little loaf, endeavouring to ex- The most curious thing in the cathedral of Lubeck is a clock of singular plain its meaning and use by eating it, and then began to chop a tree by way construction, and very high antiquity. It is calculated to answer astronoof showing off the tomahawk; but the possession of a peculiar food of his

mical purposes, representing the places of the sun and moon in the ecliptic, own only astounded them the more. His last experiment was attended with

the moon's age, a perpetual almanack, and many other contrivances. The no better effect; for when he sat down by their fire, by way of being friendly, clock, as an inscription sets forth, was placed in the church upon and began to taste their kangaroo, they set up a shout which induced Candlemas-day in 1405. Over the face of it appears an image of our Saviour, Dawkins to make his cxit with the same silent celerity, which no doubt and on either side of the image are folding-doors, so constructed as to fly rendered his debut so outragcously opposed to their ideas of etiquette, which open every day when the clock strikes twelva. At this hour, a set of figures imperatively required that loud.cooys' should have announced his approach representing the twelve apostles come out from the door on the left hand of before he came within a mile of their fires. Dawkins had been cautioned

the image, and pass by in review before it, each figure making its obeisance as to the necessity for this, but he was an old tar, and Jack likes his own

by bowing as it passes that of our Saviour, and afterwards entering the door way of proceeding on shore ; besides, in this case Dawkins came unawares on the right hand. When the procession terminates, the doors close upon them, according to his own account, and it was only by subsequent

Clarke's Travels in Scandinaria. experience that we learnt the danger of thus approaching the aboriginal inhabitants ; some of these carried spears on their shoulders, or trailing in their hands, and the natives are never more likely to use such weapons than London. WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER when under the impulse of sudden terror."-Major Mitchell's Australia. & Co. Dublin : CURRY & Co.--Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars.

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BOUNCERS.

bouncers, grave bouncers, stupid bouncers, motive-wanting

bouncers, and bouncers on purpose. The TRADE BOUNCER is the One of the most widely diffused of all the varieties or species most common of them all, and is as widely-diffused as the grey of the genus homo, is that of the Bouncers. The Dictionary rat. Buying and selling are equivalent expressions for the existdefinition of a bouncer is—" a boaster, a bully, an empty threat

ence of human beings, and therefore the trade-bouncer is as ener-a liar.” This corresponds, in some measure, with the universal as humanity itself. Solomon appears to have been popular notion of a bouncer ; and accordingly, in vulgar and cant

aware of the existence of “bulls” and “bears" in his time; the phrase, “ to bounce” is simply “to lie.” But such a definition

one trying to toss up, and the other to trample down. “ It is only takes cognizance of the lowest and coarsest kind of bouncers, naught, it is naught, saith the buyer, but when he goeth his way, and leaves out of consideration a large and finely diversified then he boasteth." To be sure he does ;-- he has made a good family, which, like that of the antelopes, is composed of an almost bargain by depreciating the quality, and then he brags of it. No endless and oftentimes graceful variety. This family occupy that wonder, therefore, that it is difficult to make a bargain with a Jew great space in the kingdom of imagination which lies between old clothesman; for this trick of depreciation and exaltation has aerial castle-building and broad, glaring, naked, vulgar falsehood. been in the nation for two thousand years, and appears to have The castle-builder is quite an ethereal creature ; he imposes on

run in the blood, like wooden legs. nobody but himself; like Alexander Selkirk, he can look round,

But we scorn to take any notice of the vulgar kind of tradeand say, “I am monarch of all I survey." Not so the bouncer, bouncers, whose motto is neither cheat nor be cheated, but He is the connecting link between the real and unreal worlds, and rather cheat. To this class belong Jew brokers, common-place could not live in solitude. He walks to and fro between imagina- impudent quacks, touters at auction-sales, and all the herd who do tion and fact, and acts as a sort of man-milliner to truth; he not scruple at a downright lie to earn a paltry penny. It is a cannot understand that beauty when unadorned is adorned the shame to class them with the true trade-bouncers, who would not most, but is busily employed all day long in clothing the naked lie for the mere sake of lying, and who have, moreover, a conand gilding gold. He is a gold-beater also, and a wire-drawer : siderable tincture of imagination, which is essential to genuine manufactures a large quantity of Britannia-metal ; and can often bouncing. The true trade-bouncer is quite a superior animal to make

the cheating bouncer. He has a peculiar call, which, like the cry " auld claes look amaist as weel's the new."

of the infant all over the world, is always pitched on the same When Wordsworth exclaimed "Oh, many are the poets that note. He has also a fine under-tone, which he uses at times with are sown by nature,” he doubtless was alluding to the bouncers. considerable effect. When the trade-bouncer is in the humour to Poetry is simply real or common life, elevated, adorned, magni- use his call, you have but to ask him how business is getting on, fied; and to do this is the peculiar vocation of the bouncers. Their and you will get a hearty stirring answer. He is either doing a motto is the same as that of the poets

fine stroke of business; or he does not know what hand to turn to “ Unless above himself he can

next ; or he got an extensive order last week, and another yesterErect himself, how poor a thing is man!"

day; or, at the very least, he is getting on “pretty fair, pretty Therefore, feeling the dignity of their calling, they devote them- fair.” But when disposed to speak in his under-tone, nothing can selves to it; the most trifling action of life—that is, of their own be finer than the manner in which he uses it. In particular, if he lives-becomes hallowed in their hands, or rather mouths; they suspects that you have a long-standing account at half-cock in glorify humanity! We speak not now of the vulgar tribe of your pocket, ready to be thrust in his face, he shakes his head, bouncers, who are satisfied with silver spangle and coarse embroi. and runs through a gamut of—“ little doing—trade very slack. dery_dull-minded tabbies, who can rise no higher than barouche heavy expenses—bad debts—and really will give up, and retire friends, rich uncles and aunts, medical man keeping his own from business, unless things take a turn." Then, as if struck by carriage, gold watches, fine dresses, &c. No, it is of the higher some sudden recollection, he exclaims" Bless my heart ! I have class of bouncers that we speak—fine geniuses, who can“

an important appointment for half-past one, and it is just on the soul under the ribs of death," and have a near affinity of relation time--I had almost forgotten it-good morning, sir !” It is ship to the pure aerial castle-builder. They scorn to let their curious, too, to remark how the trade-bouncer can use his call human nature sink into a mere literal matter-of-factism. Oh! and his under-tone in the same breath. He talks of unlimited with what unction one of them will tell you that he was part of a credit at the bank ; has a friend who will discount for him to any depntation to meet the prime minister or the chancellor of the amount; and has several shares in a railroad, a cemetery, and a exchequer ; or that he is going to make a speech at a public joint-stock bank. But if you venture to ask a small favour, such dinner ; or had the honour of a call from the Bishop of London. as to cash a bill for you, the call is instantly balanced by the A glow is diffused over his face-his voice is softened down into a under-tone. “Oh! really, now I am so sorry; not ten minutes rich mixture of humility and pride—the bouncer feels himself ago a friend called in-a man, in fact, whom I care very little indeed a man !

about,--who asked me to do a similar favour for him, and I gave There is a great variety of the bouncers. There are rattling him all my spare cash : besides, I have a very heavy bill to meet

create a

VOL. I.

AA

Bradbury and Evans, Priaten, Whitefrları,

As a

to-morrow, and at this particular moment happen to be rather poor just been using all bis “interest" to effect a certain purpose, and mit is unfortunate, but at any other time I should be happy to therefore it would be of no use to try for you ; but if at any other oblige you." If any particular article of consumption is under time you would just point out anything in which his services discussion, the trade-bouncer is sure to let you know that he deals would be of the slightest avail, you may certainly "command" more extensively in it than any other person in the same locality him, &c. &c. &c. &c. with himself; but if you are a traveller, and ask him for an order, The aspiring young lady bouncer is also another bore. We have the under-tone is in instant requisition. “Singular, at this par- one at this moment in our mind's eye ; a sensible girl, intelligent, ticular juncture happen to have rather a larger stock than usual— sharp, and decided in her general conduct. But though her birth but, if you are passing this way in your next journey, just give and station do not give her the slightest warrant to enter what me a look in, and I will see what I can do for you.” Or if the is called the fashionable world, it is astonishing how familiar she trade-bouncer is a traveller himself, he tells of the number of is with duchesses, dowagers, and countesses, and how often she towns he has raced throngh in a week, of the budget of orders he has danced with baronets, barons, and even marquises and dukes. has got, and the extensive connexion he has formed. But it She is somewhat literary, too, in her tastes, and though not quite would lead us beyond our present purpose to talk more at large a blue-stocking, may be termed an accomplished amateur. la about trade-bouncing. It is more than an art—it is a science, and fact, if we are to take her testimony, she has been presented at is applied quite in a scientific manner, for the attainment of parti. Court, has been introduced at Almack's, has a box at the Opera, cular ends.

has attended lectures at the Royal Institution, was at a private We once spent an evening, in a quiet domestic way, with a view of the Royal Academy exhibition, kept a stand at a fancy bouncing family. They had no reasonable pretension to be consi- fair, next to the Marchioness of Fairymount, and is quite one of dered anything more than decent, respectable folks, who were tole- the observed. Poor girl! she does not tell direct falsehoods ; rably well to do. But the father, over his bottle of sherry, talked there is always a slight foundation of truth on which her airg of his fatigues, his anxieties, his responsibilities, and, by inference, superstructures rest; but she has got such a florid taste-has of his importance ;-he had just seen the lord mayor that day on such a fancy for the pointed style—that one cannot distinguish the some corporation business, and really it was a great trouble to him building, owing to the profusion of ornament with which it is to neglect his business for matters of that kind; he was not very encumbered, or, as a bouncer might say, adorned. well either, and he wished to go down to Bedfordshire for a few “parallel passage” to our fair friend, we can produce a days, but found he could not be spared; it was so hard that he handsome young man, one of the best male bouncers we know. could not trust his business to anybody! Then the mother had He always carries a pocket telescope and a microscope, and when. her story about her daughters, and their expectations, and her ever he meets his friends he treats them to a view. Look at him sons, and their prospects ; how they were all provided for, in case before he opens his mouth, and you would imagine that he was father died; and how they were at Hyde Park, and saw the last only an ordinary mortal ; but, as quick as lightning, he puts his review, and were going to Brighton in a few days. The daughters microscope to your eve, and his little finger becomes thicker than had a great deal of talk about balls, dresses, beaux, and bows from a man's loins, and his buttons are magnified into huge dinner. young Lord Firkin ; and the sons were prodigious judges of horse plates. Like the fiendish poodle-dog that annoyed Faust, he goes flesh, made beavy bets at Epsom and Doncaster, and were quite on expanding, till you become afraid that the room won't hold intimate with several members of parliament. Two-thirds of the him talk was composed of pure, unsophisticated bouncing; and yet all

" Swelling like an elephant,

He will make the ceiling scant;" the members of the family kept each other in countenance with the greatest coolness in the world. A little child was introduced, and you must shake him very hard to bring him down to his in its night-clothes, to kiss all round, and receive evening compli. natural size. He is quite hand-and-glove with Lord John This ments; and the manner in which it held its rattle in its hand and Mr. Spring That; has got an offer of an official situation, but showed that it also was a bit of a bouncer. A noise was heard at does not choose to let himself be “shelfed So soon; for he is the door, and in rushed a blubbering boy, who ran up to his certain of obtaining more active and important employment. He mother, and seemed to be making an effort to get into a faint or a

will talk on till old age or poverty comes over him; but nothing fit in her arms. She could only elicit, from incoherent expres

will crush his lively, vaulting, active, bouncing spirit. He will sions, that some companion had attacked and ill-used him. bounce to the very last; and we do believe that death will find it as * Why did you not stand up in your own defence ?" asked one of hard to pin him, as to catch a fine, springy, industrious flea. We his brothers. Straightway the spirit of bounce came over the know another bouncer, however, the very ditto of the one we are youth. Barsting from his mother's arms, he exclaimed, “Oh, speaking of, who has bounced to some purpose, for he has bounced didn't I give it to him! didn't I give it to bim, father! he'll himself into a good official situation--but then he is an Irishman. never look me in the face again- I can tell you that much !" He There are more than one kind of fat bouncers. The dapper, then proceeded to relate his exploits in a style which made even happy-looking, sanguine, ruddy-complexioned bouncer, whom it his bouncing family to desire him to hold his tongue.

is quite a pleasure to see ; and the pale-faced fat bouncer, with a The patronising bouncer is a great bore. He is continually contemptuous scowl, and a pursy look; his white neckcloth rolled volunteering his kind offices in your behalf ; has such a large circle in a full manner round his short, thick neck, and his whole look of friends, and has such powerful influence; could put you, at a disagreeably important. There are also several kinds of lean day's notice, into a snug clerkship in Downing-street or the bouncers. The tall, smart, affable man, who has a quick eye and Custom House; and if you know of any poor widow who wants to a touch of his hat for everybody; and the saturnine, solemn, lean get her son into the Blue-coat School, you have but to apply to bouncer, whose liver is of the nature called “ lily,” and is always him, and he will get it done for you. The worst of it is, that desperately afraid that you are going to insult him. But why when you press him for a share of all this favour and influence, it should we attempt to describe individuals of such a varied and always happens that his most particular friend, the Duke of multiform species as the bouncers? The cook bounces about her Wellington, is out of town; or, at that precise moment, he has skill in cooking, the fine places she has been in, and the great

LITERARY BOUNCER.

consideration that was always paid to her; the housemaid bounces

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. about her relations, and how, once on a day, it was never thought that she would become a servant; nurse bounces about the in

EMANUEL VON FELLENBERG, fluence which she possesses over “missus,” and how free and EMANUEL VON FELLENBERG, the celebrated founder of the familiarly “master” treats her ; the wife bounces about her hus- institution for the improvement of education and agriculture at band, and the husband sometimes about the wife; the carpenter His father was of the patrician rank, and a member of the govern,

Hofwyl, in the canton of Berne in Switzerland, was born in 1771. bounces about his chips, and the compositor bounces, over his put ment of Berne ; his mother, a grand-daughter of the celebrated of porter, about the quantity of types he can pick up in a day; the Admiral Van Tromp, was distinguished for her enlarged benevolence advertisement collector bounces about the huge circulation of his and sincere piety. How much have the greatest characters owed periodical, and the bookseller sometimes bounces about his Fellenberg urged upon him, by example and precept, the duty of

to their mothers, from the Gracchi to Napoleon! The mother of editions ; the traveller is an old privileged bouncer, and the world relieving the unfortunate; and she awakened a spirit of patriotism is a bouncing world : for even undertakers and grave-diggers in his young mind, by describing to him the public services of her bounce, and as the earth rattles on our coffins, the dead might grandfather in Holland, and by placing before him the history of almost hear the living bouncing over them.

his own country ; and during the struggle of the Americans for

their independence, her ardent feelings in their favour excited in We cannot conclude this bouncing paper without a notice of the her son a strong interest in the heroes of thut unprecedented war,

He is a elever fellow ; is a good classical and warmed his heart in behalf of his own country. These feel. scholar; and knows German and Spanish as familiarly as his own ings were coufirmed by the exhortations of bis' father; who, mother-tongue, besides having a slight knowledge of Russian, a by the failure of efforts to promote salutary ineasures, woulu en.

when returned from the council, fatigued, and almost disheartened tolerable acquaintance with Arabic, and could make a shift with large upon the duties of a citizen, charging his son to live for his the Sanserit. He is fully competent to

country. To these impressions of his childhood Fellenberg

ascribes, in a great measure, his subsequent character and des. “ Search the moon by her own light;

tination. At the age of fifteen, he was placed under the instrucTo take an inventory of a

tion of the celebrated blind poet, Pfeffel, at Colmar. The first Her real estate and personal ;

bias of his mind towards the subject of education was given on his To measure wind, and weigh the air,

return to Switzerland, by an address delivered by his father as And turn a circle to a square ;

president of the Helvetic Society; and the intimacy of bis parents And in the braying of an ass

with Pestalozzi, whom he early learned to revere for his genius and Find out the treble and the bass

benevolence, strengthened this interest, and probably contributed If mares neigh alto, and a cow

much to give to bis etforts the direction they have taken. On bis In double diapason low."

return to his native city, at the age of sixteen, he found the pur

suits and character of the young men of his own age so frivolous and One more " last word;" a story, reader, but not a bounce. A corrupt, that be abandoned their society for his study, nutwilh. very worthy man, a member of parliament, a gentleman, and a stunding the petty persecutions to which this conduct subjected scholar, once advised us never to confess ignorance of any subject, him. In order to improve his health, which bad been inpaired by especially in certain circles, or to certain parties.

“ Franklin,"

study, he gave up the delicacies of his father's table for ery simple

fare, and employed other means to harden his constitution, render. said he, was impressively told to stoop,' as he went through ing himself independent of artificial wants, and devoting to the world, and he would miss many hard thumps; but," said he, benevolent objects the money wasted by bis companions in luxury " if you want to push your way in the world of London, BOUNCE, genial with his own, respecting the object of education, he felt the

and amusement. Disappointed at finding in no one a spirit con. and bounce high, or you will never be able to clear the five-barred need of some regenerating influence on the mass of society. We gates that stand in your way!"

might suppose that such a mind, enlarged, enthusiastic, and feeling its own power, might have been carried away by tbat spirit ut in. fidelity which then spread like a flood over the face of Europe. But, thanks to his early instructors, it was not so; his owu faith

in revelation never wavered ; and so confident was he that no A few years since, a ship " arrived at Liverpool, after having reflecting man could resist the evidence of Christie nity, that he been for several weeks the sport of winds and waves. The mari. spent months of fruitless discussion in the residence of an un. ner's compass having been washed overboard in a storm, their believer, on the banks of the lake of Zurich, with the persuasion

that he should convince him of his error. For the purpose of voyage was dreary and procrastinated, much caution being neces

acquainting himself with the state of the people of his own sary; and despite which, their fate, but for a fortuitous circum- country, he travelled through Switzerland, usually on foot, with stance, might have been inevitably sealed. Now, had the simple his knapsack on his back, residing in the villages and farm-houses, fact of the extreme ease with which a mariner's needle might be mingling in the labours and occupations and partaking of tbe rude made been known to any on board, the peril might have been lodging and fare of the peasants and mechanics, and often extend. avoided. A sewing-needle, or the blade of a penknife, being held ing his journey to surrounding countries. In 1790, he went to the in an upright posture and struck by a hammer, and subsequently I immediately after the fall of Robespierre, in 1795, he visited Paris,

university of Tubingen, to complete his studies in civil law; and floated by cork on water, or suspended by a thread without iron, where he attended the sessions of the committee of instruction. would become a magnetic needle, and point north and south; or

Perceiving, however, the storm which was impending over Switzer. the end of a poker held vertically, and passed over its surface land, from the schemes of the French revolutionists, he returned from one extreme to the other, would impart magnetism, to warn his countrymen against it, urging the sacrifice of some of which, if the needle be of steel, would be of a permanent charac- the oppressive claims and exclusive privileges of the patricians, ter.” I take this case from a Mechanics' Magazine published in as the only means of averting it. But his predictions were disAmerica.

believed, and his warnings disregarded. Again, I read in the newspaper the other day as follows:-“A raising and leading the men of his canton to resist them. But

At the approach of the French troops in 1798, he was active in penknife, by accident, dropped into a well twenty feet deep. A such efforts were vain against the disciplined forces of the enemy; sunbeam from a mirror was directed to the bottom, which rendered Berne was taken, Fellenberg proscribed, a price was set upon his the knife visible; and a magnet fastened to a pole brought it up." head, and he was compelled to fly to Germany. He had some And so of thousands of cases that occur daily in the mechanic's intention of going to America, whither he had transmitted some business; and a little science comes in play very well here, though of his property as a resource, in case of the utter ruin of affairs a man does not know any more.

at home ; but being recalled to Switzerland, he was soon after sent

on a mission to Paris, to remonstrate against the oppressive and T'imothy Claxton's Hints to Mechanics.

rapacious couduct of the agents of the French republic. In this

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE.

he so far succeeded as to procure the recall of one of the most sciences connected with it, was formed at Buchsee, at which several profligate ; but, disgusted with the utter disregard of principle and hundred students were collected. honesty which he witnessed in public men and measures, he In the same year Fellenberg commenced a more important part resigned his office. Entering into politics upon his return home, of his great plan--the formation of a normal school, or seminary he was equally dissatisfied with the want of faith and public spirit of teachers. This institution received great encouragement in the which he found on the part of the government, and abandoning number of those who flocked to it to be taught, and a means was political life entirely, he resolved henceforth to devote himself to presented for regenerating gradually the schools of Switzerland ; the subject of early education as the object of his life, and as the but the rulers of Berne, without any apparent motive consistent only resource for ameliorating the state of his own and other with the spirit of a free government, forbade their teachers to sountries, and for preventing a repetition of the tremendous con- attend these instructions on pain of losing their stations. Since vulsions which he had witnessed. He was appointed a member of that period this establishment has been connected with the agricul. the council of education at Berne ; but being soon convinced that tural institution only. Hofwyl had by this time become the resort nothing adequate could be accomplished through the medium of of strangers from all quarters. Deputations were sent to inspect legislative commissions, and having come into the possession of an the establishment from several of the German princes; the late ample fortune, he resolved to form on his own estate, and on an King of Wurtemberg visited it in person incognito ; and a number independent basis, a model institution, in which it should be of pupils of princely and noble families were sent thither for proved what education could accomplish for the benefit of humanity education. In 1814, the Emperor Alexander sent to Howfyl seven He married, about this time, a Bernese lady, of the patrician sons of Russian princes and noblemen, to be educated there, in family of Ischarner, who has born him nine children, six of whom, accordance with a plan suggested by Fellenberg for the gradual as well as their mother, are devoted coadjutors in his plan of amelioration of the Russian empire; but in a few years afterwards benevolence.

this powerful patronage was withdrawn on account of the political The great object of Fellenberg was to elevate all classes of state of Europe ; other foreign pupils were recalled, and of late society, by fitting them better for their respective stations, and to about one third of them have been English, and the remainder render them happy and united, without destroying that order which Swiss. Providence had appointed, and which the governments of Europe In succeeding years several new buildings were erected, and preserved with so much jealousy. He believed it important to Hofwyl now comprises :-1, the model farm, which supplies the collect in one institution the poor and the rich, each with their wants of its population, amounting to about three hundred persons; appropriate means of improvement, and thus to establish proper 2, workshops for the fabrication and improvement of agricultural and friendly relations between them. He considered it of high implements, scientific apparatus, and clothing for the establishimportance to make agriculture the basis of such an institution. ment; 3, a lithographic press for music and other works; 4, a He regarded it as the employment best of all adapted to invigorate scientific institution, for the education of the higher classes ; 5, a the body; but he also believed that, by elevating agriculture from practical institution ; 6, an agricultural institution ; 7, a normal a mere handicraft to an art founded upon scientific principles, and school. At the distance of six miles is the colony of Meykirch, leading directly to the operations of the great First Cause, it would consisting of eight or ten boys, who are placed on an uncultivated become a pursuit peculiarly fitted to elevate and purify the mind, spot, to acquire their subsistence by their own labour, receiviog and serve as the basis of improvement to the labouring classes, and daily instruction, and aided by a small capital supplied by Fellento society at large.

berg With these views Fellenberg purchased the estate called Hofwyl, Thus has this excellent and indefatigable man laboured to benefit selecting it on account of its situation ; so insulated as to secure his fellow-creatures. Difficulties did not deter him, nor the coolness it from the influence of bad examples, yet surrounded by villages of friends discourage him : he at last triumphed over all obstacles ; that would furnish labourers, and only six miles from the city of and not only has he reaped sustenance for hundreds from fields Berne. It was an estate of about two hundred acres, under poor “where Ceres never gained a wreath before,” but he has cultivated cultivation, lying on a hill filled with springs, and bounded on the barren minds of his fellow-men, and laid the foundation of three sides by a valley eighty feet in depth. He commenced his moral and intellectual worth. work by draining the arable land and collecting the water into a One peculiar feature in the system of education pursued at streamlet; he then trenched the soil ; and converted the swampy Hofwyl is the absence of the stimulus of rewards and distinctions ; laad into meadows, by covering it with a foot in depth of sand and and complete proof is furnished in this establishment, that the soil from the upland, brought down partly by means of the most ardent thirst for knowledge and the most assiduous babits of streamlet, and partly by sleds raised by pulleys. He erected ex- study may be produced without resorting to the principle of tensive granaries to provide for the abundant crops wbich he emulation. The great aim of Fellenberg has been to produce men, anticipated. All this excited ridicule among his enemies, and and not mere scholars ; his great principle is to unite physical, alarm and remona trance among his friends, who left him, by bis moral, and intellectual education. The invigoration of the body advice, to sustain te burden alone. By the system of stall-feeding and the preservation of the health are carefully provided for, by he obtained an abundance of manure ; and his various inventions the size and airiness of the buildings, the regulations respecting and unceasing exertions have been crowned by the lands of Hofwyl food and sleep according to the constitutions of individuals, and being made to yield fourfold their former produce, with an unin. the extensive play-grounds. The fundamental views of Pestalozzi termitted succession of crops. An establishment was also formed are adopted in many branches, with such modifications as are for the manufacture of his improved instruments of agriculture, necessary in their practical application. The utmost watchfulness which have been sent to every part of Europe ; and Hofwyl has is used in moral and religious education; and the development of furnished experimental farmers to princes and noblemen, and religious feeling, under the influence of revelation, aided by the directors of agricultural institutions.

cultivation of the taste, and the formation of habits of constant But Fellenberg occupied himself in improving agriculture only industry, order, and temperance, are the objects sought to be as a means to the more important end of improving man himself; attained. Another great point has been fully established by the and the germ of a scientific institution was formed, by associating experiments of Fellenberg--that the poor may receive a good two or three pupils with his own sons, and employing private practical education at such an institution, without interfering with tutors at his own house. About this time Pestalozzi being obliged the usual hours of labour; and that if they can be retained to the to leave his residence, Fellenberg established him as a coadjutor age of twenty-one, the expense will be entirely repaid. in the chateau of Buchsee, about half a mile from Hofwyl ; but the strict order and rigid economy which Fellenberg deemed necessary, agreed but ill with the ardent, but irregular benevolence HISTORY, however profoundly studied, will still, perhaps, leave of the good Pestalozzi; and the latter, being offered the much us in doubt as to the roles which ought to regulate our own consuperior castle of Yverdun, he left Hofwyl, unhappily with feelings duct, or our share in the general conduct of society, of which we towards Fellenberg cooled by the necessity which the latter was are members : but it will leave us none as to the boundless indul. under to restrain and curb the noble flights of his early friend. gence we owe to the opinions of other men. When we see that

In 1807, the first building was erected for the scientific institu- science is so complicated ; that truth is so far removed from us, so tion, and a school for the poor projected, which in the following shrouded from our ken; that every step in our work offers fresh year was carried into execution, with the assistance of a young man difficulties to our investigation, raises fresh questions for solution ;named Vehrli, the son of a schoolmaster in a neighbouring canton. when we are not sure of our own footing, how shall we pronounce About the same time a school of theoretical and practical agricul. sentence on those who differ from us Sismondi's Fall of the ture, for all classes, provided with professors of the respective | Roman Empire.

USES OF HISTORY.

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