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LEIPZIG FAIR.

harping, waltzing; and to this add card-playing, billiards, roulette, Twice in each year material for conversation abounds in dust, crowding, and elbowing. Such is the physiognomy of the Leipzig. A complete stranger may then be addressed without Leipziger Rossplatz, where, during the mart, many curious having recourse to that hackneyed subject, the weather ; for one scenes are played ; but, thanks to a watchful police, serious has only to say, “ How goes the mart?“Is the mart good ?” affrays are of rare occurrence. “ How many bankrupts are we to have ?" All this is quite allow- Each Leipzig mart, or Messleben, is held for three weeks, and able to do, and thus an acquaintance is commenced.

each week has its own particular name; and in the middle These time-killing moments annually occur at Easter and of these twenty-one glorious days, two are held as days of Michaelmas, and are well known to the trading world. There jubilee, and at night pillars of light, like central suns, illumine is also a smaller mart, or rather fair, at the new year.

the entire fair. These days are the Alpha and Omega of the mart, The Leipzigers are such thorough-going traders, that they must and upon these two days, if it does not hail paving-stones, no one keep their hands in, even upon a new-year's day. The weather stays at home, for the gadfly seizes upon all. is then too cold to expect a visit from the turbans or caftans of The natives of the East and of the West mingle together in this the East. The great merchants of the west also remain at home ; motley throng; and the mighty human stream, finding the crowded so that the chilly Neujahrmesse is generally a mere common

streets too narrow and too close to breathe freely in, sally out at place fair.

every gate to storm the wirthschaften (public-houses) in the Leipzig is famous, as all the world knows, for its university, as

suburbs; these are shortly as crowded as the houses left behind well as its marts ; but one alternately gives place to the other, them in the stadt. Many, finding the nearer houses already full, and before the deafening noise of hammering up the booths begins push forward towards the Rosenthal, for here have two knowing in the streets of Leipzig, the students, the disciples of the muses,

fellows, like clever fishers, spread their nets; their names are may be seen pouring out of each of the five city gates, after a Kyntschi and Clermont; they are both restaurateurs, and ensnare long half-year of study; and now they sally forth from Alma

the people by hundreds to cool their magens with delicious ices. Mater, with their heads crammed with learning, and their knap. The motley throng soon fills every room, nor can entreaty or sacks with themes, all hurrying and marching homewards, in money, at all times, procure refreshments, where the luxury of a eruberant spirits at the thoughts of the happy meeting with family chair is of infinite value. and friends, and the savoury flesh-pots reeking with delicious

Herr Kyntschi takes the people in like shoals of herrings, and odour upon the paternal hearth.

when all his rooms are full, hundreds may be seen wandering in Scarce are the loud-singing, choral groups of students clear of the garden, breathing an atmosphere impregnated with the smoke the precincts of the city, ere the Rossplatz is sonorous with of the narcotic weed. exotic sounds-Asiatic and African,-bawls, growls, roarings, and

" Robert der Teufel” begins at half-past six, and pleasantly bellowings ! Leipzig's hopeful youths, bare-legged and bare- beguiles an hour or two later over a glass of grog or punch ; you headed, stand staring at the imposing figures depictured upon may listen to the gabrielen, or the iriswalzer ; dancing is quite canvass, and hung upon the lofty poles which raise their heads out of the question; but look to your glass, and take care of high above the dusty waggons, which contain the wondrous birds, your toes. beasts, and reptiles. Next to the wild beasts stands a cabinet of

Brimful of the delights of vulgar sights, and wearied with the wax figures ; there may be seen that police master of finesse, crowding, elbowing, and pushing, the fashionable man, by a kind Fouché, now no longer to be feared ; Mary Stuart, whose charms of natural instinct, now makes for the saloon of the Hôtel de the vile executioner's axe was to lay in the dust; near to this Pologne, hoping there, at least, to find a place at the well-served unfortunate queen stands Peter the Great of Russia, with the still table ; and if he is so fortunate as to find a vacant place, he hastily bleeding head of a Strelitzer in his hand. In a neighbouring seats himself, and rests in luxurious case from the labours of the booth may be seen a mystical being—a man covered from head busy day. But immense as this saloon is, countless as are the to foot with bair ; and the notice informs the wondering gazers

covers, in a very brief space of time every place is occupied. that he is a native of a country four thousand miles beyond Those who, being gifted with the virtue of patience (which few Batavia ! How far Batavia is from the Rossplatz few of the Germans are without), obtain the much desired seat at last, may Leipzig sapers have any idea. But four thousand miles beyond revel in the delights of the varied fare, and quaff from humble Batavia! that entirely gravels and floors these clever Leipzigers. Port to imperial Tokay. Delighted with your good fortune at Once before there was a wonderful nondescript sort of a wild man finding yourself with unbroken limbs, blessed with a keen appe. to be seen in this same Rossplatz of Leipzig. 'The land from tite, you will not be over-particular or critical about the cookery, whence he was said to have come was never seen in any map, or

-remember it is the messe, and do not be sparing in your allow. described in any geography; he was a cannibal, and had been ance on this account, nor do not be curious about your wine, and tamed with much care, lest he might take a fancy to feed upon smack, and taste, and flavour, neither hold it up to the light, some of the Leipzigers. He was carefully placed in a dusky expecting to find your nectar as clear as amber, or particularly corner, as if it were feared that too much light might induce him fine-flavoured ; you may indeed, upon detecting any flagrant fault to break loose, or commit some fearful act of native ferocity. In in your wine, order in another bottle or vintage, but believe me, point of intellect he was supposed to be nearly equal to the you will be apt to find the same sour result. The common wines Esquimaux, who can count as far as nine, only this wild man at last provoke-you become desperate, order in champagne, and, could neither count, nor speak, but in a growl, half sloth, half after a bottle or two, good humour is restored, friends and bear ; yet, notwithstanding, a most learned professor, after much acquaintance gather together, and a jovial carouse closes a day of profound cogitation, brought forth a treatise in flowing Latin, in the Leipzig mart. which he gave country, species, nay the very herd, or family, The pleasantest of the three weeks' mart is the middle one, where this lusus naturæ might perchance be found in the wilds when the retail trade is generally in full bloom. As to the great of Asia.

merchants, many of them finish their traffic in the first week, In this same Rossplatz of Leipzig might also be seen tumblers, and some long before its termination. The third week is much horse-riders, monkeys, cockatoos, sugar-plums, and waffle-cakes. quieter, and the Thursday of this week is the most serious day in The atmosphere of the Rossplatz is odorous with the savoury the year to the gambling mercantile speculator, for many bills fall smell of Westphalia ham, smoked sausages, eels, looking like due upon this day, and many a renowned firm totters, staggers, dried snakes, herring salad, renowned eel soup, smoke of countless falls. Few fairs pass over without defaulters and failures, and cigars and meerschaums.

many a ruined merchant hears of zahlwoche donnerstag with In every inn, hostel, and booth, may be heard music, singing, bitter recollection and breaking heart.

What traveller or stranger in Leipzig has not paid a visit to

THE DESERT AND GARDEN.* the neu Buchhändler-börse (Booksellers' Exchange)? The best speech made upon its opening was that of Regierungs-Commissär- boundless plains which characterise the country called the Deccan.

IMAGINE yourself in the interior of India, on one of those Von Falkenstein, a man esteemed and respected by all — the mer.

Here the eye stretches in vain for a limit, unless some rising hillock cantile, professional, and literary man.

breaks the prospect. Neither fence, nor hedge, nor forest, inter An old German proverb says, “That where a new temple is rupt the monotony of the scene. Not a tree relieves the eye, erected to the Deity, the devil is sure to build a wine-house close except it be near a well, or reservoir of water. by.” So close by this new literary exchange is there also a wine- It was in the early part of June. Eight months had already bouse established, which the Leipzigers call the Rheinbaiersche elapsed since the fall of a single shower of rain. Not a shrub, Weinhandlung.

not a blade of grass, not a relic of former vegetation was to be We do not mean to infer that this exchange is a temple to the seen, except where the soil had been artificially irrigated. Here

and there a shade tree, or a fruit tree, whose roots penetrate far Divinity, neither do we mean to accuse mine host of the weinhaus beneath the surface, can survive the dearth of the hot season. of being an emissary of the prince of darkness; for this establish- Dreariness and desolation cover the land on every side. ment is greatly praised for the pure quality and fine flavour of its

At an early hour we left our resting-place, a kind of caravansary. wines, which are served in schoppens, and half schoppens. This The atmosphere was slightly refreshing, though not cool. But no name stimulates and amuses the genuine Leipziger, who has been sooner had the sun appeared above the horizon, than we began to accustomed from time immemorial to drink his wine out of a wither beneath the intensity of his rays. It was scarcely nine, römer, a wide-footed drinking-glass.

when the hot wind, a kind of sirocco, commenced, which, added Notwithstanding Piracy, Censorship, and cheap literature, to the scorching of the heated earth, rendered travelling almost the book-making trade Aourishes, and enables these literary intolerable. We sought a place for shelter. merchants to give a splendid dinner. The hotel-keeper, doubt.

Casting our eyes to the left, we explored an immense waste plain, less a man of delicacy and tact, liberally erased the item of which apparently extended to the shore of an interminable ocean.

Knowing well that we were in the interior of a great country, and far krebsuppe (crayfish-soup) from the dinner bill. And to con

from sea, lake or river, we recognised, for the first time in this vince every one concerned that the book trade flourishes, the appearance, the mirage, or extraordinary optical illusion, formed ABC merchants gave a splendid ball at the Hôtel de Pologne, by the refraction of a vertical sun, from the heated earth. So where they danced à la Strauss and Lanner until the sun arose. perfect is the deception, that deer, and other animals, have died Let us not forget the baierisches Bier (Bavarian beer).

This from exhaustion while pursuing the retiring phantom. beverage is in wonderful request during the messe ; and if the But from the opposite side, we saw a reality, nearer at hand, Bavarian export is as much admired in Greece as it is in Leipzig, and scarcely less wonderful. A verdant spot, fresh and blooming. then will the brave Greeks have cause of congratulation. Many of an ocean of sand. Spring amid the deadness of autumn.

Fragrance in the midst of desolation. A fertile island in the bosom a tottering Leipziger landlord is, by the aid of this foreign auxiliary, Wearied by travel, and almost suffocated by dust and heat, we baierisches Bier, become his own man again. How the Leipziger drew near as to the “ shadow of a great rock in a weary land.” brewer may approve of this love of change is quite another matter. How cheering amidst such desolation, how refreshing to the Besides the bookselling crabs and baierisches Bier, there was a pilgrim beneath the rays of a tropical sun, to behold a green field, third article in superabundance, Maikäfer (cockchafers), and they a. cool, fair garden, whose trees bend with fruit, whose flowers feasted upon the greater part of the young and tender leaves in diffuse perfume, whose atmosphere breathes the sublimity of a

temperate clime. Hasting to this enchanted spot, we pitched our the Rosenthal. Every German publisher has his comm sioner at Leipzig, to tamarind tree.

tent beneath the thick foliage and wide-spreading branches of a whom he sends prospectuses and specimens of his new publica

How changed the scene ! It was a garden of several acres in tions, which the commissioner distributes, and gathers orders. At extent. Every plant and flower, every shrub and tree, was clad in the Easter fair, booksellers from all Germany, Sweden, Denmark, the richest verdure. Here was a compartment filled with healththe Russian Baltic provinces, from the Netherlands, and even ful vegetables. Near it was ripening grain, corn in " the blade, or France and England, to the number, sometimes, of three hundred, in the ear;" then a tuft of trees, loaded with blossoms, or enriched meet at Leipzig, to settle their accounts ; and this meeting has the lemon and pomegranate, the citron and banana, were here in

with perfected fruit. The tamarind, the mango, and the orange, acquired additional importance by the establishment of the book, their glory. Here, also were the rose, the lily, the jessamine, and sellers' exchange, a handsome building, which has just been com

countless other flowers peculiar to the tropics, and the luxuriant pleted. The number of book and music-sellers in Leipzig itself vineyard, maturing its rich clusters. And among the embowering is one hundred and nineteen. There are twenty-three printing- verdure, the warbling songsters found a pleasant retreat from the offices : above forty millions of sheets are annually printed, and tyrant rage of an Indian sun. the bales of books brought to Leipzig every year amount, on an What a contrast with the surrounding country! What a fulfilaverage, to 30,000,000 cwt. ; the value of which is, however, not ment of the sublime promise of the Hebrew prophet: “ The wilderprobably more than from £200,000 to £250,000.

ness and the solitary place shall be glad, and the desert rejoice aod blossom as the rose. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice with joy and singing; the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the

excellency of Carmel and Sharon.” HARTFORD is a very handsome country town. The streets are fountain was there, deep and broad, sending forth copious streams

But what caused this sudden springing forth of beauty? A wide. One of the great objects of attraction here is the Charter to fructify the surrounding region. Fertility in the East depends Oak, which is still standing in the lower part of the town, and is much on an artificial supply of water. If this can be freely comsaid to have been a forest-tree before the land was cleared. The manded, vegetation is rapid and abundant. The intense heat, and original charter to this state of Connecticut was demanded by Sir plentiful moisture, make even barrenness prolific. Seed-time and Edmund Andross, on the part of the English government, in harvest meet. A succession of crops, thrice, or even four times 1687. The legislature had no alternative but to deliver it up. At in a year, are realised. Spring, summer, and autumn, blend in one

continued harvest-hymn of praise. the meeting appointed for that purpose, which was attended by the British agent, the candles in the room where the meeting was fifteen or twenty square feet. In the centre is a fountain or well,

The garden or field is usually divided into compartments of held in the evening were extinguished, and the charter seized by a

and near it a small reservoir. From thence, the main watercourse citizen, who escaped and conveyed it to this tree, in which it extends in some convenient direction, and smaller channels are led remained till after the revolution. The charter is still preserved from it, in branches, to every separate compartment. The water in the office of the secretary of state.--Stuart's Travels in America.

* By the Rev. HOLLIS REED, formerly Missionary in India.

THE CHARTER OAK.

is raised by oxen, attached to a long rope, which passes over a windlass, and is made fast to an enormous leathern bucket. When

THE GOLD MINES OF GEORGIA, UNITED STATES. a great quantity is thus thrown into the reservoir, it spontaneously

The imperfect condition of the machinery, and the disorganised flows into the principal channel, from whence the gardener con

state of the management of almost all the mines productive of the ducts it at his pleasure. “The rivers of waters are in his hand ; precious metals, affords a striking contrast to the admirable order he turneth them whithersoever he will."

and systematic mode of working observable in most of those proWhen the stream begins to flow from the reservoir, he stations ductive of the (so-called) baser metals. These causes have tended himself at the channel which conveys it to the first compartment, extremely to keep up the value of the precious metals ; for, if the and removing with his foot a slight mound of earth, directs thither working of the mines of Peru and Mexico were directed by the as much water as is requisite for its irrigation. Closing that same scientific knowledge which gives effect to the efforts of the avenue, he proceeds to the second, thence to the third, and thus Cornish adventurer, silver spoons would quickly drive Britannia onward till all have been visited. This is repeated every morning metal from the field, and our gold coinage would become almost and evening, and it matters little how large the field is, if the as cumbrous as the Spanish dollar. Even in the state of Georgia, fountain contain a sufficient supply. But if the space to be irri- (the most southern of the United States, on the Atlantic,) gated is ont of proportion, or the fountain diminished by drought, where we might have expected the spirit of American enterprise vegetation withers, or becomes extinct. The further you recede would have been more active, we find the gold mines worked in from the centre, the more blighted does everything appear. The the same rude and primitive manner as in the distracted countries water is too low, the impetus too feeble, to reach the remoter of the South. The following account of a visit to them in the bounds. This constant and laborious process of cultivation ex- year 1835, is appended to Mrs. Gilman's “ Poetry of Travelling," plains the inspired description of a tropical region ; where " thou an amusing account of an American's tour of observation on her sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with thy foot, as a garden of countrymen. herbs."

“ From Athens, the seat of the State University, where I had We know that Lebanon was renowned for its sublime scenery ; attended a very creditable commencement, I directed my course that its lofty cedars, its plantations of olive, its vineyards, producing towards Clarksville. This village, the seat of justice for Haberthe choicest wines, its crystal streams, its fertile vales, and odor. sham county, is beautifully situated, in a most healthful and iferous shrubberies, combined to form what, in the poetic style of temperate region, near the mountains, whose blue summits rise in prophecy, is called " its glory.Mount Carmel is proverbial, in full view around it. The village itself is very pretty, with numethe sacred volume, for its unfading verdure and surpassing fertility. rous well-built frame houses, and a brick court-house, in the Sharon, an extensive plain, to the south of Carmel, celebrated for middle of its square, according to the invariable plan of county. its vines, flowers, and green pastures, and adorned in early spring towns in Georgia. I arrived about noon on Sunday, and had the with the white and red rose, the narcissus, the white and the orange satisfaction of attending service in a building, comfortable and lily, the carnation, and a countless variety of other flowers, with neat, though plain,- belonging, I believe, to the Methodist its groves of olive and sycamore, is but another name “ for ex- denomination, though on this occasion its pulpit was occupied by cellency'' and beauty.

a clergyman of other sentiments. The next morning found me on But what did the prophet intend to illustrate by these forcible the way to the mines, on horseback, and in agreeable company; and significant emblems? Doubtless a vision burst upon his mind, We crossed the beautiful valley of Naucoochy, a spot which had no less magnificent than the boundless dispersion of the waters of been under cultivation long before the Whites became possessors of life, the reclaiming of a desert world, the clothing it with the the soil, and probably even before it was occupied by the Cherogolden fruits of immortality. Behold, in the heart of the wilder- kees. A small conical hill was pointed out to me, rising from the ness, a fountaln breaks forth. Sterility blossoms, desolation lifts level of the valley, and supposed, with great probability, to be a up its head with “joy and singing."

work of art, and to contain the bones of some Indians of an earlier Is not our earth as a great moral desert, whence the "glory and

In another portion of this valley, the miners, last summer, excellency" of Eden have departed? The fruits of righteousness while digging for gold, encountered beneath the soil unexpected shrank from its forbidden soil. Sin, by its fearful monopoly, vestiges of the hand of man. They disinterred a number of hats, sought to cover its whole face with tares.' How shall this barren constructed in the usual manner of log-houses, but with the waste be redeemed from its desolation ?

remarkable circumstance that they were without doors or windows. The wise landholder of the East, when he would reclaim a

These apertures are, in building log-huts, generally sawn out after barren jungle to fertility, provides a fountain of water, lets out his the logs have been secured in their places ; so the natural concluground to husbandmen, and makes them accountable for its im. sion is, that this cantonment, commenced by some party, was, provement. Thus hath the Almighty provided in our moral desert, from some cause unknown, hastily abandoned before it was coma fountain of the waters of life, fathomless, boundless, inexhaustible. pleted. But who were the builders? The most probable conjec"O; the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom and knowledge ture, perhaps, is that they were Spaniards, by whom it is well of God."

known, under the command of De Soto and others, Georgia was The mandate has gone forth, from his throne, that its waters be

partially explored. conveyed to the utmost regions of the thirsty earth. Is the fountain

“ After being deserted by their builders, it seems probable that full ? Are the gardeners, his ministering servants, ready to con

these half-finished huts were for a time under water, and that duct its healing streams to the world's remotest bounds ? Is the Naucoochy valley was temporarily a lake, among the accumulating propelling power, the power of fervent, united, effectual prayer, length forced its way through its bank, and left, as at present, the

alluvium of which the huts were at last buried. The lake at forcing those living waters through all the fields of death?

Why then does not the wilderness put on her beautiful garments, valley intersected by a small stream. and break forth in songs of gladness? Why is not the voice of

“But I must leave Naucoochy, and, turning to the left, cross a heathen lamentation changed to the cheerfulness of health, and to branch of the Chatahoochee, and make my way along the side of the hope of glory?

Mount Yonah ; now no longer inhabited by the bears, from which Alas! the reservoir has not been kept full. The irrigation has friend who had made his home in this region; and with him and

it derives its name. It was my object to spend a few days with a been partial. Even the adjacent portions have not received their full supply : but to the remoter provinces, only here and there has his acquaintances I learned that warm hearts and cultivated minds A feeble streamlet been directed. The propelling force has been

can live in log-cabins and deal in gold. It was not long after Inadequate. The waters have sometimes been wasted on their arriving at my place of destination, before I walked forth to visit a They have often failed of their destined end. The gar- deposit mines. These are found along the banks of rivulets of

gold mine. The first which I saw was one of the alluvial or deners are too few to conduct what the reservoir imparts.

'branches,' and the gold is separated by the simple process of Only here and there a spot regales us with the delights of spring, washing. For my gratification, a workman went through this or the harvests of autumn. Only a few bring forth the fruits process in its simplest form, that of 'panning.' This is merely to of the spirit.” A vast proportion of the desert is still imreclaimed. fill an iron pan with the gravel among which the gold is found, and Especially are its most remote bounds left unvisited by the lifegiving to stir the pan about with the hands for some time, under water, streams. Neither fertilised nor irrigated, they vegetate not, they throwing out the gravel from time to time. The metal, by this blossom not: and yet the fountain is ever full, and the voice of process, sinks to the bottom of the vessel, and the workman comes God invites the utmost ends of the earth to drink of its living waters and thirst no more.

* Yonah, in Cherokee, signifies bear.

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to us at last with nothing in his pan visible at first sight except a “ The danger, however, which existed of such a result is, I little black sand. On narrowly inspecting this sand, however, trust, decreasing. The mode adopted by Georgia, of disposing of you discover here and there a bright yellow speck, which is pure the lately acquired territory by lottery, gave, it is to be feared, too gold.

great encouragement to unprincipled speculators; and among the “This process of panning is of course slow and laborious ; very population who first crowded in upon that region, there were little of the gravel can thus be washed at a time. But in this many who would scarcely have been tolerated anywhere else. manner the gold-diggers at first laboured : to expedite the busi- | With them, however, were others of correct principles and unexness, however, a machine is now commonly used, called a rocker. ceptionable conduct ; and, as the wildness of a new settlement One of these machines finds employment for ten or twelve men, gradually wears away, the Gold Region assumes and maintains who are commonly negroes. You see three or four at work in more and more the aspect of an orderly, moral, and religious digging out the gravel, which lies commonly about two feet under community. The first excitement which attended the discovery the surface, and composes, itself, a stratum of the same thickness. of the metallic treasures in our country has worn off ; and it is Two or three are employed in carrying the gravel in wheelbarrows perceived that, with a few remarkable exceptions both on the to the rocker. One is occupied in shovelling it from the barrows favourable and on the unfavourable side, gold-mining is like any to the machine, others keep the machine in motion, and another, other form of honest labour : he who works hard may expect with a large rake, distributes the gravel over its surface. The upper moderate prosperity; he who is idle will fail of success. I may part of the rocker is very like a coarse sieve, and the gravel being add, however, that to the lover of nature the view is more agreethrown on it, and washed with water from the stream, which conti. able, of a field of waving grain or flowering cotton, than of turbid nually runs upon it, the smaller particles, among which is the gold, streams, muddy ditches, and exhausted, squalid, and sickly fall through the sieve into a box, where they are still further negroes. Whatever evils, however, attend this branch of industry washed until the water runs out. This lower box contains a will gradually give way. The deposit mines will, before many quantity of quicksilver, which, as you well know, attracts other years, be exhausted ; and in the vein mines, which may be regarded metals and combines with them. This quicksilver therefore as the permanent wealth of that section, the use of machinery will seizes the small particles of gold from among the sand and water probably supersede the cause which renders mining at present with which it is still mingled ; and at night the owner of the mine unhealthy. This cause I consider to be the necessity of work. finds in his machine a mass of amalgamated quicksilver and gold. ing much in water. But the ininers have at present a free He may then have the metal in a pure state by exposing the whole circulation of air and a fine climate; they are not pent up within to a strong heat.

the walls of a factory, nor are they exposed to the dangerous " By far the greater 'number of mines at present wrought in vapours of, a level soil.

Thus Providence apportions among Georgia are deposit or surface veins; since the hill or vein mines, different climes and occupations the advantages and disadvantages though richer in the precious metal, require more machinery than of life.” most gold-seekers can command. In these latter, the metal exists We see here a vast field for the exercise of skill and capital, not interspersed among gravel, but deeply imbedded in rock; and and we may reasonably expect that they will be attracted to it, in order to obtain it, the rock must be broken out and reduced to and by their combined operations render Georgia a formidable powder before the process of washing can be commenced. I have rival to the previous occupants of the bullion market. Besides not yet seen any works in full operation for the performance of natural advantages, she possesses the unspeakable blessing of a this process. I visited, however, a few days after the time men- free but settled government, the most favourable for the developtioned in my last, a lot where extensive and very costly prepara

ment of all the resources of a country. There the capitalist may tions were making for the purpose. A small hill had been pierced risk his money in undisturbed confidence ; whilst the unhappy with holes from above, and in various directions around its base, inhabitants of Mexico and Peru are constantly in dread of seeing till it looked like a colander ; but this part of the work had been the hard-earned produce of their toils torn from their grasp by abandoned for another attempt.

revolutionary tyrants. I entered one of the openings, with a guide who carried a torch. On each side of me were deep pits, full to the top with

Quantities of rock, however, had been cut out, from Having been told that a religious celebration, in a neighboutwhich, perhaps, before this, gold had been procured. The work-ing village on the sea-shore, was well worth seeing, we drove there. men were at the time engaged on another and larger opening,-a A vast number of peasants, male and female, attired in their feteshaft about twelve feet square, and, at the time I saw it, perhaps day dresses, formed of such varied and bright colours, that at a forty feet deep. This was half full of water, which the hands' distance they looked like a moving parterre filled with tulips, first were baling out by the barrel-full, with the aid of machinery. I attracted our attention. was told that the owner expected to penetrate about a hundred boddice and white petticoats; their hair braided exactly as I have

The women wore richly embroidered feet deeper before he touched the wealthy vein, but that when that

seen that of an antique statue, and crowned with flowers and large had been reached its profits would be incalculable.

combs, or bodkins of gold filagree. Their ear-rings, of the same “When I looked into the yawning gulf before me, where the costly material, nearly descended to the shoulders ; and around flow of water suspended the possibility of further excavation, I did their necks were chains, from which hung crosses and medallions, not envy him his prospect. The same morning I visited a rich with the images of Madonnas and saints. They wore large rings, deposite mine, belongin to the same gentleman. Here I was resembling the shields used by ladies to preserve their fingers when shown some very beautiful and valuable specimens of virgin gold, employed at needle-work; and shoes of the most brilliant colours, by which term the metal is designated when found pure, and in with silver buckles that nearly covered the fronts of them. These pieces of sufficient size to secure it without the use of quicksilver. gay dresses formed a striking contrast with the sombre black and A steam-engine had been erected here, for effecting more rapidly brown robes of the monks; and the gold brocaded vestments and the process of washing : but it had been found on trial inferior to

stoles of the priests were as admirably relieved by the snowy sur. the rockers, and it now lay useless and motionless, like the carcase plices of the boys who attended them. The procession moved of a slain mammoth.

along under an arcade of green foliage erected for the occasion, on " Another method of obtaining gold has been resorted to by the sea-shore, the waves approaching to its very limit; and their some enterprising men. This is, to search for the precious metal gentle murmur, as they broke on the sand, mingling with the the sands of the rivers and smaller streams. In some instances voices of the multitude as they chanted a sonorous hymn. The the course of the water has been turned, and its ancient channel blue sky above, and the placid azure sea, by the side of which the laid bare to the eye of industry : elsewhere machines are employed procession advanced, with the sunbeams glancing through the open to draw up from the bottom of the river the precious deposite. arches of foliage, on the bright colours of the dresses of the priests The Chestatee and Cane Creek especially appear to rival the and women, formed a beautiful picture ; from which not even the ancient Pactolus, to which (according to the fable) king Midas, by deaths' heads, nor grotesque images of saints and martyrs, could bathing in its waters, imparted his own power of making gold. I detract. The monks, bearing these sad mementoes of mortality, hope Georgia is not destined to exemplify in other respeets the wore cowls, with holes cut for the eyes, and cross-bones painted truth of that most ingenious and instructive fiction. May she on their breasts. Some of them beld banners on which were never, like Midas, find her wealth a curse, and, losing the habits represented various insignia of death ; the whole scene reminding of regular productive industry, starve in the midst of uncounted one of the old “ mysteries” of the middle ages, in which the pomps riches, like the unhappy king who could not touch an article of and vanities of life were contrasted by the ghastly images of the food without turning it into gold !

grave.-Lady Blessington.

ITALIAN FESTIVAL.

water.

and therefore ineffective on an humble audience : and it is for SEA SONGS OF THE SAILORS.

this reason that the ballads we shall instance, being more readily

understood, are better appreciated by sailors than lyrics of poetical " It was on the first of August, about noontide of the day, That we got a sight of the French fleet, at anchor as they lay."

merit, and continue to hold place in their favour.

But we have invariably remarked, that the popular songs of the " Bold Nelson made the signal for his ships to quickly close,

jack-tars, although deficient even in point of harmony, besides Before bright Phæbus disappeared they felt some British blows;

setting at defiance the rules of syntax, and luxuriating in every L'Orient we set on fire, the Convention's only pride,

sort of metre or measure, with utter contempt of prosody, are She show'd us a light on that good night the battle to decide."

Forecastle Song.

nevertheless constructed upon the critic's rules. This is a fact

worthy of attention, for it is produced by an innate principle of As very fallacious notions exist respecting the style of sailors' genius, as of course they must be considered entirely ignorant of songs,-many supposing they are selected from the budget of the elaborate dictates laid down by the critics. Dibdin, or from the nautical pieces enacted at the theatre, -we The burden of their songs being generally the relation of a shall endeavour to describe them as really sung by our Jack tars battle, a shipwreck, or some exciting event, they may be conat sea.

sidered in the light of humble epics : and, rough as they appear, It is only within these twenty or thirty years that Dibdin's it is a curious speculation to test them after this fashion. Their admirable lyrics have been known to seamen_even now they are general design appears to commence with an invocation to the by no means popular, and probably will never supersede the old muse, or an appeal to the attention of the listener, sometimes ballads, which, not being printed, are preserved by oral descent dashing into medias res in the approved fashion, but always from generation to generation, like the traditions of nations in detailing most graphically a chase and a battle, winding up with remote periods. During the last war we rarely knew Dibdin's effusions of loyalty and patriotism, not forgetting a health to the songs chanted on the forecastle, although most of them were commander. familiar to the officers, and must have been sometimes heard by Our sea-songs seldom embrace more than the time of one day ; the men at the theatres of seaport towns, where nautical pieces when they do, it is but to record the events immediately prelimiwere sure to attract their attention. Sailors have, however, an

nary to the action, instead of introducing them in long-winded abundant stock composed by themselves, of less pretension, but episodes, as Virgil and Milton have done, for the sake of effect in better suited to their taste, from one of the best of which we have the opening; all which trickery is utterly beneath Jack's straighttaxed our memory with the portion which heads these remarks : forward purpose; and in this respect his plan has been imitated by and regret that we cannot recollect, or by any means procure, the Byron, who protests against the practice, “as the worst of sinwhole of that ballad, which most graphically describes the events ning," and begins his celebrated epic “ at the beginning," with connected with the glorious victory of the Nile.

the birth, parentage, and education of his hero *. Some years ago, a controversy arose respecting the effect which

But, to be serious. The collection of ballads before us is valuable, Dibdin's songs had produced upon sailors, and the claims put not only by portraying

the real sentiments of seamen, as expressed forth by the friends of the author for a pension on that account. by themselves-for Dibdin has only described these feelings as he We believe that the verdict was so far awarded in favour of the conceived they would or should be expressed—but as detailing a poet, as to obtain for him the pension; for every one will admit number of events, connected with naval battles, that have never that his stirring ballads had a powerful tendency to excite feelings appeared in history; we mean relating to the conduct of partiof enterprise, heroism, and generosity, in the young aspirant for cular ships, and the honest and impartial opinions of the seamen naval fame. That they had any effect upon the generality of regarding matters which have heretofore beer canvassed on the common sailors——the long-tailed jack-tars, who gained for the partial evidence of the commanders, or so much of the public British seaman the reputation he enjoys-we utterly deny, seeing despatches as have been permitted to see the light. that not one in a hundred of them could recite a line of his com

We proceed to describe the manner in which our sea-songs and position: and we shall endeavour to show that the style of their the “long yarns," about which our readers have often heard, are sea-songs is very different, relating merely to practical events, and delivered at sea. The early half of the first watch on the foreseldom alluding to those points which Dibdin delights in, and castle being the time and place usually selected for this purpose, which lead people to suppose that “ Saturday Night at Sea” is a group is formed around the singer, or yarn-spinner, and up to appropriated to carousal and pledging “sweethearts and wives;'' ten o'clock the practice is permitted in all ships. It generally all which, and much more to the same tune, has no existence, happens that the yarn-spinning particularly is continued to a except in the fertile imagination of the lyrist *.

much later hour; and even in the middle watch, if a good hand We have now before us a score or two of the songs usually is willing to "spin," he seldom wants an audience. sung by sailors at sea during the last war ; they are for the most We recollect a foretopman, a kind of nautical Shahrazád, part taken down from oral delivery, or transcribed by seamen whose budget was inexhaustible, and who never wearied at his themselves in a style of caligraphy, orthography, and–if the truth task, dealing in continuations night after night, with a pertinacity must be told—of cacophony, difficult for any but the initiated to equal to the celebrated Sultana. He was--and the declaration is interpret. We recollect their effect, the attention they excited,

a bold one, seeing that we have been associated with sailors for when chanted to tunes never yet reduced to scale or gamut, but thirty years and more—the most inveterate yarn-spinner that which, like our popular rustic ballads, have endured for gene

ever we encountered withal ; and, what is remarkable, his name rations.

was Selkirk,--an adopted cognomen, we suppose, but by snch he It was, we believe; Fletcher of Saltoun who observed, nearly rejoiced to be distinguished, and he probably took this Purser'st a century and a half ago, that any one might make the laws, name out of respect to his great prototype. The adventures of so that he had the making of the national ballads. Who is Robinson Crusoe were nothing in comparison to the real and there that cannot, to the remotest period of his life, revert to the imaginary ones related by our hero as having occurred to himself, nursery rhymes which engaged his childish attention ; or ever

on shore and afloat, and being “a fellow of infinite humour," he forget, or wholly repudiate the impressions they produced? We

never failed to suit his discourse to his audience, who so " seri. believe, moreover, that the more homely the ideas and images, ously did incline,” they they used to draw lots who should take the more powerful the effect; and that, although polished couplets his look-out duty, or spell at the wheel, in order to leave him at have their influence on minds cultivated to receive and appreciate the beauties of composition, the general and vulgar understanding

* The noble poet was indebted to his frequent sojourn on board ships of is more attracted by such songs as, “There was a brisk young

war for the imagination of some of his most brilliant passages. Many will sailor, from Dover he came,” or “The girl I left behind me;"?

occur to the reader; but he may be surprised to learn, that the noblo than it would be by Dryden's chef-d'auvre, St. Cecilia's Day,'

stanza in Childe Harold, commencing “Existence might be borne," was

conceived from hearing the usual recommendation to “grin and bear it," Gray's "Elegy,' or Collins's “Ode on the Passions," however addressed to a youngster, who was regretting his hard lot; and we have impressively rocited. These masterpieces are like the polished heard that the contemplation of a mast-headed midshipman, and the periods of eloquent divines, inappropriate for general influence, complacency with which he viewed things below, gave rise to another

beautiful stanza in the same poem, commencing, “ He who ascends to * What we have stated in the eighth article of “ The British Navy,” | mountain tops." regarding the daily routine at sea, will show that it is impossible such | Seamen are fond of changing their names as well as ships. During the scenes could be enacted. In fact, we never heard mention of the “flowing war, when pressed men embraced every opportunity to desert, they adopted can," and presume it is adopted for the sake of rhyming with a lovely different aliases to avoid discovery if re-pressed, or accused as deserters. Nan." Kids (buckets) and pannikins itin pots) are the utensils used by The alias was given to the purser, to be entered on the ship's book. Hence saiders to hold their grog or beer.

the derivation of "purser's name.”

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