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liberty to amuse his hearers. We recollect the officer of the Now six of them to England's gone, God speed them on the way, watch—now a captain near the head of the list, covered with And seven more we sank and burnt before we left the Bay; honours and titles-would condescend himself to become a listener; May we ever prove successful, whilst we sail upon the seas, and during the stillness of the night, when the ship was under
Against the fleets of France and Spain, and our King's enemies. easy sail, and in her station in the fleet, he would lean over the So now the action's over, and all I've said is true, rails, enjoying the tales, descriptions of battles, shipwrecks, ghosts,
Here's a health unto our Nelson, rear-admiral of the blue, &c. &c., occasionally relieved by a ballad, probably the narrator's
And to every valiant officer belonging to the fleet,
Likowise to every British tar, that did so boldly fight. own composition, and chanted to one of those rollocking tunes which sailors delight in. On these occasions our worthy never The reader cannot but perceive how graphically the pursuit and failed to receive a glass of grog, by order of the lieutenant. the battle is related in the above. The following description of a
The man had in fact seen a great deal of the world, and no shipwreck is still more minute :doubt encountered many vicissitudes of fortune. By his own
Come, all you young men, that follows the sea, account, he had been a slave at Algiers, and passed through some Likewise you ship owners of every degree; uncommon adventures amongst the Moors. Our impression I'll tell you of a transport that was cast away, is, that he was a cockney seaman, who, by reading tales of fancy, A-taking out of troops to North America. had acquired a good deal of information on these points; that, 'Twas in the port of Liverpool, the ship was lying there, possessing an inventive imagination, and a genius for yarn- Waiting for to put to sea, when the wind did come fair: spinning, and finding his exertions applauded, and himself a The Earl of Bath the ship was called, her master's name was Hioks; general favourite, he concocted during the day the subjects of A full-rigged bark, A, number one, her tons three hundred and six. his nightly recitation. Be this as it may, he unquestionably possessed the faculty, in an eminent degree, and answered pretty fication at Lloyd's, and the name of the master, Ilicks, which is
Everything is here recorded, the ship's name, even her classiwell to the description which Byron has drawn of such a cha: made to rhyme most appropriately to three hundred and six, racter, though with a less refined taste. However, if he could being the amount of her tonnage. Then comes a description of not produce a masterpiece like the noble ode to “The Isles of
the embarkation :Greece," he would, when requested, “ sing some sort of lay like
The drums, and fifes, and trumpets, so sweetly they did play, this to ye :"
As the soldiers marched in order down unto the quay.
And the account of the parting is most affecting :-
It was a pitiful sight to hear the soldiers' wives,
Lamenting for their husbands they loved better than their lives;
The children crying mammy dear, we all shall rue the day.
Our daddies was sent to fight the rebels in North America.
It would appear, by the first line of the above stanza, that And with the wind at west, my boys, our course for Naples stood. sailors possess the faculty attributed to pigs, who are supposed to But when we came to Naples, no tidings could we hear,
see the wind; or probably our worthy intended a hit at the poet Then for the isle of Sicily accordingly did steer ;
who expressed himself thus :And coming to Messina, and passing through Phareer *,
What sound was that whicli dawned a bleating hue,
And blush'd a sigh?
After exposing the obduracy of “Hicks," in refusing to take to And when we cleared that island, a strange sail we did see,
sea any portion of the women or children, for he answers their Gave chase and overhauled her, and she proved a row gallee.
entreaties to that effect, She told us Malta taken was, and the French were under weigh,
with a frown, saying you must go on shore, And gone, with many troops on board, to Alexandria.
For my ship she is deep laden, and I cannot take no more, Then we crowded all the sail we could, and after them we steerd, we have the bold declaration of the troops, who, undismayed by But when we came to Alexandria no news of them we heard.
the behaviour of their wives and little ones, magnanimously Griev'd at this disappointment, our ships their wind did haul,
resolve to And boldly beating down the Straits, at Syracuse did call :
disregard their tomyhawks, likewise their scalping knives, We watered all our warlike ships, and did refresh our men,
And against these cruel savages will risk our precious lives ; And when we had completed this, we put to sea again.
We'll charge them with our bagonets, we'll show them British play, Then back to Alexandria we steer'd immediately,
And conquer those bold rebels in the North America.
Then comes the sailing of the vessel, and the shipwreck, Then we espied the flect of France, distant four leagues or more.
detailed in true nautical style; but we cannot follow it out for They had thirteen stout ships of the line, and four frigates strongly manned, is omitted, and it winds up with an effusion of loyalty, and a hope
the space of some two or three dozen verses ; nothing of interest Resolved we were to fight them, so in for them did stand; It was the first of August, upon that glorious day,
for a successful termination to the war against the bold rebels in That we began this action, all in Aboukir Bay.
" North America." The Goliath brave she led the van, the action she began ;
It is but seldom, however, that our sea poets introduce alluThe next ship was the Zealous, Captain Hood did her command ;
sions to the fidelity of their wives ; on the contrary, if the truth The next it was the Theseus, with all her jovial crew;
must be told, they are pretty general believers in the “ inconShe was followed by the Vanguard, which made the French to rue. stancy of woman, a mode of thinking they have doubtless The Audacious and Minotaur, my boys, Majestic and Defence,
acquired from their rambling life and habits. Although many of Bellerophon and Orion, a terror to the French,
them have been round the world, they may be said, as was said For we anchored alongside of them, like lions bold and free,
of Apson, to have been little in it; but they are not altogether And their yards and masts came tumbling down, a glorious sight to see.
divested of that sort of knowledge which is acquired The next was the Leander, that noble fifty-four,
In Nature's good old college. Alongside of the Franklin she made her cannon roar;
Here is a very popular sea-song, which we have heard chanted She gave them such a drubbing, and so sorely them did maul,
in several versions : the following we believe to be the one as As made them loud for quarter cry, and down their colours haul.
originally composed in unmeasurable alexandrines, and it is a proof Now that famed and glorious pride of France, the L'Orient was callid, that, the nauticals are acquainted with every measure of verse, Being in the centre of the fileet, she was severely mauld,
although they disdain to adhere closely to any, occasionally varying For she got a dreadful drubbing, took fire, and up she blew,
the metre in the same song, or disregardirg it altogether :With fifteen hundred souls on board, that bade the world adieu.
On the fourteenth day of February, we weighed anchor, and sailed away Then early the next morning, the Zealous was dismiss'd,
from Spithead, For to go down to leeward, the Bellerophon to assist ;
The Lark, the Lion, and the Salisbury, their colours all so gaily did spread; For she in the action lost her masts, the truth I tell to you,
And as boldly we steered down channel together, the wind it did blow very Which made her drift to leeward, but we saved both ship and crew.
And from the strength of the gale, tlie sea, and the weather, the Commodore • Meaning Pharos
sprung his main-yard.
We left the old Lion, and Salisbury, under their balanced mizens to lie,
CANE-SUGAR AND BEET-SUGAR.*
NO. 1.-HISTORY AND STATISTICS OF CANE-SUGAR. The fore-top mast, being sprung, followed after, and throw'd two men into the tide.
Within the present century has commenced a revolution, Now having such very bad weather, we determined for harbour to run,
which may prove of very different importance from what has yet And upon the same evening we got sight of the rugged old rock of Lisbon ;
generally been supposed, in respect to a leading article in the comA signal we made for a pilot, but no boat could live on that day;
merce and domestic economy of civilised men. It has now arrived “ Then we'll wear," cried our bold commander, “ for with this sea she never at a stage, at which it furnishes some data for answering the will stay; and we'll try and get into the bay."
questions, how far it is likely to proceed, and what are to be its Thus spoke Henry Johnson, and said, “ This day a bold pilot I'll be,
permanent effects upon the employment, subsistence, comfort, So mind a small helm, my lad, and keep her end on for the sea."
and wealth of nations. And soon between the Catchops we ran, and anchored in Lisbon again, The commercial and economical importance of sugar is of modern There we got masts, yards, wine, water, and bread,--and what reason have date. It was known to the Greeks and Romans as a medicinal we to complain?
substance, but not as food or a condiment. Herodotus informs us Let but the reader remark the quantity of matter contained in that the Zygantes, a people of Africa, had, besides honey of bees, the last line, ending with a philosophic reflection, quite in cha- a much greater quantity made by men.” This was probably sugar, racter. Another popular song is the following :
but not brought to a state of crystallization. Nearchus, the Come, all you jolly seamen bold, as ploughs the raging main,
admiral of Alexander, “ discovered concerning canes, that they A brother tar will give you a little bit of a strain:
make honey without bees." Megasthenes, quoted by Strabo, "Tis of brave Admiral Boscawen, his courage gains applause,
speaks, 300 B.C., of “Indian stone, sweeter than figs and honey. For nobly he has fought for our honour and our laws.
Theophrastus, in a fragment preserved by Photius, describes sugar Then comes a full and particular account of falling in with the
as "a honey contained in reeds." Eratosthenes, also cited by French fleet, hoisting white ensigns (the French colours) to deceive Strabo, and after him, Terentius Varro, are supposed to have meant them. The admiral making the signal for engaging (red at the sugar-canes by,“ roots of large reeds growing in India, sweet to fore), and the following jeer at the conduct of the Edgar and the taste, both when raw and when boiled, and affording, by America, which ships are represented to have fought shy on
pressure, a juice incomparably sweeter than honey." that occasion :
Near the commencement of the Christian era, sugar was first Now there's the saucy Edgar, she must not be forgot,
mentioned under an appropriate name and form. “ In India and She edged away to leeward, and so got out of gun shot:
Arabia Felex," writes Dioscorides, "a kind of concrete honey is Likewise the bold America, to windward lay that day,
called saccharon. It is found in reeds, and resembles salt in solidity With her maintopsail to the mast, all for to see fair play.
and in friableness betwixt the teeth.” After this, so learned a man The last verse
as Seneca fell back into fable on this subject. His account is this : Now five two-decked ships were taken, and seven got away,
“ It is said that in India honey is found on the leaves of reeds, either And a ship full of troops was run ashore, and burnt in Lagos Bay ;
deposited there by the dews of heaven, or regenerated in the sweet The Centaur's gone to Gibraltar, her damages to repair,
juice and fatness of the reed itself.” Pliny, whose special study And I heartily hope that by this time she's safe arrived there, led him to look more carefully into the matter, gives all that the
ancients knew about it, and a little more. “Arabia,” he observes, We can assure our readers, that these, and such as these, are the songs which sailors delight in ; and it is by their effect, and collected on reeds, like the gums. It is white, crumbles in the
“produces saccharum, but not so good as India. It is a honey not anything that Dibdin's lyrics have produced afloat, that the teeth, and when largest is of the size of a hazel-nut. It is used principles of loyalty, patriotism, contempt of enemies, and gene- in medicine only." rosity to a conquered foe, have been stimulated in the bosom of the British seaman.
The Jewish histories make no mention of sugar. The only sweet condiment, used by the Hebrews, was honey. But it may have
bee part “honey made by men ;'' for the Rabbins understand What must strike a stranger most in a visit to this country, if thereby not only the honey of bees, but also syrups, made from
the fruit of the palm-tree. he happen to preserve his own senses, is the utter deficiency of that useful quality, common sense, in the inhabitants. As in
During several centuries succeeding the Augustan age, no extenquarrels between man and wife there are generally faults on both sion of the knowledge or use of sugar appears to have taken place. sides, so it is in the dissensions between different classes in poor It is occasionally spoken of, but to the same effect as by the Greek Ireland. There are faults everywhere. The Protestants, Roman physicians of that age. So late as the seventh century, Paul of Catholics, landowners, and peasants, high and low, rich and poor, Ægina calls it “India salt," and borrows the description of are all more violent, more full of party-spirit,-in short, more
Archigenes. angry,-than in any other country. It seems as if there were At this time a new power appeared on the theatre of nations. something in the atmosphere of Ireland which is unfavourable to The Saracens conquered and occupied western Asia, northern the growth of common sense and moderation in its inhabitants, Africa, and southern Europe. Their empire was scarcely inferior and which is not without an influence even on those who go there to that of Rome in the period of her greatest prosperity and with their brains fairly stocked with that most useful quality. rapacity. They pushed their conquests to the Garonne and the
Every one who comes among the Irish is immediately Rhone, to Amalfi, and the islands of the Levant and the Ægean hooked into some party; and, unless he possess a most indepen- sea ; and Europe owes to them the use of sugar. dent mind, and a sufficiency of self-confidence to enable him to see One of thc Christian historians of the Crusades, in the year with his own eyes, he is sure to judge of everything according to 1100, states, that the soldiers of the Cross found in Syria certain the ideas of that party with which he happens to associate. This reeds, called canaméles, of which it was reported, that a kind of is the origin of those strange and contradictory reports which are wild honey was made. Another, in 1108, says: “The crusaders in circulation as to the state of Ireland. Common sense, I repeat, found honey-reeds in great quantity in the meadows of Tripoli, in is lamentably wanted ; and this occasions all other wants. Want Syria, which reeds were called sucra. These they sucked, and of sense peeps through the open door and stuffed-up window of were much pleased with the taste thereof, and could scarcely be every hovel. It is plainly stamped on everything that is done or satisfied with it. This plant is cultivated with great labour of the left undone. You may trace it in the dung-heap which obstructs husbandman every year. At the time of the harvest they bruise the path to the cabin, --in the smoke which finds an outlet through it, when ripe, in mortars, and set by the strained juice in ressels every opening but a chimney. You may see it in the warm cloaks until it is concreted in the form of snow or salt." The same his. which are worn in the hottest day in summer; in the manner a torian relates that eleven camels laden with sugar were captured peasant girl carries her basket behind her back. This is generally by the Christians. A similar adventure happened to Richard done by folding her cloak--her only cloak—-round it, and thus Coeur-de-Lion, in the second crusade. A third writer, in 1124, throwing the whole weight of the basket on this garment, of course tells us, that “ in Syria reeds grow that are full of honey ; by which to its no small detriment. This same want of sense lurks, too, is meant a sweet juice, which, by pressure of a screw engine, and under the great heavy coat which the men wear during violent concreted by fire, becomes sugar. These are the earliest notices exertion in hot weather. In short, it is obvious in a thousand ways.-Lady Chatterton.
* Abridged from the North American Review, for April, 1839.
IRISH PARTY SPIRIT.
of the method of making sugar ; and they refer to an apparatus native sugar-canes in Guadaloupe, St. Vincent, Brazil, on the La and to processes used in the Saracen empire, and not known at Plata, and on the Mississippi ; or the demonstration of Cook and that time, so far as European records show, to be used anywhere Bougainville, who brought a native and valuable variety from the else. At the same time sugar was made at Tyre in Syria, then Friendly Islands to the British and French West Indies. subject to the Saracens; and in 1169, that city is mentioned as
It is asserted by some, that the plant was carried from Brazil to “ famous for excellent sugar."
St. Domingo, having been previously brought to the former from The island of Sicily was the first spot upon which the sugar-cane the Portuguese kingdom of Angola, where it is still cultivated, or is known to have been planted in Europe, though it is altogether from the Portuguese possessions in Asia, where Vasco de Gama, and likely, that it was planted by the Moors full as early, if not earlier, bis successors, the conquerors of a great part of India, found in Spain and Portugal. That island was conquered by the Sara- sugar in abundance. Whencesoever the sugar-cane came to St. cens in the early part of the ninth century, and was retaken by Domingo, or whether it came at all, it is certain that a company the Normans at the close of the eleventh. Immediately after that of sugar-makers were carried from Palm Island, one of the Canaries, event we find that large quantities of sugar were made there. Ac- to establish the manufacture in that oldest, except Brazil, of the cording to records still extant, William, the second king of Sicily, American settlements. in 1166, made a donation to the convent of St. Benedict of "a It is an interesting fact that the art of sugar-making, propasugar-mill
, with all the workmen, privileges, and appurtenances gated, we must conclude, both east and west from Asia, now comthereto belonging."
pleted, in opposite directions, the circumnavigation of the globe ; If it was the crusaders who brought the sugar culture to Europe, for, a few years after this establishment in St. Domingo, Cortez how happened it, seeing that they were collected from all Europe, found, that both syrup and sugar were made from the stalks of that no other part of that continent except Spain in the hands of maize, by the natives of Mexico, and sold in their markets. the Arabs, and no other island of the Mediterranean except Crete, aborigines of Virginia, and probably of all North America, had captured in the year 823, by an expedition from Spain, were the knowledge of making sugar from the juice of the maple. From favoured with that invaluable donation? It was not until three them the Anglo-American settlers undoubtedly derived it. hundred years later, that it found its way into Cyprus, Rhodes, In 1643, the English began the sugar-business in Barbadoes, and and the Morea; and this extension was not owing to rural tastes, | in 1648, the French, in Guadaloupe. The Dutch, expelled from or the spirit of improvement among the feudal barbarians, but to Brazil, where they manufactured sugar in the sixteenth century, the commercial enterprise of the Venetians, who had for a long took refuge in Curaçoa, St. Eustatia, and other islands, and finally, time carried on a lucrative trade in the article with India, Syria, upon the exchange of New Amsterdam for English Guiana, in Egypt, and Sicily, and were now, by conquest or purchase, the Surinam. To all these they transferred a branch of industry, which possessors of Crete, and the latter seats of the sugar culture above they had learned to practise, and knew how to appreciate. mentioned.
It is not known at what time the use of sugar began in England. The use of alkalies, in the clarification of the juice of the cane, It was probably as late as the fourteenth century. At that time it was an invention of the Arabs. The original raw sugar of the begins to take, in trope and verse, the place which honey had East was debased by a mixture of mucilaginous matter, which op- occupied, without a rival, since Moses and Homer. Chaucer uses posed itself to the crystallization of the sugar, and determined it to the epithet “sugreed over." The chamberlain of Scotland, in a speedy decomposition after it was crystallized. To this day the 1329, speaks of loaves of sugar sold in that country at one ounce Eastern sugar, except where the manufacture is directed by Euro. of silver, equal to four American dollars, per pound. In 1333, peans, or where the product has been converted by the Chinese white sugar appears among the household expenses of Humbert, into what we commonly call “rock candy,” is much inferior to a nobleman of Vienne, and it is mentioned by Eustace Deschamps that of the West in purity, and in strength of grain. The only as among the heaviest expenses of housekeeping. George Peale clarification which the liquor appears to have undergone in the tells us, that sugar with wine was a common drink in the sixteenth hand of the Eastern manipulators, was by skimming during the century. It did not become an article of ordinary consumption processes of evaporation and boiling. And, if we may judge from until the beginning of the seventeenth century. At that period, the impe.tect and loose descriptio of modern travellers, this is the Venetians imported it from Sicily and Egypt, and probably the extent of their knowledge at the present day. They seem to produced it in Cyprus, Crete, and the Morea. One of their know no other method of clarification in making sugar, and no art countrymen, about two centuries before, had invented the art of of refining except that of making candy.
refining, for which he received the sum of one hundred thousand We have seen that the Arabs had the art of cultivating the ducats, equal to three or four hundred thousand dollars at the cane, and converting it into sugar. We know that sugar-canes, present time. Previously to this they had pursued the Chinese called “ the chief ornament of Moorish husbandry,” are still cul" method, and made candy only. This inventor adopted the cones tivated in Spain, and the manufacture of sugar carried on. It is from the Arabians, and probably obtained from their manner of likewise made in large quantities on the river Suz, in Morocco ; clarification the idea, upon which he so far improved as to and, at Teycut or Tattah, constitutes a leading article of traffic effect at last the complete purification of his product. It was with caravans, which traverse the great desert, and vend it in from the Venetian refineries that France and England procured Timbuctoo and other markets of Central Africa. Sugar is still a their small and high-priced supplies in the fourteenth and fifteenth production of considerable importance in Egypt, particularly in centuries. the district of Fayoum, and, until lately, the Seraglio at Constan- By the creation of sugar plantations in the Portuguese and tinople was furnished thence with the nicest refined sugar. In Spanish islands of Madeira, St. Thomas, and the Canaries, the 1560, sugar was imported at Antwerp from Portugal and Barbary. stock was considerably increased. We begin then, for the first At the same period it was an article of extensive manufacture and time, to have accounts of the number of sugar-mills, and the traffic at Thebes, Darotta, and Dongola in Nubia and Upper quantities manufactured. Thus we are told that in the island of Egypt.. All these are undoubtedly the remains of the Arabian St. Thomas there were, in 1524, seventy mills, making on an aver. plantations.
age 66,428 lbs. each, and upwards of two thousand tons in all. It It has been a subject of much dispute, whether the sugar-cane was from those islands that Europe was for half a century mainly was introduced into America from Europe, Asia, or Africa, or supplied. But the rapid exhaustion of the soil seems inseparable whether it is indigenous there. The former is the opinion of all from the cultivation of the cane with the labour of slaves and serfs. the historians of the old world, the latter of all the explorers of It is reasonable to suppose that this was the great cause of the the new. Edwards reconciles them by supposing that both are
successive migrations of this business westward, and its early detrue, which seems to be the most reasonable conclusion. It would cline in Sicily, Spain, and the Africo-Atlantic islands. be as absurd to suppose that the early European settlers of America In St. Domingo there were, in 1518, twenty-eight sugar-presses. would fail to carry that plant, with whose great value and agreeable in about half a century this island succeeded to the inheritance of uses they had just become well acquainted, to their new abode, the markets of Europe, which it monopolised and enlarged during especially when they were growing and were worked up in great a century and a half, exporting sixty-five thousand tons in one year, quantities in the Canaries, whence all the adventurers were accus- being about 100,000,000 lbs. surplus, after supplying the demand tomed to take their departare, as it would to question the authority of the mother-country. In any possible situation of that island, of the writers, who positively affirm the fact. On the other hand, it could not have maintained until this time that monopoly and it would be an extravagant stretch of incredulity to doubt the clear that rate of production. At the beginning of the present century, testimony of the many eye-witnesses, who declare, that they found the entire exportation from the West Indies and American settle
ments of every description, was 440,800,000 lbs. ; now it is throw away their molasses, as indeed they did at first in Jamaica, 400,000,000 lbs. from the British West Indies alone, and and as they do to this day in the islands of Bourbon and Java. 700,000,000 lbs. more from Brazil and the Spanish, French, The New-Englanders, particularly in and about Boston, taking Dutch, and Danish colonies. In 1750, only 80,000,000 lbs. were note of this circumstance, induced the French, for a trifling conexported from the British West Indies, one-fifth of the present sideration, to preserve this residuum, and deliver it on board the export.
colonial traders. Arrived at Boston and other ports, the advenOf course the consumption of sugar has greatly increased during turers entered the article free of duty, and it was then converted the last hal fcentury; and it seems destined to an indefinite exten.
into New England rum. In a few years, the business so enlarged sion. It is so putritive, wholesome, and agreeable, that there can itself, that the trade was extended to the Dutch and Danish colonever be a limit to its use except in a prohibition or an inability to
nies. In exchange, our people gave to the Frenchmen and others buy it. Men and nations differ widely in their tastes and habits horses and mules for their sugar-mills, lumber for their houses, in respect to most kinds of food, sauce, and drinks. Neither and fish and other provisions for their plantations. In 1715, a few wheat, rice, flesh, nor potatoes, can command unanimous favour. years after the commencement of this traffic, the British island No article of housekeeping, save sugar, can be named, which is colonies complained of it to the government, as diminishing the universally acceptable to the infant and the aged, the civilised and demand for their products, and disappointing them of their wonted the savage.
supplies. Hereupon a fierce and protracted contest arose betwixt
the island and continental colonies, which was not terminated until The population of the British West Indies is equal to that of 1733, when the islands prevailed, and a duty of sixpence per gallon Cuba ; but their consumption of sugar was, in 1827, only
was laid on molasses, and five shillings per cwt. on sugars, im13,000,000 lbs., eighteen pounds to an inhabitant, while that of ported into the continental colonies from any foreign port or Cuba was, in the same year, 44,000,000 lbs., or sixty-three lbs. to place. The penalty for violating the act was to be the forfeiture an inhabitant. This difference is presumed to be owing to the
of vessel and cargo. But the New Englanders, who have disputed predominance of the free over the slave population, in the latter island. The ratio of the free population of Cuba to the slave, is every inch of the passage of the act, seem never to have thought of three to one ; but in the British West Indies one to three. This traffic, eluding the duties and defying the law. A British fleet was
submitting to it after it was passed; and they continued the old proportion would give the difference of the quantities of sugar sent to enforce it, and a state of irritation arose, in which the consumed with almost entire accuracy.
parties all but came to blows. In fact, this did never cease from The population of all the sugar-growing countries of the world that time down to the Revolution ; and the famous act for is about 468,000,000. It is not to be presumed that each individual raising a revenue in America was called, in the language of the of this number consumes as much as the luxurious West Indian ; day, " the sugar and molasses act.” but it will not be extravagant to suppose, that they all consume as The principal reasons alleged for the trade were, that a large largely as the Mexicans. Mexico, by the lowness of wages and supply of rum was indispensable to the continental colonists for the ignorance and poverty of the mass, may be considered as a fair carrying on the Indian trade and the fisheries. These reasons representative of the nations inhabiting that belt of the earth have ceased. Rum has nearly finished its mission to the poor which produces sugar-canes. She consumes, according to M. Indians; and the fishermen, we believe, generally go upon the Humboldt, ten pounds to an inhabitant, all of domestic production temperance plan. The real root of the matter was, and is, that We thus determine, proximately, that the consumption of the other no other people, since the world began, were ever furnished with Hispano-American nations, and of the swarms which people the
so great a quantity of exciting liquor for so small a price. The East, is 5,000,000,000 lbs. per annum, nearly four times as much custom-house duties, in other countries, either kept out molasses as is used in Europe and the United States. Great Britain con
and rum, or admitted them with so heavy conditions that they sumes 400,000,000 lbs., about twenty-four pounds to each in- could not be afforded in such abundance as they have been here. habitant; the United States 200,000,000 lbs., sixteen pounds Ardent spirits were unknown, except as a medicine in a druggist's to an inhabitant; our domestic production being estimated at shop, until the cane-sugar and molasses makers of the West Indies 50,000 hhds., or 50,000,000 lbs. In Ireland, the consumption is brought rum into the world. The taste once formed, demand 40,000,000 lbs., five pounds to an individual. In Russia it is much less, being but a little more than one pound to a person, and
arose for brandy, perry, gin, and whiskey. Anderson, in his
“Origin of Commerce,'' remarks: “ The consumption of rum in 60,000,000 lbs. in the whole, unless the article be introduced inland New England is so great, that an author on this subject asserts, from China, by way of Kiachta, as to some extent it probably is. that there has been 20,000 hhds. of French mélasse manufactured Of the quantity consumed in Russia, we suppose 8,000,000 lbs. to
into rum at Boston in one year, so vast is the demand for that be beet-sugar. Belgium consumes 30,000,000 lbs., seven pounds liquor. Sir William Douglass, in a work printed at Boston, in to an inhabitant, of which 5,000,000 lbs. are beet; and Prussia, 1753, tells us, that “Spirits, (spiritus ardentes,) not above a Austria, and the rest of Germany, 200,000,000 lbs., of which century ago, were used only as official cordials, but now are become 20,000,000 lbs. may be beet. This is four pounds and a half to an inhabitant. Holland consumes 50,000,000 lbs., sixteen pounds to beverages.”
an endemical plague, being a pernicious ingredient in most of our an inhabitant ; Spain, the same, which is but four pounds to an inhabitant; France, 230,304,549 lbs., seven pounds to each in.
The duty of two cents on brown sugar in the United States, habitant. Of this, 107,905,785 lbs. were, in 1836, made from for that purpose ; being nearly fifty per cent. on the cost. At the
was originally laid for revenue, though it must be considered high beet-roots. With the exception of a few manufactories in Italy, time of the purchase of Louisiana, it was advanced to two and a the above figures show the extent of the beet-sugar culture. Thus we have, for the total consumption of sugar in Europe, Great Britain it was doubled, being then five cents. At the peace
half cents, probably for protection. During the last war with 1,267,000,000 lbs., of which 140,000,000, or 62,500 tons, are beet-sugar ; and, for the total consumption throughout the world, it was fixed at three cents, avowedly for protection. In 1832, it 6,267,000,000 lbs.
was brought back to the rate of two and a half cents; and this is
maintained for the encouragement of the sugar-planters of The consumption of molasses is trifling except in the United Louisiana, Florida, Arkansas, Mississipi, Alabama, and Georgia. States and Great Britain. There is some vent for it on the Con. The article is afforded in the New Orleans market, and on the tinent, to be used in curing tobacco; and in England it is used for Louisiana plantations, at five to six cents a pound. The planters making a bastard sugar, and for cheap preserves. In the United have repeatedly declared, that at less prices the business cannot be States alone is it used for the table. The quantity of refined sugar sustained. The cost of production, when this industry was most consumed in the United States is small compared with the brown. flourishing, was two and a half to three and a half cents, exclusive It probably does not exceed one tenth ; while, on the contrary, in of the interest on the investment. France it constitutes four fifths of the entire consumption. The disproportion is less than this in Great Britain ; but it is much greater beet-sugar business must take root, if that be its destiny in this
We have now surveyed the field of competition in which the there, and in Europe generally, than in the United States. Brown country (United States). It is certain that the high hopes con: sugar contains, on an average, three to five per cent. of dirt; of ceived of it have suffered considerable abatement from experiments course, molasses cannot be more pure. The consumption of this made, and views put forth, in Great Britain. These it is our duty last in the United States, is about 150,000,000 lbs. annually; but to weigh, and to determine how far they ought to influence the probably more than half of it has heretofore been distilled into resolutions of North American cultivators and capitalists. But rum, producing more than 10,000,000 gallons per annum.
it is necessary that we should first examine, with some minuteness, In the French West Indies the sugar manufacturers used to the history and present condition of beet-sugar industry.
BY AN EYE-WITNESS."
OLD IRONSIDES ON A LEE-SHORE.
“ Eight knots and a half, sir."
“ Nearly a-beam, sir.”' It was at the close of a stormy day in the year 1835, when the Keep her away half a point.” silant frigate Constitution, under the command of Captain Elliott, “ How fast does she go?" (having on board the late Edward Livingston, minister from “ Nine knots, sir.” the United States at the court of France, and his family, and “ Steady, so !" returned the captain. manned by nearly five hundred souls,) drew near to the chops". “ Steady," answered the helmsman, and all was the silence of of the English Channel. For four days she had been beating the grave upon that crowded deck-except the howling of the down from Plymouth, and on the fifth, at evening, she made her storm-for a space of time that seemed to my imagination almost last tack from the French coast.
an age. The watch was set at eight P.M. The captain came on deck It was a trying hour with us: unless we could carry sail so as to soon after, and having ascertained the bearing of Scilly, gave orders go at the rate of nine knots an hour, we must of necessity dash to keep the ship “ full and bye;" remarking at the same time to upon Scilly, and who ever touched those rocks and lived during a the officer of the deck, that he might make the light on the lee storm ? The sea ran very high, the rain fell in sheets, the sky was beam, but, he stated, he thought it more than probable that he one black curtain, illumined only by the faint light which was to would pass it without seeing it. He then “turned in,” as did most mark our deliverance, or stand a monument of our destruction. of the idlers and the starboard watch.
The wind had got above whistling, it came in puffs, that flattened At a quarter past nine P.M., the ship headed west by compass, the waves, and made our old frigate settle to her bearings, while when the call of “ Light O!" was heard from the fore-topsail- everything on board seemed cracking into pieces. At this moment yard.
the carpenter reported that the left bolt of the weather fore-shroud “Where away?" asked the officer of the deck.
had drawn. “Three points on the lee bow," replied the look-out man; “Get on the luffs, and set them all on the weather shrouds. which the unprofessional reader will readily understand to mean Keep her at small helm, quarter-master, and ease her in the sea,” very nearly straight ahead. At this moment the captain appeared, were the orders of the captain. and took the trumpet.
The luffs were soon put upon the weather shrouds, which of “ Call all hands," was his immediate order.
course relieved the chains and channels ; but many an anxious “ All hands!" whistled the boatswain, with the long shrill sum- eye was turned towards the remaining bolts, for upon them mons familiar to the ears of all who have ever been on board of a depended the masts, and upon the masts depended the safety of man-of-war.
the ship-for with one foot of canvass less she could not live “ All hands !” screamed the boatswain's mates ; and ere the last fifteen minutes. echo died away, all but the sick were upon deck.
Onward plunged the overladen frigate, and at every surge she The ship was staggering through a heavy swell from the Bay of seemed bent upon making the deep the sailor's grave, and her liveBiscay; the gale, which had been blowing several days, had oak sides his coffin of glory. She had been fitted out at Boston increased to a severity that was not to be made light of. The when the thermometer was below zero. Mer shrouds, of course, breakers, where Sir Cloudesley Shovel and his fleet were destroyed, therefore slackened at every strain, and her unwieldy masts (for in the days of Queen Anne, sang their song of death before, and she had those designed for the frigate Cumberland, a much larger the Deadman's Ledge replied in hoarser notes behind us. To go ship,) seemed ready to jump out of her. And now, while all was ahead seemed to be death, and to attempt to go about was sure apprehension, another bolt drew !-and then another !-until, at destruction.
last, our whole stay was placed upon a single bolt, less than a man's The first thing that caught the eye of the captain was the furled wrist in circumference. Still the good iron clung to the solid maidsail, which he had ordered to be carried throughout the eren. wood, and bore us alongside the breakers, though in a most fearful ing; the hauling up of which, contrary to the last order that he proximity to them. This thrilling incident has never, I believe, had given on leaving the deck, had caused the ship to fall off to been noticed in public, but it is the literal fact, which I make not leeward two points, and had thus led her into a position on “a the slightest attempt to embellish. As we galloped on-for I can lee shore," upon which a strong gale was blowing her, in which compare our vessel's leaping to nothing else—the rocks seemed the chance of safety appeared to the stoutest nerves almost hope- very near us. Dark as was the night, the white foam scowled less. That sole chance consisted in standing on, to carry us around their black heads, while the spray fell over us, and the through the breakers of Scilly, or by a close graze along their outer thunder of the dashing surge sounded like the awful knell that the ledge. Was this destined to be the end of the gallant old ship, ocean was singing for the victims it was eager to engulph. consecrated by so many a prayer and blessing from the heart of a At length the light bore upon our quarter, and the broad Atlantic nation!
rolled its white caps before us. During this time all were silent, “Why is the mainsail up, when I ordered it set?” cried the -each officer and man was at his post,—and the bearing and captain in a tremendous voice.
countenance of the captain seemed to give encouragement to every " Finding that she pitched her bows under, I took it in, under person on board. With but a bare possibility of saving the ship yonr general order, sir, that the officer of the deck should carry and those on board, he placed his reliance upon his nautical skill sail according to his discretion,” replied the lieutenant in com. and courage, and by carrying the mainsail when in any other mand.
situation it would have been considered a suicidal act, he weathered “ Heave the log," was the prompt command to the master's the lee shore, and saved the Constitution. mate. The log was thrown.
The mainsail was now hauled up, by light hearts and strong “How fast does she go?”
hands, the jib and spanker taken in, and from the light of Scilly “ Five knots and a half, sir."
the gallant vessel, under close-reefed topsails and main trysails, “Board the main tack, sir."
took her departure, and danced merrily over the deep towards the " She will not bear it,'' said the officer of the deck.
United States. “ Board the main tack," thundered the captain. “Keep her “Pipe down,” said the captain to the first lieutenant, “and full and bye, quarter-master.”
splice the main brace.” “ Pipe down," echoed the first lieutenant ' Aye, aye! sir!" The tack was boarded.
to the boatswain. • Pipe down," whistled the boatswain to the “ Haul aft the main sheet,” shouted the captain, and aft it went crew, and “pipe down' it was. like the spreading of a sea-bird's wing, giving the huge sail to the Soon the “ Jack of the Dust” held his levee on the main gungale.
deck, and the weather. beaten tars, as they gathered about the grog “Give her the lee helm when she goes into the sea,” cried the tub, and luxuriated upon a full allowance of Old Rye, forgot all captain.
their perils and fatigue. "Aye, aye ! sir! she has it," growled out the old sea-dog at “How near the rocks did we go ?” said I to one of the master's the binnacle.
mates the next morning. He made no reply, but taking down his "Right your helm, keep her full and bye."
chart, showed me a pencil-line between the outside shoal and the Aye, aye! sir ! full and bye she is," was the prompt answer Light-house island, which must have been a small strait for a from the helm.
fisherman to run his smack through in good weather by daylight. "How fast does she go?".
For what is the noble and dear old frigate reserved!
I went upon deck: the sea was calm, a gentle breeze was swell. . From the United States Magazine.
ing our canvass from mainsail to royal, the isles of Scilly had sunk