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in the eastern waters, and the clouds of the dying storm were takes a little bit to keep in his mouth, and thus to sweeten, in rolling off in broken masses to the northward and westward, like frugal fashion, the beverage as he swallows it. During this refresh. the flying columns of a beaten army.

ment, I carried on a tolerably fluent conversation in broken Dutch I have been in many a gale of wind, and have passed through with my host and his huisvrouw; and gratified them not a little scenes of great danger; but never, before nor since, have I expe- by communicating the most recent information I possessed of the rienced an hour so terrific as that when the Constitution was state of European politics, respecting which old Coetzer was very labouring, with the lives of five hundred men hanging on a single inquisitive. small iron bolt, to weather Scilly, on the night of the Ilth of May, The domicile of my hospitable neighbours, in which we were 1835.

thus seated, was not calculated to suggest any ideas of peculiar During the gale, Mrs. Livingston inquired of the captain, if we comfort to an Englishman. It was a house somewhat of the size were not in great danger ? to which he replied, as soon as we had and appearance of an old-fashioned Scotch barn. The walls were passed Scilly, " You are as safe as you would be in the aisle of a thick, and substantially built of strong adhesive clay; a material, church.” It is a singular fact that the frigate Boston, Captain which being well prepared or tempered, in the manner of moriar M'Neal, about the close of the revolution, escaped a similar for brick-making, and raised in successive layers, soon acquires in danger while employed in carrying out to France Chancellor this dry climate a great degree of hardness, and is considered Livingston, a relative of Edward's, and also minister to the court scarcely inferior in durability to burnt brick. These walls, which of St. Cloud. He likewise had his wife on board, and while the were about nine feet high, and tolerably smooth and straight, had vessel was weathering a lee shore, Mrs. Livingston asked the been plastered over within and without with a composition of sand captain-a rough but gallant old fire-eater--if they were not in and cowdung, and this being afterwards well white-washed with a great danger ? to which he replied, “You had better, madam, get sort of pipe-clay, or with lime made of burnt shells, the whole had down upon your knees, and pray to your God to forgive you your a very clean and light appearance. numerous sins; for, if we don't carry by this point, we shall all be The roof was neatly thatched with a species of hard rushes, in perdition in five minutes."

which are considered much more durable and less apt to catch fire than straw. There was no ceiling under the roof; but the rafters

over-head were hung with a motley assemblage of several sorts of A DUTCH AFRICAN FARM.

implements and provisions,—such as hunting apparatus, dried The following account of a frontier farm, belonging to one of flesh of various kinds of game, large whips of rhinoceros and the old Dutch settlers at the Cape of Good Hope, is taken from a hippopotamus hide (termed sjamboks), leopard and lion skins, work entitled “African Sketches," one of the valuable relics ostrich eggs and feathers, dried fruit, strings of onions, rolls of left to us by Mr. Thomas Pringle, a man whose virtues and tobacco, bamboos for whip-handles, calabashes, and a variety of talents have made his loss regretted by all who knew him; and in other articles. A large pile of fine home-made soap graced the his situation as secretary to the Anti-Slavery Society, his circle of top of a partition wall. acquaintance was extensive. His sketches are the result of his The house was divided into three apartments; the one in which observations during a residence of some continuance at the Cape, we were seated (called the voorhuis) opened immediately from the whither he had proceeded with a purpose of permanently esta- open air, and is the apartment in which the family always sit, eat, blishing himself ; a design frustrated by a misunderstanding with and receive visitors. A private room (slaapkamer) was formed at the Governor.

either end of this hall, by cross partitions of the same height and “ On riding up to the place, which consisted of three or four construction as the outer walls. The floor, which, though only of thatched houses, and a few reed cabins (hartebeest-huisjes), inha- clay, appeared uncommonly smooth and hard, I found, on inquiry, bited by the Hottentot dependants, we were encountered by a had been formed of ant-heaps, which, being pounded into dust, host of some twenty or thirty dogs, which had been lying about and then watered and well stamped, assume a consistency of great in the shade of the huts, and now started up around us, open- tenacity. In making these floors, however, care must be taken to mouthed, with a prodigious clamour, as is generally the case at use only such ant-hills as have been broken up and plundered by every farm-house on the approach of strangers. In day-light, the aardvark, or ant-eater, and consequently deserted by the these growling guardians usually confine themselves to a mere surviving insects : otherwise, in spite of all your pounding, you noisy demonstration ; but at night, it is often a matter of no small may find that you have planted two or three troublesome colonies peril to approach a farm-house; for many of these animals are both beneath your feet. This foor is carefully washed over every fierce and powerful, and will not hesitate to attack a stranger, if, morning with water mixed with fresh cow-dung, in order to keep it in their eyes, he has the ill luck to appear in any way suspicious. cool and free from vermin, especially fleas, which are apt to become The barking of the dogs brought out Arend Coetzer, one of the an intolerable pest in such mansions. farmer's sons, from the principal dwelling-house, a frank young The house was lighted by four square windows in front,-one in fellow, who had previously visited us at Glen-Lynden. Seeing each of the bed-rooms, and two in the voorhuis,-and also by the us thus beset, he came instantly to our help against the canine door, which appeared to be shut only during the night. The door rabble, whom he discomfited with great vigour, by hurling at them consisted of reeds rudely fastened on a wicker frame, and was a few of the half-gnawed bones and bullocks' horns which were fixed to the door-posts by thongs of bullocks' hide. The windows lying in profusion about the place. The young boor was rejoiced were without glass, and were closed at night, each with an untanto see me, and introduced me to his mother and sisters,-a quiet. ned quagga skin. There was neither stove nor chimney in any looking matron and two bashful girls, who now appeared from the part of the dwelling-house, but the operations of cooking were house. Wil Mynheer afzadel ? ( Will the gentleman unsad- performed in a small circular hut of clay and reeds, which stood dle?') was the first inquiry. I readily agreed, intending, indeed, in front of it. The furniture of the sitting-room consisted of a though it was still early in the afternoon, to spend the night at this couple of wooden tables, and a few chairs, stools, and wagonplace, with the view of becoming better acquainted with our rustic chests; an immense churn, into which all the milk saved from the neigbours.

sucking calves was daily poured, and churned every morning; a On entering the house, I found that the old boor had not yet large iron pot for boiling soap; two or three wooden pitchers, risen from his afternoon nap, or siesta, a habit which is generally hooped with brass, and very brightly scoured ; a cupboard, exhiprevalent throughout the colony. He was not long, however, in biting the family service of wooden bowls and trenchers, pewter making his appearance; and, after shaking hands with a sort of turcens, brandy flasks, with a good array in phials of Dutch quack gruff heartiness, he took down a bottle of brandy from a shelf, and medicines. A tea-vase, and brass tea-kettle heated by a chafingurged me to drink a dram (zoopje) with him, assuring me that it dish, --which, with a set of Dutch teacups, and a large brasswas good brandewyn, distilled by himself from his own peaches. clasped Dutch Bible, occupied a small table at which the mistress I tasted the spirit, which was colourless, with something of the of the house presided, -completed the inventory. The bed-rooms, flavour of bad whiskey ; but preferred regaling myself with a cup in which I more than once slept on future occasions, were fur. of tea, which had in the meanwhile been prepared and poured out nished each with one or more large bedsteads or stretchers, for me by the respectable and active looking dame. This tea- without posts or curtains, but provided with good feather-beds, water' is made by a decoction, rather than an infusion, of the spread on elastic frames woven with thongs of bullock's hide, like Chinese leaf, and being diluted with a certain proportion of a cane-bottomed chair. boiling water, without any admixture of milk or sugar, is offered In a corner of the hall, part of the carcase of a sheep was susto every visitor who may chance to arrive during the heat of the pended from a beam ; and I was informed that two sheep, and day., A small tin box, containing sugar-candy, is sometimes sometimes more, were daily slaughtered for family consumption ; handed round with the tea-water,' from which each person I the Hottentot herdsmen and their families, as well as the farmer's

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own household, being chiefly fed upon mutton,—at least during which the pen was constructed, consisted of a mass of hard solid summer, when beef could not be properly cured. The carcases dung, accumulated by the cattle of the farm being folded for a were hung up in this place, it appeared, chiefly to prevent waste succession of years on the same spot. The sheep-folds, though not by being constantly under the eye of the mistress, who, in this quite so elevated, and under the lee, as it were, of the bullockcountry, instead of the ancient Saxon title of .giver of bread,'kraal, were also fixed on the top of similar accumulations. The might be appropriately called the giver of flesh.' Flesh, and not several folds (for those of the sheep and goats consisted of three bread, is here the staff of life ; and the frontier colonists think it divisions) were all fenced in with branches of the thorny mimosa, no more odd to have a sheep hanging in the voorhuis, than a far, which formed a sort of rampart around the margin of the mounds mer's wife in England would do to have the large household loaf of dung, and were carefully placed with their prickly sides outplaced for ready distribution on her hall-table. At this very period, wards, on purpose to render the inclosures more secure from the in fact, a pound of wheaten bread in this quarter of the colony nocturnal assaults of the hyænas, leopards, and jackals. Against was three or four times the value of a pound of animal food. all these ravenous animals the oxen are, indeed, quite able to

In regard to dress, there was nothing very peculiar to remark. defend themselves ; but the hyænas and leopards are very destrucThat of the females, though in some respects more slovenly, tive to calves, foals, sheep, and goats, when they can break in upon resembled a good deal the costume of the rustic classes in England them, which they sometimes do in spite of the numerous watch. thirty or forty years ago. The men wore long loose trowsers of dogs kept for their protection ; and the cunning jackal is not less sheep or goat skin, tanned by their servants, and made in the family. destructive to the young lambs and kids. A check shirt, a jacket of coarse frieze or cotton, according to the While we were conversing on these topics, the clouds of dust weather, and a broad-brimmed white hat, completed the costume. which I had observed approaching from three different quarters, Shoes and stockings appeared not to be considered essential arti- came nearer, and I perceived that they were raised by two nume. cles of dress for either sex, and were, I found, seldom worn except rous flocks of sheep and one large herd of cattle. First came the when they went to church, or to merry-makings (vrolykheids). A wethers, which are reared for the market, and are often driven by sort of sandals, however, are in common use, called veld schoenen the butchers' servants even to Cape Town, seven hundred miles (country shoes), the fashion of which was, I believe, originally distant. These lieing placed in their proper fold, the flock of borrowed from the Hottentots. They are made of raw bullock's ewes, ewe-goats, and lambs, was next driven in, and carefully penhide, with an upper-leather of dressed sheep or goat-skin, much ned in another; those having young ones of tender age being kept after the same mode as the brogues of the ancient Scottish High, separate. And, finally, the cattle-herd came rushing on pellmell, landers.

and spontaneo isly assumed their station upon the summit of their

guarded mount; the milch-cows çnly being separated, in order to Having exhausted the usual topics of country chat, I suggested be tied up to stakes within a small inclosure nearer the houses, a walk round the premises, and we sallied forth, accompanied by where they were milked by the Hottentot herdsmen, after their old Wentzel and his son Arend. They led us first to the orchard, calves, which were kept at home, had been permitted to suck for which was of considerable extent, and contained a variety of fruit- a certain period. Not one of those cows, I was told, would allow trees, all in a thriving state. The peach-trees, which were now in herself to be milked until her calf had first been put to her : if the blossom, were most numerous; but there were also abundance of calf dies, of course there is an end of her milk for that season. apricot, almond, walnut, apple, pear, and plum trees, and whole About thirty cows were milked; but the quantity obtained from avenues of figs and pomegranates. The outward hedge consisted them was scarcely so much as would be got from eight or ten good of a tall hedge of quinces. There was also a fine lemon-grove, English cows. and a few young orange-trees., The latter require to be sheltered The farmer and his wife, with all their sons, daughters, daughtersduring the winter, until they have attained considerable size,—the in-law, and grand-children, who were about the place, were frost being apt to blight them in this upland valley, All the other assiduously occupied, while the herds and flocks were folding, in fruits are raised with ease; peach-trees often bearing fruit the examining them as they passed in, and in walking through among third year after the seeds are put in the ground. From the want them afterwards, to see that all was right. I was assured that, of care, however, or of skill in ng, few of the fruits in this though they do not very frequently count them, they can discover part of the colony are of superior sorts or of delicate flavour. The at once if any individual ox is missing, or if any accident has happeaches especially are but indifferent; but, as they are chiefly pened among the flocks from beasts of prey or otherwise. This grown for making brandy, or to be used in a dried state, excellence faculty, though the result doubtless of peculiar habits of attention, of flavour is but little regarded. Some mulberry-trees, which had is certainly very remarkable ; for the herd of cattle at this place been planted in front of the house, were large and flourishing, and amounted altogether to nearly 700 head, and the sheep and goats produced, I was informed, abundance of fruit. These were not to about 5000. This is considered a very respectable, but by no the wild or white mulberry, raised in Europe for feeding silk. means an extraordinary stock for a Tarka grazier. worms; but the latter sort also thrive extremely well in most parts Every individual of an African farmer's family, including even of the colony,

the child at the breast, has an interest in the welfare of the flocks The kitchen garden was very deficient in neatness, but contained and herds. It is their custom, as soon as a child is born, to set a variety of useful vegetables.' Onions were raised in great abun- apart for it a certain number of the young live stock, which in. dance, and of a quality fully equal to those of Spain. Pumpkins, crease as the child grows up; and which, having a particular mark cucumbers, musk and water melons, were cultivated in considerable regularly affixed to them, form, when the owner arrives at adult quantities. The sweet potato was also grown here.

age, a stock sufficient to be considered a respectable dowry for a Adjoining to the garden and orchard was a small but well-kept prosperous farmer's daughter, or to enable a young man, though vineyard, from which a large produce of very fine grapes is he may not possess a single dollar of cash, to begin the world obtained; but these, as well as the peaches, are chiefly distilled respectably as a Vee Boer, or grazier into brandy.

The whole of the orchard, vineyard, and garden-ground, together with about twenty acres of corn-land adjoining, were irrigated by the waters of a small mountain-rill, which were collected and led Before the Norman Conquest, there existed a certain guild or down in front of the house by an artificial canal. This limited body of knights, denominated, in Anglo-Saxon, the Cnihtenaextent was the whole that could be cultivated on a farm comprising gild, and who possessed a plot of land just within the gate of the about six thousand acres. But this is quite sufficient for the wants city, and thence called the Port-soken, -their holding being of of a large family; the real wealth of the farm, so far as respects that description called a soke, involving important privileges. marketable commodities, consisting in the flocks and herds raised These knights retained their jurisdiction, as well as their land, in, on its extensive pastures. This old Wentzel himself hinted, as, and through, and after the great changes consequent upon the shutting up a gap in the garden-hedge with a branch of thorny Norman invasion, until some time in the reign of Henry I., when mimosa, he led us out towards the kraels, or cattle-folds, exclaim they bestowed their territory upon the neighbouring convent of the ing, in a tone of jocund gratulation, while he pointed to a distant Holy Trinity. By virtue of the transfer, the prior of the convent cloud of dust moving up the valley—Maar daar koomt myn vee acquired the rank of an aldernan of the city. The demesne of the - de beste tuin !' ('But there come my cattle—the best garden!) fraternity became, and still is, the well-known Portsoken Ward ; On approaching the cattle-kraals, I was struck by the great height whilst the name of Nightingale-lane, into which the denomination of the principal fold, which was elevated fifteen or twenty feet of the “ Cnihlena-gild land" has passed by colloquial alteration, above the level of the adjoining plain ; and my surprise was cer- yet preserves a memorial of the ancient owners of the soil. tainly not diminished when I forod that the mound on the top of

Truths and Fictions of the Middle Ages.

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ORIGIN OF PORTSOKEN WARD.

NATURE AND ART.

A FAITHFUL SHOCK-DOG. There is no mystery in the mental faculties of mankind : fancy, imagi- In October, 1803, during the deluge with which the island of Madeira was nation, sentiment, passion, acuteness, judgment, reason, memory, are all visited, a remarkable circumstance happened near St. John's river. positive, and capable of being discriminated and measured: they are not to

maid-servant, in flying from one of the falling houses, dropped an infant be admitted or denied as temper or fashion may dictate. They do not from her arms, which was supposed to have perished. Next day, however, depend on a little more or less of management, or a little more or less of care

it was found, unhurt, on a dry piece of ground, along with a shock-dog. or chicanery. Genius and talent pervade all, in spite of negligence, rapidity, belonging to the same family. The dog was close by the child, and it is and defying artlessness; and deficiency will pervade all, in spite of finesse, imagined that the child was kept alive by the warmth of the faithful and labour, and contrivance, and false ornament.--Sir E. Brydges.

animal's body.-Brown's Anecdotes of Dogs. IDEAS FROM COLERIDGE.

OUR IGNORANCE OF MENTAL PHENOMENA. A rogue is a round-about fool : a fool in circumbendibus.

Pleasure and pain, hope and despair, hatred and affection, play as truly The earth, with its scarred face, is the symbol of the past; the air and

in the infant mind as they did in the mind of Shakspeare, who has been heaven, of futurity.

called the high-priest of the passions. But how absurd it is to affirm, that You may depend upon it, that a slight contrast of character is very mate

the child must, therefore, understand all the passions which it feels, as well rial to happiness in marriage.

as Shakspeare did, who has made himself immortal by exhibiting them in How did the atheist get his idea of the God whom he denies ?

dramatic action! Nay, is it not quite certain that, after we have arrived at Every true science bears necessarily within itself the germ of a cognate

the age of maturity, and after we have received laboured instructions, and profession, and the more you can elevate trades into professions the better.

much practical knowledge of life, we often experience trains of thought, 'Truth is a good dog; but beware of barking too close to the heels of an

and complicated emotions, which we do not even understand, and are much error, lest you get your brains kicked out.- Coleridge, Table-Talk.

less able to explain ?-Young's Lectures on Intellectual Philosophy. SABINUS AND HIS DOG.

AN ELEGANT COUPLE OF ABORIGINES. After the execution Sabinus, the Roman general, who suffered death for his attachment to the family of Germanicus, his body was exposed to

Among the native inhabitants of the Yas district (Australia) was a pair the public, upon the precipice of the Gemoniæ, as a warning to all who

of originals: the man was called Daraga, and his lady the “beautiful should dare to defend the

fallen house. No relative had courage to approach Kitty" of Yas. Neither of them had pretensions to beauty. The lady had the corpse; one friend only remained true-his faithful dog. For three days

ornamented her delicate form (for all the ladies are fond of adornments) the animal continued to watch the body: his pathetic howlings awakened

with two opossum tails, pendent in a graceful manner from her greasy the sympathy of every heart. Food was brought to him, which he was

locks; pieces of tobacco-pipe, mingled with coloured beads, adorned her kindly encouraged to eat; but, on taking the bread, instead of obeying the

neck; an old, dirty, opossum-skin cloak was thrown over the shoulders; impulse of hunger, he fondly laid it on his master's mouth, and renewed his

a bundle of indescribable rays around the waist; and a netbul or culy lamentations. Days thus passed, nor did he for a moment quit his charge.

hanging behind (filled with a collection of “small deer," and other eatables, The body was at length thrown into the Tiber; and the generous and

that would baffle all attempts at description,) completed the toilette of this faithful creature, still unwilling that it should perish, leaped into the water

angelic creature. Of her features I shall only say, they were not such as after it, and, clasping the corpse between his paws, vainly endeavoured to

painters represent those of Venus; her mouth, for instance, was a prodigipreserve it from sinking; and only ceased his endeavours with his last

ous aperture. The husband also had decorated the locks of his cranium breath, having ultimately perished in the stream. Anecdotes of Animals.

with opossum tails, with the addition of grease and red ochre; a tuft of

board ornamented his chin; and the colour of his hide was barely discernA FINE CONTRAST IN A FINE PASSAGE,

ible, from the layers of mud and charcoal covering it: he wore a " spritsail A man is supposed to improve by going out into the world—by visiting yard" through his apology for a nose ; the opossum-skin cloak covered his London, Artificial man does; he extends with his sphere; but, alas ! that

shoulders, and the belt of opossum-skin girded the loins; the pipe was his sphere is microscopio: it is formed of minutiæ, and he surrenders his

constant companion, as the love of tobacco among those who have intergenuine vision to the artist, in order to embrace it in his ken. His bodily

courso with Europeans is unbounded, and no more acceptable present can senses grow acute, even to barren and inhuman pruriency, while lis

be made to them. At meal-times, it was curious to observe the conduct of mental become proportionally obtuse. The reverse is the Man of Mind :

this interesting couple and the kangaroo dogs : it was evident that no good he who is placed in the sphere of nature and of God, miglit be a mock at

feeling subsisted between the parties: the dogs regarded the former with Tattersall's and Brookes's, and a sneer at St. James's: he would certainly be

an expression of anger, and the opposite party looked both sulkily and swallowed alive by the first Pizarro that crossed him. But when he walks

anxiously at the canine species. The dogs appeared instinctively to fear along the river of Amazons,—when he rests his eye on the unrivalled

that the human creatures would devour every piorsel of the food, and that Andes,-when he measures the long and watered Savannab, or contemplates they should be minus their share ; while the latter seemed to know, either from a sudden promontory the distant, vast Pacific,-and feels himself a

by instinct or practical experience, that large dogs bite tolerably hard when freeman in this vast theatre, and commanding cach ready-produced fruit of

angry.--Bennett's Wanderings in New South Wales. this wilderness, and each progeny of this stream,-his exaltation is not less than imperial. He is as gentle, too, as he is great; his emotions of tender

NIAGARA. ness keep pace with his elevation of sentiment: for he says, “ These were Niagara is said to be an Iroquois word, signifying the thunder of waters. made by a good Being, who, unsought by me, placed me hero to enjoy The Indians pronounce it Niagara, but Americans and Canadians univerthem." He becomes at once a child and a king. His mind is in himself; sally Niagara : the latter accentuation is sanctioned by the author of from hence he argues, and from hence he acts; and ho argues unerringly, “ Letters of the Fudge Family," who proposes in one of them, and acts magisterially. His mind in himself is also in his God, and there

"' 'stead of pistol or dagger, a fore he loves, and therefore he soars.-From Notes upon the Hurricane, a

Desperate leap down the falls of Niagara." Poem, by William Gilbert.

Duncan's Trarels. PHYSICAL ADVANTAGES OF BRITAIN.

STEAM CARRIAGES. The particular facilities of Britain are great,-greater, perhaps, than It does not seem likely that stcam can be applied to pleasure carriages; those of any other country; or they have, at least, been more generally

but improvements will most probably go on in the construction of steam developed. It possesses all the essentials for the furtherance of mechanical

carriages till they be perfectly available for common roads, as vehicles of ingenuity, and the employment of manufacturing industry. Iron and coal,

locomotion,-as a means of travelling more economically than with horses the two chief agents-the one in the forination of machinery, the other in

from one place to another. But to realise a profit from them, they must its use,--are found in abundant quantities beneath the soil, and often in

carry many passengers ; they will do for public, but not for private vehi. such close contiguity that they are readily inade to assist each other.

cles. One advantage they will possess which common vehicles have not : in Railways of Britain.

cold weather, they may be warmed by the steam-pipes, with the same TRADERS IN PHILANTHROPY.

facility as a house; and, in hot weather, they may be ventilated by fanners I have never known a trader in philanthropy who was not wrong in heart worked by the machinery.-Adams' English Pleasure Carriages. somewhere or other. Individua's so distinguished are usually unhappy in

CONTRAST BETWEEN CIVILISED AND SAVAGE LIFE. their family relations ; men not benevolent or beneficent to individuals, but almost always hostile to them, yet lavishing money, and labour, and

Everything that can contribute to teach the most unmoved patience under time on the race-the abstract notion. The cosmopolitism which does not

the severest pains and misfortnnes, everything that tends to harden the spring out of and blossom upon the deep-rooted stem of nationality and

heart and narrow all the sources of sympathy, is most sedulously incul. patriotism is a spurious and rotten growth.--Coleridge.

cated on the savage. The civilised man, on the contrary, though he may be

advised to bear evil with patience when it comes, is not instructed to be BAMBOO AND BAMBOOZLE.

always expecting it. Other virtues are to be called into action besides for“I guess," said the philosophical supercargo, Jonathan Downing, when titude. He is taught to feel for his neighbour, or even his enemy, in distress; he wrote home from Canton to his uncle the Major, “ that there really be to encourage and expand his social affections; and, in general, to enlarge the but two sorts of good government, in the nature of things : Bamboo, or the sphere of pleasurable emotions. The civilised man hopes to enjoy, the like, as in China; and Bamboozle, or the like, as in the old country: but savage expects only to suffer.-Malthus, wo in the States use 'em both, and ours is the grandest government in the universe, Bemboo for the niggers, and Bamboozle for ourselves."

London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER Truths and Fictions of the Middle Ages.

& Co. Dublin : CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars.

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We owe them many thanks ; they stumbled in the dark upon POSSIBILITIES.

discoveries from which the world has reaped more benefit than If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth.”

any that could have sprung from the doubtful influence of their The word Impossible is not French," said Napoleon to the desired object if they had attained it; but without some such Duke of Vicenza ; and at the time he said it—he had not entered stimulant as that afforded by the hopes of obtaining boundMoscow-his career of unchecked success might have gone far to less wealth and length of days, they would not have worked at make himself a believer in his own proposition. The Imperial all. Victor well knew that a persuasion of its truth, among the people In like manner, it was the fallacious speculations of astrology, who then so blindly worshipped him, would almost make it true. it was the craving desire felt by humanity to penetrate the In the career of discovery, among the conquerors of science, the mysteries of futurity—the fond belief that on the aspects and same doctrine has produced effects quite as brilliant, and more motions of the planets our fate depended, and by them could be enduring, than any that have resulted from those “imperial seas predicted—that first gave interest to the study of astronomy. of slaughter.” Often have we seen the faith that “ hopeth all these impulses first induced man to number the stars, to track things” become the encourager under repeated failures, and the the motions of the planets, to record eclipses, which have proved stimulant to labours which have terminated, after many days, in the best guides to modern chronologists in fixing the dates of longglorious success; and though we do not mean to adopt the maxim past events, and to observe phenomena from which we have deduced in its full extent, and assert that impossibility is not to be found the uniformity of the earth’s rotation, and the inequalities of the in the philosophical dictionary, yet we have witnessed so many lunar orbit. In short, here also we owe it to the ignorance and victories—we have so often written “ Ne plus ultra" on our the credulity of past generations, that any foundations were laid charts of discovery, and then seen some bold adventurer carry his of that science, which evinces, more than any other, at once the researches far beyond our assigned boundary, that while we admit powers of man and his insignificance. its existence, we cannot attempt to fix its position, but must class A wiser people were not so liberal; the superstitious men of it among those bodies of whose place we know only that they are Athens accused Anaximander of attempting to bind their gods by not nearer than a certain number of million leagues, at the same immutable laws ; an impiety for which their sentence, rendered time being quite ignorant whether they are not some hundred times merciful by the interposition of Pericles, only condemned himself further.

and family to perpetual exile. When light began again to dawn in As years elapse—as knowledge increases the point when impos- Europe, after the long night of the dark ages, persecution rose sibility commences appears more distant, and our trust in the with it, and the bigoted cruelty that imprisoned, but could not infinite grasp of human intellect, our confidence in our powers of subdue, Roger Bacon ; that pursued Galileo to the end of his discovery, our pride in present possessions, and our hopes of life ; and that induced the more timid Copernicus to withhold for future acquisitions, become more unbounded. We have passed years the publication of his grand but then supposed to be dangerthat period when to be incredulous was to be learned ; among ous truths,-furnishes but additional proof how intolerant imperfect a half-enlightened race only can that dogma be received : the knowledge will render its possessors. extremes meet; the destitution and the perfection of knowledge To those daring spirits who laboured on, unsubdued by the are alike confiding and liberal. It is an imperfect creed which difficulties and undaunted at the perils that impeded their course, engenders ascetics and encourages persecution. The ignorant how great a veneration is due ! The leaders of a forlorn hope, worshipper raises his altar to “ the unknown god;" the inspired they paused not to consider the obstacles which obstructed their teacher warns us that we“ judge not.” It is semi-barbarism that progress, but struggled fearlessly forwards, stimulated by the is subject to narrow-minded prejudice; it is the “ little learning bright looks of that truth which the world could not see, and that fosters conceit and incredulity. The savage has the most which themselves saw as yet but dimly in the distance ; till at unlimited faith in mortal powers, in his acknowledged ignorance length “ that surest touchstone of desert, success,” rewarded their of their true extent: he believes in giants and in magic-in words exertions, and mankind, henceforth, ranked among the best of that control the elements, and in sinews that can remove the their benefactors and instructors those whom they had stigmatised mountains ;--the man of science comes back almost to the same as visionaries and madmen. Their successors are still upon the confidence in human power to produce such results.

earth ;-men to whom nothing is hopeless, nor anything incredible; The first chemists, unacquainted with the methods of analysis, men who perpetually enlarge the dominion of possibility, and teach or with the composition of those substances on which they us how distant is the limit of the attainable: and though their operated, were misled continually by deceptive appearances ; yet dangers and difficulties are less than those of their predecessors still holding fast their faith in their mystery, still believing in the though monks can no longer threaten them with dungeons, and possibility of obtaining their long-sought elixir, they laboured on much of the mechanical drudgery of science is found done to their undismayed in spite of disappointment, and even of danger, when hands,-neither in brilliancy nor in usefulness will their achievea false religion was arrayed against a false science, and anathemas ments be surpassed by those of any period of which history has were pronounced on the possessors of the philosopher's stone. preserved the record.

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Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars.

success, and soon returned to England. The next year, Monk BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES,

exchanged the sea for the land service, and enlisted as an ensign

in the ill-fated expedition against the isle of Rhé, and witnessed a GENERAL MONK.

second time the spectacle of shame and disaster which often

alises the presumptuous ignorance of a favourite. He retained HISTORICAL researches have of late years been conducted in an a bitter recollection of it, which he often expressed in recounting infinitely more philosophic spirit than has heretofore been usually the occurrences of his youth. We are therefore not surprised to exercised. The historian is no longer satisfied with remoulding the see him abandon the service of his country, and embracing the works of his predecessors, and thus propagating errors in a novel profession of a soldier of fortune, joining the regiment of the Earl dress,-hashing up the absurdities of the ignorant, prejudiced, or of Oxford, in the Dutch service, in the year 1629 ; one year after designing, and seasoning the mess according to the supposed taste the expedition to the isle of Rhé. of the public palate. Facts are sought after, and disinterred from He remained ten years in the service of the States, where he the storehouses of records and muniments, where they have too acquired the reputation of an excellent officer, and was particulong lain buried and forgotten, and we reason upon the conclusions larly distinguished by the ascendancy which he acquired over his drawn from them, and not upon popular prejudices ignorantly companions, and the love which he inspired in his men ; qualities adopted as historic truths. Thus, the fables consecrated by the which have ever been the characteristics of successful generals. authority of a Livy are dispelled by the antiquarian researches of a A dispute with the magistrates of Dort, which was decided against Niebuhr; whilst the venerable Herodotus, who has been pre- him by the Prince of Orange, Frederick Henry, the Stadtholder, sumptuously scoffed at as "the father of lies,” is restored to his disgusted him with the Dutch service; and warlike symptoms ancient honours, by the testimony of modern travellers and the being visible in England, Monk returned home, and entered the labours of the Archæological Institute. In this spirit of philoso- army which Charles was raising against the Scots. He was phic inquiry, we find one of the most celebrated statesmen of the appointed lieutenant-colonel in the regiment of the Earl of age, the learned Guizot, devoting himself to historical research, and Newport, general of the ordnance. The war was very unpopular; investigating the character of the actors, as the surest method of the first blows were delayed by public aversion; and, before gaining the true clue to the maze of seeming contradictions which blood had flowed, the treaty of Berwick proclaimed that the perplex the superficial. We see the result in an essay, or, as he campaign was over, but without soothing the animosities which more properly designates it," Historical Study," in which he gave rise to it. The armies, dismissed in forty-eight hours by the Labours to clear up the doubts which shadowed the character of terms of the treaty, remained ready to re-assemble on the first one whose name is inseparably connected with the restoration of summons. The new explosion was not long delayed ; and, on the the Stuart dynasty, a point of history of peculiar interest : we Ist of August, 1640, Monk, at his post on the borders of Scotland, mean George Monk, a man whose share in public affairs, before on the banks of the Tyne, took part in the affair of Newburn, and after that event, was not so great as to have preserved much where the English disgraced themselves by a precipitate flight. more than his name in the historic page, but who was lifted to Monk, by his judicious conduct, saved them for the moment from immortality by the tide of events which threw the destiny of an some of its disastrous results. The Scots, after having passed the empire into his hands. His cautious taciturnity puzzled his co- Tyne, almost without resistance, marched towards the quarters of temporaries, and his character has been represented by different the Earl of Newport, in order to possess themselves of the artilbiographers and historians in as many different colours as the lery. In the king's army, disorder had not waited for the enemy. chamelion, just according to the individual bias of the writer. Monk, still at the head of his regiment, had, for his own guns, but This enigmatical character has been taken up by M. Guizot as a one ball and charge of powder. He made application for ammu. fit subject for investigation; and our purpose is to follow the record nition to major-general Astley, but was answered that there was of his researches—his historical studies,-and in a brief sketch no more ; and upon this, placing his soldiers, armed with muskets, show what he has done, and the conclusion at which his inquiries along the hedges, he imposed so well upon the Scots, that they did have enabled him to arrive. The original, which was first pub- not venture to attack him, and allowed him to carry off the artil. lished in the “ Revue de Paris,'' has been ably translated the lery to Newcastle, where, with the place itself, it soon after fell Hon. J. Stuart Wortley, and enriched by him with many valuable into their hands. Monk always used to express the utmost dissaillustrative notes.

tisfaction at the whole conduct of this unfortunate campaign. He “ Among the men,” says M. Guizot, "who fill a place in the maintained that the English army was fully equal to cope with and grcat scenes of history, the fate of Monk has been remarkable. overcome the Scots, and advised the king to fight. His opinions Åt once both celebrated and obscure, he has linked his name with were over-ruled, and a hasty treaty put an end to the war. the restoration of the Stuarts, but has left us no other memorial of Affairs in England were every day assuming a more gloomy his life. One day he disposed singly, and with renown, of a aspect. The Long Parliament was assembled ; the quarrel grew throne and a people: on those which either precede or follow it, more and more bitter, when the Irish insurrection (25th October, he is scarcely to be distinguished from the crowd with which he 1641,) chanced to present every Englishman with a cause to mingles. He is one of those whose talent, and even vices, have defend, -every soldier with a war to wage,—and that without but a day or an hour for the development of their full energy and engaging him with either party. Monk embraced the opportunity, dominion ; yet they are men whom it is most important to study; and obtaining the appointment of colonel to the regiment of the for the rapid drama wherein they took the leading part, and the Earl of Leicester, who succeeded to the government of Ireland, even which it was in their sole power to accomplish, can be after the execution of Strafford, proceeded to Ireland. He there through them alone made thoroughly intelligible.”

found divided counsels and neglected troops, for the disorders at George Monk was born on the 6th December, 1608. He was home left little leisure for due attention to the Irish army ; yet we the second son of Sir Thomas Monk, a Devonshire gentleman, of are told that there was not a soldier ever so sick or ill-shod who ancient family but impaired fortune. When George Monk was would not make an effort to follow George Monk,-a familiar seventeen, King Charles I., who had just mounted the throne, appellation bestowed on him by the affection of the soldiers, visited Plymouth, to superintend the outfit of the expedition which always more disposed to obey when they have in a manner approhe projected against Spain. On this occasion all the country priated their commander to themselves, and when in their chief gentlemen flocked to pay their court, and Sir Thomas among they recognise a comrade." them ; but having reason to fear an arrest from an unfriendly Leicester, who had remained in London, had delegated his creditor, he sent his son George to bribe the sheriff. That worthy authority to Ormond, a zealous royalist. Other members of the functionary accepted the fee, and faithfully promised that Sir government were attached to the parliament. The contests of Thomas should not be molested; but being afterwards doubly authority were frequent, and always determined at the pleasure of feed by the other side, he arrested him in the midst of a company the party most powerful for the moment: in general, that of the of gentlemen, assembled to see the king_pass by. Indignant at king had the advantage. The army, suspended between contrary this treachery, young Monk hurried to Exeter, and handled the interests and inclinations,-pressed at the same time by its neces. faithless man of law so roughly, that his life would have been sities, its dangers, and its common enemies,-felt, in presence of endangered but for the interference of the neighbours. After this the Irish, rather English than parliamentarian or royalist; and a adventure, George Monk, fearful of the consequences, took refuge lukewarmness of political opinion left great latitude to the chiefs on board the feet, just then ready to sail : his relation, Sir in seeking to gain proselytes, and to the inferiors a large facility Richard Greenville, received him on board his ship, and Monk for maintaining a good understanding with both parties. Monk, accompanied him on the cruise. The object of the expedition was skilful above them all, thenceforth commenced the attainment or to intercept the Spanish galleons, but it was not attended with the application of the art which he so constantly and dexterously

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