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practised-the art of advancing his fortunes with the prevailing “Cromwell, pressed by the Scots, who were superior in number, party, without ever losing the confidence of that which might had imprudently entangled his army in a confined position prevail at a future day. The absence of all passion,- an apparent between the sea and the heights occupied by the enemy. There slowness of disposition, produced by the natural circumspection of was no way for a retreat but by a narrow passage guarded by a his character,--and a remarkable taciturnity, secured him from the strong body of troops. The general assembled his council: fear pitfalls of speech: it served him little in the conduct of his life, bad seized upon it, and few officers advised an engagement. except to penetrate the sentiments of others, whilst he misled them 'Sir,' said Monk, the Scots have numbers and the hills: these as to his own. Yet his was an active silence. His assiduous, as are their advantages. We have discipline and despair, two things well as regular and tranquil diligence, maintained connexions in that will make soldiers fight : these are ours. My advice, there. all quarters where his situation permitted them; and without ever fore, is to attack them immediately, which if you follow, I ath appearing to have bestowed himself, each thought he had gained ready to command the van.' These words overturned all objechim, or could gain him in time of need. On the other hand, tions, and Monk, pike in hand, at the head of his soldiers, forced devoted with indefatigable activity to the difficult cares of the em- the passage, which the Scots, surprised by so vigorous a charge, ployment which was confided to him, he appeared to be exclusively did not long defend. Their success decided the victory,'' absorbed by it, and the acrimony or distrust of political opinion On Cromwell's return to England, for the purpose of pursuing could scarce reach a man with whom some other business was and attacking Charles II., who was on his march Worcester, he always to be transacted."

left Monk in the command of the Scottish army, and he soon Having given this exposition of his character, we must pass succeeded in reducing the whole country. He has been charged lightly over the events which marked his career, until we arrive at with ruthless cruelty in permitting the governor and garrison of the period in which he played so prominent a part. The king's | Dundee to be slaughtered in cold blood; but a comparison of influence in Ireland gradually extended, until at length, in the various accounts will serve to exculpate him from this crime. The early part of 1643, the parliamentary commissioners could no place was taken by assault, a terrible slaughter ensued, and the longer keep their position, and were compelled to quit Dublin. A governor was basely murdered by a Major Butler, after he had suspension of armis was arranged with the insurgents, and Ormond surrendered himself prisoner ; but Monk, so far from ordering or prepared to send the troops, now disengaged, to the assistance of approving these enormities, " was much troubled" on account of the king. He first, however, imposed an oath on the officers, them. No discipline can restrain the fury of troops during an binding them not to serve under Essex, or any of the parliamen- assault, and no general can be held responsible for what occurs in tary generals : two alone refused this oath, Monk being one. He such a moment. was strongly biassed in favour of the royal cause, but as large After a residence in England for the recovery of his health, arrears of pay were due, both to him and his men, which he hoped which had suffered from the spotted fever,” Monk, in the begins to procure from the parliament, he judged it imprudent to furnish ning of 1652, was sent to Scotland with St. John, Vane, Lambert, them with so good an excuse for neglecting their engagements. and some other commissioners, to promote the union of the two These reasons satisfied Ormond, but when he detected a message countries. Monk, specially charged, it would seem, with the sent from Pym, in the name of the Parliament, to Monk, enjoin secret instructions of Cromwell, showed himself in Scotland vigiing him to use his influence with the troops to induce them to lant and vigorous against the presbyterians, and favourable to the declare for the parliament, Ormond thought it his duty to send remnant of the party of Montrose ; and, in spite of the recollecMonk under a strong guard to Bristol, there to await the king's tion of his recent severities, he laid at this period the foundation of orders. There was now no longer room for concealment, and that royalist popularity which afterwards, and with so distant a Monk openly declared his adherence to the crown. He repaired prospect, turned towards him all the hopes of the party of the to Oxford, where he was treated with great consideration, and his restoration. experienced advice was sought and eagerly listened to, but not The year following, he was associated with Blake and Dean in acted upon. He recommended that the king should reduce his the command of the fleet sent against the Dutch, and in this cara. army to ten thousand men, but maintain strict discipline ; city signalised himself by a brilliant victory over Van Tromp. counsels excellent in a military point of view, but difficult to be This action, and his subsequent excellent conduct of the affairs of carried into execution, in dealing with such a heterogeneous the navy, as commissioner of the admiralty, raised him to such a assembly as the Cavalier army, and with an empty exchequer. height of popularity as at one period to give some uneasiness to Monk's services were soon stopt short. He had taken the tem- Cromwell. But these suspicions were soon dispelled, and the porary command of the Irish forces, then engaged under Lord Protector saw that he might confidently rely upon Monk, who Byron, in the siege of Nantwich. Byron was surprised and indeed served him with fidelity, and would give no ear to royalist defeated by Fairfax, on the 25th of January, 1644 ; and Monk, schemes during his life. The royalists having attempted a rising and many others, were taken prisoners. Three years were passed in Scotland, Monk was despatched to suppress them. by him in melancholy incarceration in the Tower. Meantime the He reached Scotland in April, 1654, and after subduing the tide of events fowed on. The civil war was at an end, and the loyalist army raised by Middleton, he took up his residence at king was a prisoner. Relieved from the distractions of the Dalkeith, and in conjunction with other commissioners, though English war, the parliament turned their attention once more to himself exercising all the real power, he exercised an almost Ireland, and Monk, from his experience, was judged fit for despotic authority during the whole of Cromwell's life. On the employment in that quarter. After long consideration and much Protector's death he proclaimed Richard, but after this act of persuasion, he at length consented to submit to the Parliament, adhesion he resolved to await the moment when the safest course whilst he dexterously avoided taking the covenant, by professing; might present itself to his choice, and meantime to adopt or reject or rather getting another (Lord Lisle) to prosess for him, that he Possessed of great power, and with an army fondly attached was ready to take it. But throughout his life he had what was to him, Monk was exposed to the contrivances and curiosity of probably a conscientious objection to fetter himself by oaths, all who sought to gain him. Thus assailed by agents of all which at that period, and in almost all cases of revolutionary dis parties, he found in his taciturnity a rampart which he seldom turbance, were and are, so frequently presented as to deaden the permitted to be forced. But even his silence was significant ; moral feeling, even in the minds of the most well-meaning. and with him it served to maintain at once both reserve and con

Still maintaining his customary cautious demeanour, he pro- fidence. “No sooner had any appearance of insinuation or ceeded to Ireland, enjoying the confidence of Cromwell, whilst the general preliminary observations announced the purpose of introroyalists trusted that, when the time came, he would be found ducing an overture, than Monk, with an air of profound attention, ready to serve the king. They were not mistaken. After a answered scarce at all,—differed still less,- opened no door for somewhat disastrous career in Ireland, where the province of discussion, no channel for indiscretion : after exhausting a first Ulster was placed under his care, he returned to England after the attack, to desist became unavoidable; and each went away, petsurrender of Dundalk, much dissatisfied with the conduct of the suaded that he had either shaken him or found him well disposed, parliament. He was, however, held in high esteem by Cromwell, but without having received the smallest encouragement to venture who, on his return from Ireland, gave him a regiment, and after. upon anything more explicit.” wards appointed him general of the ordnance. He accompanied Meanwhile he closely watched the course of events, and perCromwell in his expedition for the reduction of Scotland, and, by ceived the growing discontent of the people, and their total want his advice and examp!e, was of signal service in obtaining the of confidence in the parliament. He also felt his own power, and remarkable success which crowned the arms of Cromwell at knew that it would not have been difficult for him to have overDunbar, where nothing but extraordinary talents in the leaders, powered that unpopular body, and have compelled them to proclaim and strict discipline in the men, could have rescued the army. ' him Protector. "When Richard was proclaimed, the soldiers and


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inferior officers were heard to exclaim, “Why not rather old George? Monk has been much blamed for countenancing the restoration, he would be fitter for a protector than Dick Cromwell." With without insisting on terms; but it is difficult to conceive how such such backers he might have commanded a powerful party. But could have been satisfactorily arranged, without losing all the he was not to be tempted : he saw the tide of popular opinion advantages obtained, and in all probability involving the country beginning to run strongly in favour of the restoration of royalty, once more in war. Weary of anarchy, all were ready to receive and rejoiced at it. “Little impressed with the rights or exigencies back the old constitution with joy, but there was neither leisure of liberty, and much disgusted with the inconveniences of anarchy, nor community of feeling sufficient for the construction of a new he looked but little at the nature of power, so long as he either one. Monk was not so over-zealous for the royal cause as to have exercised or acknowledged it. He thought a country sufficiently omitted this, if it had been practicable. What he desired was a happy when it was tranquil and controlled ; and knew well, with stable government, and seeing the necessity of seizing the favourregard to his own interest, that on the power of the master able moment, he would not risk the hazard of debate. depends the fortune of his servants. He had the means of becom- On the king's return, Monk met with suitable reward for his ing the most useful and best requited servant of Charles Stuart; great services. He was already possessed of considerable proand it therefore suited him to treat singly and directly with the perty, (chiefly estates in Ireland, granted by Cromwell,) and he king, with the sole purpose of settling satisfactorily his own per- was now invested with the order of the Garter, nominated a member sonal position, and leaving others to contend for the interests of of the privy council, made lieutenant-general of the armies of the the country. In secret, his sagacity had at all times led him to three kingdoms, appointed master of the horse, and created duke spare the royalists, and, from the moment that they could apply of Albemarle. Pensions to the amount of 70001. per annum were to him with a hope of success, they must have met with a willing annexed to his patent, and he was appointed gentleman of the reception. Monk never treated frankly but with them ; and, bedchamber. He was always esteemed, and frequently confidenthroughout his progress towards the restoration, one single senti- tially consulted by the king; and his popularity with the people, ment is conspicuous and predominant,-namely, the desire to especially the Londoners, was never lessened. withdraw it from every influence but his own, that he might be He performed several not unimportant services after the king's enabled to commit it wholly and freely to the prince from whom he restoration. When the plague desolated London, the government was to receive its value."

of the city being entrusted to him, he performed the onerous and Such is the judgment of M. Guizot upon the character and dangerous duties so admirably as to render himself not less loved motives of Monk, who now prepared for active interference in the by the citizens than formerly by his soldiery; so much so, indeed, affairs of the state. Having waited until the breach between the that after the great fire, at which time he was absent, the exclamaEnglish army, under Lambert, and the parliament, which he fore- tion—" Ah! if old George had been here, the city would not have saw, had taken place, he prepared his army by cashiering or been burnt," was commonly heard. He was at this time at sea, confining all officers who were not ready to support him ; and having, in conjunction with Prince Rupert, been despatched proclaiming his intention to support the civil government and against the Dutch, with whom a furious but indecisive fight was restore the Parliament, he marched towards England, and reached maintained for three successive days. His last service was to lead Coldstream, a village on the banks of the Tweed. Here he halted, some companies of troops against the Dutch, on the occasion of and employed his time so skilfully in negotiations, that Lambert, their burning the ships at Chatham. The Dutch re-embarked ; who had marched his army to Newcastle, to oppose his progress, but not so soon but that the Duke of Albemarle, who had prowas baffled and outwitted, and his army melting away, was obliged ceeded to the advanced posts, heard the balls whistle by his ears. to take flight without striking a blow.

One of his officers urged him to retreat a little. " Sir," replied Meantime the Rump had re-assembled, and once more gained Monk, “if I had been afraid of bullets, I should have quitted this possession of the executive part of the government. Monk, who trade of a soldier long ago." had preserved their existence as a body, was yet regarded by them Monk's health had long been failing: he suffered from asthma with some jealousy, although they had no suspicion of his royalist and dropsy, and, after combating both with patience and fortitude, tendency; and when he announced his intention of marching to at length sunk under them, dying at London on the 30 January, London, and demanded that all the troops who had mutinied | 1670. He was buried at Westminster, in the chapel of Henry against the parliament, remaining in London, should be removed VII., but no monument points out his tomb. to make way for his men, they dared not disobey. By slow "He was,” says M. Guizot, "a man capable of great things, marches he approached London, meeting in every town he passed though he had no greatness of soul; and who deserved a better through with an enthusiastic reception, and loud petitions for a name than he has left in history, although it has been reproached, free parliament. Meanwhile, he was full of protestations of fidelity not wholly without justice." and zeal to the Rump, and completely cajoled their commissioners. By his wife, who was a woman of vulgar manners, though pro

Arrived in London, welcomed by the Rump, and trusted in by bably not, as has been generally supposed, of low origin, but who the citizens, he was immediately put upon a service excessively was certainly his concubine before she became his wife, he had one displeasing to these latter, but which tended to fill up the cup of son, Christopher, who died childless in 1688. obloquy which the Rump had long been preparing for themselves, and materially assisted Monk in the furtherance of his design. A fray between some of the disorganised soldiery of Lambert and the Francis Xavier was a very extraordinary man. Persuasive apprentices of the city, who made an outbreak, clamouring for and commanding eloquence, an ascendant over the minds of men, a free parliament, led to an order to Monk to break down the unconquerable patience in suffering, intrepid courage amidst the city posts and chains; and he led his men to this duty, as dis most dreadful dangers, and a life devoted with inflexible constancy pleasing to them as to the citizens, in whose desires they fully to a purely disinterested purpose, form a combination which participated. His own opinion of the action he performed, he varies its exterior and its direction according to the opinions and scarcely sought to conceal; and the next day, returning to the city, manners of various ages and nations. In one age it produces a he openly declared his abhorrence of the body who could put such Xavier; in another, a Howard. It may sometimes take a direcan indignity on the city, and summoning a common council-an tion which we may think pernicious, and a form not agreeable to assembly prohibited by the Rump—he stated his determination our moral taste ; but the qualities themselves are always admirable, that a free and full parliament should be summoned, and that the and by the philosophical observer, whose eye penetrates through present body must be immediately dissolved. His declaration was the disguise of a local and temporary fashion, and recognises the received with shouts of joy, and that night Rumps were roasting principles on which depends the superiority of one mind over from Temple Bar to Billingsgate; and proper means being used at another, they will always be revered. The truth of many opinions the post-office, such news only as was expedient found their way for which Xavier contended, it is not very easy to maintain ; but into the country, and the Rump-roasting became universal. he taught to slaves the moral dignity of their nature; he preached

The time was now come for him to drop the mask altogether, humility to tyrants, and benevolence to savages. He must have yet he did so still gradually; but our limits preclude us from told the outcast Hindu, that, in the grandest point of view, he was particularity on a point of history so well known. Suffice it to the equal of his rajah ; and the ferocious Malay, that his enemy say, that the necessity of the step was so well understood, that was his brother. He therefore diffused the fruits of the best Monk's messenger only just forestalled another sent by the pres- philosophy, and laboured to improve and ennoble human nature. byterian party, who offered Charles the terms submitted to his I am sorry to find miraculous tales related of him; but I hope they father in the Isle of Wight. The Rump was dissolved, and a new are only proofs of the divine reverence which his virtues left behind parliament assembled, wbo, on the 8th of May, proclaimed Charles them, and that he did not sully his great character by any pretensions II. king.

which might approach to imposture.—Life of Sir J. Mackintosh.




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factories had been all along carried on successfully in Prussia. It was declared, that from four to six per cent. of sugar was obtained from the beet, besides several other valuable matters. Other

German chemists had instituted experiments, and published It is now nearly a hundred years since Margraff, a Prussian results substantially the same as Achard's. At length, in 1809-10, chemist, residing at Berlin, made the discovery that the beet experiments were recommenced in France, particularly by M. contained a good crystallisable sugar. His attention was first Deyeux of the Institute, who had reported upon the subject in drawn to this subject by the saccharine taste of the beet, and the 1800. The experiments resulted in the production of a considercrystalline appearance of its flesh, when examined with a micro- able quantity of sugar, both clayed and refined, which, as speciscope. Having cut the beet into thin slices, he dried perfectly, mens, served to revive and increase the confidence of France in and then pulverised them. To eight ounces of the powder he this source of supply. No more than one to two per cent. was added twelve of highly rectified spirits of wine, and exposed the obtained; the beets being of a bad sort, and raised in the neighmixture to a gentle heat in a sand-bath. As soon as the liquid bourhood of Paris, where a vast deal of ammoniacal manure, reached the boiling point, he removed it from the fire, and filtered hostile to the production of saccharine, is used. it into a flask, which he corked up, and left to itself. In a few In 1811, M. Drappier, of Lille, worked about fifteen tons of weeks he perceived that crystals were formed, which exhibited all beets, from which he obtained two and a half per cent. of sugar. the physical and chemical properties of the sugar-cane's. The In the winter of the same year, an experimenter at Paris sucalcohol still contained sugar in solution, and a resinous matter, ceeded in obtaining four aod a half per cent. from white beets, which he disengaged by evaporation. Having submitted several raised at a considerable distance from Paris, and without any other vegetable substances (as parsneps, skerret, and dried grapes) manure. This was the first essay in France which approximated to the same treatment, he obtained sugar from each. In 1747, he to the results of Achard. It was made by M. Charles Durosne, addressed to the Academy of Berlin a memoir, entitled “ Chemical and was detailed in the Moniteur. It demonstrated how faulty Experiments, made with a view to extract genuine Sugar from had been their selection of sorts, and the mode of culture. At this several Plants which grow in these Countries."

time Achard had published in German an extensive work, in Margraff solved the important problem, that genuine sugar was

which he had treated with minuteness every department of the not confined to the cane. After this, he enlarged and varied his business, from the raising of the seed to the refining of the sugar. experiments, but did not invent means of making sugar from the This treatise contained not only Achard's experience of thirteen new material on a scale sufficiently large to render it an object years, but also accounts of the manufacture of beet sugar, on a of interest to capitalists. Yet he seems to have had a prescience grand scale, by other persons in Prussia. that his discovery would one day assume importance. He com- In January, 1812, Napoleon issued a decree, establishing five mended it to the attention of the Prussian cultivators, and parti chemical schools for teaching the processes of beet-sugar making, cularly the small farmers, as offering a new and beneficial branch directing one hundred students from the schools of medicine, of agriculture.

pharmacy, and chemistry, to be instructed in those establishments, Margraff died in 1782. He was a member of the Academy of and creating four imperial manufactories, capable of making Berlin, director of the class of natural philosophy, and fellow of 4,408,000 lbs. of raw sugar annually. Munificent premiums were the Academy of Sciences at Paris. His works were collected and also decreed to several individuals, who had already distinguished published in two volumes &ro, in French, 1767. A German trans- themselves by a successful application to this new branch of lation was published at Leipsic, the following year.

industry. A considerable number of manufactories were immedi. It was Achard, also a chemist of Berlin, who discovered the ately added to those already existing in France; and, in the season

of 1813, a large quantity of sugar, both raw and refined, was method of extracting sugar from the beet on a large scale, and at a moderate expense. He first announced this result in 1791. . In de Dombasle, a learned and experienced cultivator and chemist.

produced. A notable improvement was introduced by M. Mathieu 1799, a letter from him was inserted in the “ Annales de Chimie," in which he detailed his method. The high price to which sugar depuration, appropriately called in France défécation. This was,

It consisted in applying to the beet-juice the colonial process of had risen in France, in consequence of the capture of nearly, all in fact, very analogous to the improvement which the Arabs her colonial possessions, gave something more than a speculative effected in the Oriental method. Achard used sulphuric acid in and passing interest to the ideas of Achard. The National Insti. this operation, and for the crystallization broad dishes, not unlike tute appointed a commission to examine the subject. The result those said to be used in China at this day. The colonial process of of their investigation was, that the cost of raw sugar of the beet défécation by lime is now nearly universal in France, as is likewise would be 8d. sterling a pound. The price of sugar was such, the substitution of the mould, or conical pot, for the crystallisers that even at that rate a very large profit might have been cleared; of Achard. but this consideration was not sufficient to induce many persons to take the risk of a peace with England, supposed at that time to be

Such was the prosperous condition of this manufacture, when approaching. Only two establishments were formed ; one at St. the disasters of Moscow brought upon it an uncertain political Ouen, and the other at Chelles, in the environs of Paris. Both of future, that bane of all great industrial enterprises. Confidence them were failures, partly from the bad quality of their beets, and and energy gradually yielded to fear and discouragement. A faint partly from the ignorance and inexperience of the conductors and and fitful struggle was maintained during another year, until the workmen. With them went down the high hopes which had arisen Cossacks, quartered in the sugar-mills

, and the allied artillery, of this new branch of industry in France.

seizing upon the beasts that moved them, gave the manufacturers It is difficult to say whether these hopes would ever have been from curiosity, their principal customers, being struck with the

the coup de grace. The officers billeted at their houses became, resuscitated, if political events of an over-ruling nature had not brilliancy and purity of this unexpected product. After the final supervened. By the Berlin and Milan decrees, all colonial overthrow of Napoleon at Waterloo, the prices of sugar fell. Still

, articles were prohibited, and that famous "continental system,' so wide and wild in its design, but so important and permanent in shock of this tremendous reverse.

to the surprise of all, two beet-sugar manufactories did survive the its effects, was established. From that time (1806), chemists and economists applied themselves with renewed zeal to the search

After the retirement of the allied troops, 1818, the governafter an indigenous source for the supply of sugar. It was

ment began to turn its attention to the encouragement of an thought, at one time, that the desideratum had been attained in industry, which had struggled meritoriously and successfully to the production of grape sugar, or syrup ; of which, in the course preserve a boon to the French nation. Many eminent and publicof two years, many million pounds were made. This sugar, spirited citizens raised up establishments, more perhaps to give although very abundant in some varieties of the grape, raised in a

the benefit of experiments to their countrymen, than with a view to southern latitude, possesses only two-fifths of the sweetening profitable investment. Men of genius and profound research power of the cane and beet sugar. Nevertheless, sugar being at occupied themselves with elaborate experiments, and published about 4s. sterling a pound, a great number of manufactories were

their results. Among the most important were the Count erected, and science and industry were tasked to the utmost to Chaptal, who detailed, in memoirs on the subject, and in his improve the process, and to bring it to perfect sugar.

Agricultural Chemistry," the experience of many years as a

cultivator of beets and manufacturer of sugar; and M. Dombasle, In this state of things it was announced, that beet-sugar manu

who did the same, with admirable clearness and precision, in his * Abridged from the North American Review, for April, 1839

work entitled “ Facts and Observations relating to the Manufac.

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ture of Beet Sugar." The latter, with a prospect of many more yet get a permanent footing in Great Britain. We do not think a years of usefulness, is still at the farm-school of Roville, near fair experiment has yet been made in that country. The original Lunéville, in Lorrain, devoted to agricultural and chemical stu- prejudice against the pretensions of the new manufacture, forced dies, and imparting the results of his long experience, fertile forward by the odious machinery of the "continental system" and genius, and assiduous application, through his publications, which the power of the empire, to become a rival of their colonial indusgo to all parts of the world, and to pupils who come from every try, was of course virulent and obstinate, nation. As an intelligent and industrious operative, M. Crespel

The protection of the beet-sugar culture in France, and in other Delisse, of Arras, is worthy of honourable mention. This gentle- nations on the Continent, is very high, as we have seen ; much man was originally a labourer. He became the foreman of the higher than protection of any article of general and necessary use first beet-sugar manufactory at Arras. The proprietor, who had invested an immense capital, sank in the general wreck of 1814- ought ever to be. It is at least a hundred per cent. on the cost.

But we have also seen that this business did not succumb to the 15. M. Crespel succeeded him, with the great advantage of shock and disappointment occasioned by the fall from a protection having his fixtures at about one-fourth of their real value. This of three hundred per cent. to no protection at all. After the was one of the two establishments which survived, and it continues general peace, sugar fell as low in France as it is in the free ports to this day to be one of the most extensive and successful in of Europe at this time. An immense stock had accumulated in France. M. Crespel is interested, as part or sole proprietor, in the sugar colonies, which had been successively captured and were seven or eight other farms and factories. He has received the gold in the hands of the British, insomuch that they actually fed horses medal of the Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture, at and other animals upon sugar. Paris, and the honours of knighthood from the French and other

The culture and manufacture of beet sugar in France, according European sovereigns.

to the result of ten cases which we have examined, has yielded of The method in general use in France is to crush, or grind, the late gears an average profit of forty-nine and a half per cent. on beet with an instrument called a rasp, though its functions would capital. In some of these cases, the profit was as low as nine, and be better described by the word grater. It is cylindrical, and in others as high as ninety, per cent." Now, as the new duty laid revolves four hundred or more times in a minute. This reduces

on by the French Chambers in 1837, amounts to a reduction of the beets to a very fine pulp. They are then pressed in hydraulic twenty-two per cent on the former rate of proft, it follows, of presses of great power, and the juice defecated, evaporated, boiled, course, that all those establishments which, on the scale of profit, and filtered, in very much the same manner as the cane-juice in

are below twenty-two per cent., must go down, unless sustained at the colonies. The great difference is, that the beet-sugar machi- an annual loss. Even many of those which would range on that nery has been rapidly improved, and the cane-planters have begun scale above twenty per cent., but which have proceeded principally to avail themselves of the improvements. There is, however, or wholly (which is not often the case in France) on borrowed another method of extracting the saccharine, which dispenses capital, trusting to larger profits for the

means of extinguishing the altogether with grating and pressing. This is called maceration. original debt, will doubtless fail. The probable number of failures It was first proposed by Dombasle, and has been tried in various in consequence of the law was estimated at two hundred, out of a forms, with more or less success. M. Martin de Roclincourt, total of five hundred and fifty establishments. Others will probaoriginally a captain of engineers, is the inventor of an ingenious bly remove from France, and set up in Belgium, Germany, Russia, and valuable machine for performing this operation. The beet is

or Austria, where protection is greater, and (what is more matefirst cut into ribands, about one line in thickness. They are then rial) stabler ; for those countries have no colonial interest to plunged into boiling water, which is admitted into the machine at consult. Our opinion is, however, that the law will undergo some regular intervals, in regulated doses. The ribands remain passing modification before it shall have produced this last consequence. through the circuit of the machine during one hour, and steam is These failures or removals, if it shall take place, will not show occasionally admitted to keep up the heat. In this time the sugar what protection, or whether any protection, is really needed. contained in the ribands is dissolved, and remains in solution in They will be the natural result of subtracting from a business a the water ; while the ribands, now called pulp, are discharged on protection which it had been accustomed to have, and on which it the side of the machine opposite to that where they entered it; the relied, liquor containing the saccharine flows off in another direction to

It is well known to those who have attended to the progress of the defecating pans.

this business in France, that the profits of the principal manufacThis method is employed to a considerable extent in France, turers have been much absorbed by a desire, probably too earnest, but by no means so generally as the rasp and press. Its advan- to keep up with the improvements of machinery. Much has likewise tages are, that it gives rather more and a rather better product, been lost in unproductive experiments. It would be ungrateful and requires a great deal less labour. Its disadvantages are, that and ungracious to find fault with our French friends on this it takes a great deal more fuel, and does not leave the pulp in so

account; since they have carried the business through the natural good a state for feeding; there being too much water in it, and and necessary period of infancy, at their exclusive cost, for the less saccharine, than in that which comes from the press. It common benefit of mankind. They have all along been conscious might be subjected to pressure, by which a little additional liquor that they were obtaining from the beet but little more than half would be obtained for the pans, and the pulp made vastly better its saccharine matter. This conviction has naturally and very for feeding. This, however, would require so much power of the properly caused a restlessness, and a striving after something more press, and so much pains, that the French generally feed with the perfect. It is certain that those who have resisted all innovation, pulp just as it falls from the machine. We have little hesitation in and adhered to the original methods and machinery, have been the giving the preference to this method in a country where fuel is most successful; but, if all had been equally cautious, little cheap and labour dear. The immense establishment commenced improvement would have been made, and the nation and mankind in London two years ago, but abandoned in consequence of the would have been at a remoter period, and in a less degree, beneexcise of 11. 45. per cwt. (act passed in 1837,) which the govern- fited. Nevertheless, we fully believe that the cotton manufacture ment hastened to impose, in order to guard the West-India has never been established in any country with so few failures, and interest, was upon this system, On the other hand, the only so little loss and fluctuation, as the beet-sugar business in France, other beet-sugar manufactory, upon a scale of any importance, in and other countries of the Continent, Great Britain and Ireland, which is situated near Dublin, has adopted the rasp and press. The former establishment delivered But we may now safely assert, that the great desideratum which for consumption a considerable quantity of beautiful refined sugar, been striving to supply, is at length attained ; that a method has

the French manufacturers of beet sugar have always felt, and have which was so completely undistinguishable from refined cane sugar, that the government issued an extraordinary notice, that any fraud been discovered by which the beet is deprived of all its sacoharine, in the exportation of it with the benefit of drawback would, if be the same more or less ; and that this matter is obtained and detected, be punished with the utmost severity. Whether the operated upon in such a manner as to be nearly all in a crystalestablishment in Ireland still exists, we are not informed. It is, lizable state. Hitherto, about

fifty per cent of the saccharine

has however, the opinion of persons skilled in the manufacture and resulted in molasses. This residuum is of comparatively small refining of sugar, and who have had small experimental beet-sugar value ; and everything which arrests the formation of it adds by factories near London, that the business cannot be sustained so much to the deposit of sugar, and to the profits of the prounder a duty of 11. 4s. per cwt. Others are confident that, in prietor, consequence of the application of the fibre to paper-making, by Mr. Schuzenbach, a chemist of Carlsruhe, in the grand duchy of which the value of the pulp is advanced fourfold, the business will, Baden, is the author of this important improvemen Having


obtained his result in the laboratory, he communicated it to distin

THE ROSE OF JERICHO; guished capitalists in Baden, who thereupon formed a company; not with a view, in the first instance, of erecting a manufactory upon the new system, but merely of proving its pretensions. To In many parts of Germany a plant under the name of the Rose this end they advanced a considerable sum for setting up experi. of Jericho is preserved, and made use of by its avaricious posmental works so large, that the thing could be tried on a manufac- sessors for all sorts of juggling tricks and superstitious practices. turing scale. Having done this at Ettingen, near Carlsruhe, they The usual appearance of this vegetable body is that of a brown appointed a scientific and practical commission, to follow closely ball as large as a man's fist (formed by the little branches of the the experiments which Mr. Schuzenbach should make. Commis- plant coiling up when perfectly dry), and is said to open only once sioners from the governments of Wurtemberg and Bavaria likewise a year, at Christmas. The miracle actually takes place, the plant attended. The experiments were carried on during five or six expands and displays singular forms in its branches, which are weeks, in which time several thousand pounds of sugar, of superior compared to Turks' heads, and relapses again into its former shape grain and purity, were produced.

before the eyes of the astonished beholders. Although few persons The Baden company were so well satisfied with the report of the now-a-days believe that any unusual circumstances attend this commission, that they immediately determined to erect an immense appearance, yet the high price at which the balls are sold, (from establishment, at an expense of more than 40,0001. sterling for twenty to twenty-five rix-dollars each), shows that there are still fixtures only. A like sum was devoted to the current expenses of known; a few remarks, therefore, may not be unacceptable.

some dupes, and that the true cause of this change is not generally the works.' Factories were simultaneously erected at or near Munich, Stuttgard, and Berlin. The arrangements were made

Peter Belon, who travelled in the East from 1540 to 1546, is the with remarkable intelligence and caution; and we cannot doubt first who mentions this plant, although it appears to have been that the new method will prove of immense importance to the previously known in Italy; and he found it on the shores of the prosperity, comfort, and improvement of the northern nations and Red Sea. Leonard Rauwolf, of Augsburg, is said to have first colonies of the Old World and the New.

brought it to Germany in 1576. Delisle found it growing in Egypt, in Barbary, and in Palestine.

It is an annual cruciferous plant, with oval leaves. The stem is PIERRE-LOUIS DULONG.

five or six inches high, branched from the ground ; it is soft at PIERRE-Louis DULONG was born at Paris, 1785 : he became first, but afterwards becomes dry and woody. From the axils of

the leaves rise small branches of white flowers, which are succeeded an orphan at the age of four years; and, though hardly possessing by an oval capsule, or seed-vessel, having its persistent style in the the most ordinary advantages of domestic instruction or public middle, and furnished with an ear-shaped appendage at each side, education, his premature talents and industry gained him admis- in which a lively imagination finds some resemblance to a turban. sion, at the age of sixteen, to the Polytechnic School, which has These pods have two divisions, each division containing two small been so fertile in the production of great men ; of which he became oval seeds. The plant is of easy cultivation, the seed only requiring afterwards successively examiner, professor, and director. He to be sown in a hot-bed in spring, and transplanted into the open first followed the profession of medicine, which he abandoned on

ground in May. It flowers in June and ripens its seeds in Sep

tember, after which the plant withers and apparently dies ; but on being appointed Professor of Chemistry to the Faculty of Sciences. being planted in moist earth, or being well watered where it He became a member of the Institute in 1823, in the section of originally grew, it assumes its former shape, the roots fix themthe physical sciences. On the death of the elder Cuvier he was selves firmly in the earth, the branches expand, and young leaves appointed Secrétaire Perpétuel to the Institute, a situation from and flowers are developed. which he was afterwards compelled to retire by the pressure of It is grown in most botanical gardens, but never acquires the those infirmities which terminated in his death in the fifty-fourth perfect form of those specimens which are brought from Egypt. year of his age.

When the seeds are ripe, the leaves fall off, and the ligneous

branches bend inwards over each other, in the form of a ball, inM. Dulong was almost equally distinguished for his profound closing the seed-vessels within. In this state great numbers were knowledge of chemistry and physical philosophy. His “ Researches brought to Europe by pilgrims in former times. When this dried on the Mutual Decomposition of the Soluble and Insoluble Salts," plant is put into water, the branches unroll

, and the pods become form a most important contribution to our knowledge of chemical visible ; on being dried again they again close,-an experiment statics. He was the discoverer of the hydrophosphorous acid, and which may be tried at any season of the year, and which is also of the chlorure of axote, the most dangerous of chemical com- grounded solely on the property possessed by the fibres of the plant pounds, and his experiments upon it were prosecuted with a cou. rage nearly allied to rashness, which twice exposed his life to which it is well known is applied to hygrometrical purposes, and

of expanding in moisture and contracting in drought,-a property serious danger ; and his memoirs on the " Combinations of Phos- which this plant possesses in a higher degree than most others. For phorus with Oxygen," on the “ Hyponitric Acid," on the oxalic this reason, Linnæus named it anastatica, from anastasis, resuracid, and other subjects, are sufficient to establish his character as rection. The French call it simply, la jerose hygrometrique, a most ingenious and accurate experimenter, and as a chemical without any mystical allusion. As the quantity of moisture which philosopher of the highest order.

this plant requires for its re-expansion is always the same, it is But it is to his researches on the “ Law of the Conduction of easily ascertained, by experiments, how long it must remain in Heat,"

” “On the Specific Heat of the Gases,” and “On the Elastic water to imbibe a sufficient quantity, and also how much time is Force of Steam at High Temperatures,” that his permanent fame as required for evaporation before it again closes. This property is a philosopher will rest most securely ; the first of these inquiries, very adroitly taken advantage of by impostors. The plant is which were undertaken in conjunction with the late M. Petit, was moistened so as to open exactly at the given time: thus about published in 1817; and presents an admirable example of the Christmas they take it out of the water, as it is not absolutely combination of well-directed and most laborious and patient expe- necessary that it should remain in it till the very moment of unriment with most sagacious and careful induction ; these researches folding, when by degrees the branches open, and again cottract on terminated, as is well known, in the very important correction of the evaporation of the moisture. the celebrated law of conduction, which Newton had announced in In the East, these balls are rolled by the winds in the sandy the Principia, and which Laplace, Poisson, and Fourier had taken deserts until chance throws them near some humid spot, when the as the basis of their beautiful mathematical theories of the propa- branches spread out, the capsules open, and thus, by a beautiful gation of heat. His experiments on the elastic force of steam at provision of Providence, sow their seeds where they find the high temperatures, and which were full of danger and difficulty, moisture necessary for their vegetation. The plant possesses were undertaken at the request of the Institute, and furnish neither beauty nor smell,

but being imperishable, it is compared results of the highest practical value ; and though the conclusions by the Roman Catholic Church to the deep humility of the Virgin. deduced from his " Researches on the Specific Heat of Gases” have The

natives ascribe to it the property of lightening the pains of not generally been admitted by chemical and physical philoso- child-birth, and tradition asserts it to have been the gift of the phers, the memoir which contains them is replete with ingenious angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary; hence its Arabic name, kaf and novel speculations, which show a profound knowledge and Maryam, Mary's hand. It is believed to have opened spontane, familiar command of almost every department of physical science. ously on the night of the birth of our Saviour, and again closed -Parewell Address of the Duke of Sussex,

as before.

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