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OBSERVATIONS ON PLAGUE AND

sible to produce by them the spread of the disorder. I have

never seen a case occurring sporadically where any person about QUARANTINE.

the patient, or in contact with him, was attacked ; and I cannot DR. BOWRING has published a tract, entitled “Observations find any one that has seen one, although it is talked of among on the Oriental Plaguc, and on Quarantines." These observa. | the Levantines as a common occurrence. tions were addressed to the medical section at the last meeting Gibbon, in his animated way, has described the origin and of the British Association. One of the objects of Dr. Bowring, nature of the plague. “ Ethiopia and Egypt,” he says, in writing and publishing, is to draw attention to the subject, in been stigmatised in every age as the original source and seminary the hope of inducing the British government to take some steps, of the plague. In a damp, hot, stagnating air, this African fever such as the appoiutment of a special commission, for the purpose is generated from the putrefaction of animal substances, and esof investigating the real character of the plague, whether it be pecially from the swarms of locusts, not less destructive to mancontagious or not, and whether, therefore, quarantine is of use

kind in their death than in their lives. The fatal disease which in preventing the propagation of this formidable disease.

depopulated the earth in the time of Justinian and his successors, The common use of the word contagion, is to express the idea first appeared in the neighbourhood of Pelusium, between the of communication; a contagious disease is a communicating dis- Serbonian bog and the eastern channel of the Nile. From thence, ease, one which may be conveyed from one person to another. tracing as it were a double path, it spread to the east, over Syria, lo a strict sense, contagion is considered as a poison which Persia, and the Indies, and penetrated to the west, along the enters the blood ; and which, when it passes from a diseased to a coast of Africa, and over the continent of Europe. In the spring healthy person, raises in the healthy person the same disease. of the second year, Constantinople, during three or four months, The word contagion, in its primitive signification, means propa

was visited by the pestilence; and Procopius, who observed its progation of disease by actual contact—that is, a diseased and a gress and symptoms with the eyes of a physician, has emulated the healthy person must in some way touch each other, or breathe skill and diligence of Thucydides in the description of the plague in each other's faces, the one to inhale or imbibe the poison from of Athens. The infection was sometimes announced by the visions the other, in order to communicate disease. It is stili, to a large of a distempered fancy, and the victim despaired as soon as he extent, considered in this light; tbough, as the reader knows, heard the menace and felt the stroke of an invisible spectre. But there are diseases which are considered to be communicated the greater number, in their beds, in the streets, in their usual through the air, independently of actual contact. Smallpox, for occupations, were surprised by a slight fever, so slight indeed instance, is contagious (so it is considered) in both ways—both that neither the pulse nor the colour of the patient gave any by actual contact, and from its poison being suspended in the signs of the approach of danger. The same, the next, or the sucair.

ceeding day, it was declared by the swelling of the glands, partiMedical men are divided into two parties on the subject of cularly those of the groin, of the arm-pits, and under the ear ; contagion. There are not a few, and many of them of high and when these tumours were opened, they were found to con. character, who believe and teach that contagious diseases may tain a coat or black substance of the size of a LENTIL.

If they be prevented from spreading, by erecting a fence round the came to a just swelling and suppuration, the patient was saved by healthy, or round the diseased ; and in this they agree with what this kind and natural discharge of the morbid humour; but it may be regarded as the common sense and the common practice they continued hard and dry a mortification quickly ensued, and of mankind. They, therefore, think that quarantine, properly the fifth day was generally the term of his life.” Gibbon adds conducted, may prevent the importation of a pestilence from a

that it is not wholly inadmissible to believe that one hundred country where that pestilence may be raging. There are others millions fell victims to this contagion in the Roman empire. again, who consider that contagious diseases are not propagated But we may go much higher in history for notices of the operaby the contact of diseased and healthy persons and substances, tion of the plague, than this fatal period in the sixth century. It and that, therefore, quarantine is of no use in a medical point of was, perhaps, the plague by which the first-born of Egypt fell ; view, and productive of much inconvenience and evil to com- and probably it also, which, in the reign of David, swept his merce. Dr. Bowring has taken this side with reference to that kingdom for three days, when “there fell of Israel seventy terrible scourge, the plague. He does not consider the plague to thousand men." In Homer we readbe contagious ; that is, he does not consider that it is propagated

"Latona's son a dire contagion spread, by diseased and healthy persons coming in contact ; and that it

And heap'd the camp with mountains of the dead; is not prevented from spreading by the practice of quarantine,

The King of men his reverend Priest defied, or by shutting up diseased persons, and preventing them from

And for the King's offence the people died." having any communication with the healthy. This is an opinion which is supported by many striking and startling facts ; and, if Then, after invoking Apollo,— it were true, would be a great relief to commerce.

“God of the silver bow! thy shafts employ, sent state of commercial intercourse in the world, it is hardly

Avenge thy servant, and the Greeks destroy" possible to enforce the practice of quarantine so effectually as to cut off all communication. What a satisfaction, then, it would

We are told be, to establish it as a fact, that the plague is not communicated

the favouring power attends by contact, but invariably arises from other causes !

And from Olympus' lofty top descends ;

Bent was his bow, the Grecian hearts to wound, Dr. Laidlaw, an eminent English physician, who has devoted

Fierce as he moved his silver shafts resound; seven years to the study of the plague in Alexandria, and whose

Breathing revenge a sudden night he spread, case-book is said to record a higher average of cures than has

And gloomy darkness roll'd about his head. yet been known in this disease, says, “ If the plague is propa

The feet in view, he twang'd bis deadly bow, gable by contagion (and this I by no means deny in toto), yet it

And hissing fly the feather'd rates below; has been greatly exaggerated, and that, so far from its following

On mules and dogs the infection first began, as a general rule, that persons exposed to the contact of the

And last the vengeful arrows fix'd in man. infected are always, or generally attacked, it ought rather to be

For nive long nights through all the dusky air, considered as the exception.".

The pyres thick flaming shot a dismal glare ;

But ere the tenth revolving day was run, Dr. Bowring has seen “thousands and tens of thousands of cases, in which the most intimate intercourse with persons, ill

Inspired by Juno, Thetis' godlike son

Convened to council all the Grecian train, or dead of the plague, the dwelling in their houses, the wearing

For much the goddess mourn'd her heroes slain." their garments, the sleeping in their beds, were not followed by disease in any shape."

We can trace the course of the dreadful plague, which, beThese facts are worthy of being followed up by a very searching tween the years 1346 and 1352, pervaded the whole of Europe. investigation, in order to see if they lead to the general truth, It is supposed to have begun in China, and was carried by the that the plague is not communicable by contact. Dr. Laidlaw caravans, which every year crossed Tartary, to the north of the says, "I have no hesitation whatever in expressing my decided Caspian Sea, and even to Azof. Hence it proceeded gradually conviction that, unless the state of the atmosphere is favourable westward to Constantinople and Egypt; from Constantinople it to the spread of the plague, as is undoubledly the case during extended to Greece, Italy, France, and Africa, and embraced the the epidemic, there is no danger whatever from the causes of islands of Britain and Ireland; it then proceeded to Germany, contagion, that they are purely accidental, and that it is impos. Hungary, Poland, Denmark, Russia, and the other northern

In the pre

kingdoms. It thus arose in the east, and gradually extended it- THE ONE-HANDED FLUTE-PLAYER OF ARQUES IN self to the remotest west. This has been the belief in all periods

NORMANDY. of the history of the west--the east has always been pointed to

I wound my way up the eminence on which the old towers as the creating birth-place of pestilence. And this leads us at

totter to decay, and passing under the broken archway which once to the originating causes of plague-the putrefaction of received the triumphant Henry after his victory, and then tracing animal and vegetable substances under a hot sun-in other words, the rugged path which marks the grand approach, I got on the the want of proper drainage and cleanliness in countries where summit of the mound which forms the basement of the vast drainage and cleanliness are all-important matters.

expanse of building. The immense extent of these gives a fine In London, previously to the Great Fire, we had the plague for feeling of human grandeur and mortal littleness ; and the course half a century—from 1603 to 1665, with the exception of three of reflection is hurried on as the eye wanders over the scenery years, in which its operation appears quiescent. In many of the around. This may be described in one sentence, as the restingintervening years the mortality was very considerable ; in 1604 it place on which a guilty mind might prepare for its flight to virtue. amounted to 900 persons, in 1605 to 400, in 1606 to 2000, and

While I stood musing “ in the open air, where the scent comes as many in the two following years. And up to 1640 and 1648 and goes like the warbling of music"-and neither wished nor the yearly average exceeded 1000; and lastly, during the season wanted other melody, the soft sounds of a flute came faintly of the great attack, 68,000 were computed to have perished, of towards me, breathing a tone of such peculiar and melting expres. which number 46,000 were carried off in the months of August sion, as I thought I had never before heard. Having for some and September.

time listened in great delight, a sudden pause ensued ;—the strain Thus it appears that London, like the countries of the East, changed from sad to gay, not abruptly, but ushered by a running must have had some circumstance within itself capable of inducing cadence that gently lifted the soul from its languor, and thrilled the plague, like ancient Rome with its undrained marshes—this through every fibre of feeling. It recalled to me at the instant the is to be found by reference to the state of London in the time of fables of Pan, and every other rustic serenader, and I thought of Charles II. Its streets were mostly unpaved, filth in every corner, the passage in Smith's ** Nympholet," where Amarynthus, in his the drainage little thought of, and the houses built of wood enthusiasm, fancies he hears the pipe of the sylvan deity. generally, and overhanging the ground floor windows. Now, if I descended the hill towards the village at a pace lively and free human life depends on the atmosphere, and the longevity of man as the measure of the music wbich impelled me. When I reached upon its purity, who can wonder that the London of that and the level ground, and came into the straggling street, the warbling earlier times should bave been so subject to the ravages of the ceased. It seemed as though enchantment had lured me to its plague? Disease must naturally have been very prevalent, and favourite haunt. The gothic church, on my right, assorted well life but of little value, where the atmosphere was so much pol. with the architecture of the houses around. On every hand a luted. Where cleanliness exists, and the air above can have free portico, a frieze, ornaments carved in stone, coats of arms, and access, and there is a thorough draught through our streets and fret-work, stamped the place with an air of antiquity and noblehabitations ; where that food is eaten which is found to produce ness, wbile groups of tall trees formed a decoration of verdant yet the most healthful and uniform action of the system, and that is solemn beauty. avoided which leads to its excitement, particularly spirituous A few peasant women were sitting at the doors of their respecdrinks, we need not apprehend much danger. These great truths tive habitations, as misplaced, I thought, as beggars in the porch have been disseminated in Egypt with good results ; and could of a palace ; while half-a-dozen children gambolled on the grassthe Turks but he thoroughly aroused from their apathy, and the plot in the middle of the open place. I sought in vain among whole of the East aid in the effort, the pest of ancient and of these objects to discover the musician ; and, not willing to disturb modern times, the disease which swept whole hecatombs from the my pleased sensations by common-place questionings, I wandered living, and caused the depopulation of whole districts and coun. about, looking, in a sort of semi-romantic mood, at every antiquated tries, will be known but as a matter of history.

Fronting the church, and almost close to its western The debateable question, as to whether, when the plague is side, an arched entrance caught my particular attention, from its generated, it is communicable by actual contact, must be left to

old yet perfect workmanship, and I stopped to examine it, throwfurther research and experiment. Gibbon, repeating the current ing occasional glances through the trellis-work in the middle of the opinion of his own, and even of our day, says, “ Contagion is the gate, which gave a view of a court-yard and house within. Part inseparable symptom of the plague ; which, by mutual respiration, of the space in front was arranged in squares of garden, and a is transfused from the infected person to the lungs and stomachs venerable old man was watering some flowers: a nice young woman of those who approach them.” He adds, “Those salutary pre- stood beside him, with a child in her arms; two others were play. cautions to which Europe is indebted for her safety were unknown ing near him : and close at hand was a man, about thirty years of to the government of Justinian. No restraints were imposed on age, who seemed to contemplate the group with a complacent the free and frequent intercourse of the Roman provinces : from smile. His figure was in part concealed from me, but he observed Persia to France the nations were mingled and infected by wars me, and immediately left the others, and walked down the gravel and emigrations; and the pestilential odour which lurks for years path to accost me. I read his intention in his looks, and stood still. in a bale of cotton, was imported, by the abuse of trade, into the

As he advanced from his concealed position, I saw that his left most distant regions.” But the question will probably be keenly leg was a wooden one-his right was the perfect model of Apollonic contested for some time, as to whether quarantine has really proved grace. His left arm was wanting. He was bare-headed, and his " a salutary regulation,” and this might be helped by some judi- | curled brown hair showed a forehead that Spurzheim would have cious, intelligent, medical man investigating the history of the almost worshipped. His features were all of manly beauty. His plague since quarantine was introduced.

mustachios, military jacket, and light pantaloons with red edging, Quarantine is a regulation by which the communication with told that he had not been “ curtailed of man's fair proportions" by vessels from ports infected with the plague, or other infectious any vulgar accident of life; and the cross of honour suspended to disease, is interdicted for a definite period. The word comes from his button-hole, finished the brief abstract of his history. the Italian quaranta, forty, it being supposed that, if no symptoms A short interlocution, consisting of apology on my part and of disease be discovered within that period, there can be no further invitation on his, ended in my accompanying him towards the reason for continuing the restriction. In several of the foreign house; and as I shifted from his left to his right side to offer one ports establishments have been formed, denominated lazarettos, of my arms to his only one, I saw a smile on the countenance of in which the quarantine is performed instead of on board ship, as his pretty wife, and another on that of his old father; and my good in the other instance by which quarantine is enforced. Of these footing with the family was secured. We entered the hall, a large establishments, those at Leghorn, Genoa, Marseilles, Odessa, &c. bleak ante-room, with three or four old portraits mouldering on the are the most complete.

walls, joined to each other by a cobweb tapestry, and unaccompaThe Venetians were the first who endeavoured to guard against nied by any other ornament. We then passed to the right into a the introduction of infectious diseases from abroad by means of spaciquis chamber, which was once, no doubt, the gorgeously decoquarantine. This was about the year 1484. Since that time, the rated withdrawing-room of some proudly-titled occupier. The system has been gradually adopted. One point for consideration nobility of its present tenant is of a different kind, and its furni. is-Has quarantine ever had a fair trial? If it has had, and has ture confined to two or three tables, twice as many chairs, a corner proved ineffectual, let it be discarded (if we can induce other cupboard, and a secrétaire. A Spanish guitar was suspended to governments to discard it), for assuredly it is a great nuisance- a hook over the gothic mantel-piece ; a fiddle lay on the table; a serious obstruction to commerce.

and fixed to the edge of the other was a sort of wooden vice, into

casement,

FALSE IDEAS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

AMERICAN ADVERTISEMENT,

which was screwed a flute of concert size, with three finger holes and eleven brass keys, but of a construction sufficient to puzzle

The other day (this little anecdote is “no fiction") two men Monzani. It is useless to make a mystery of what the reader has already friend or acquaintance.

were passing through St. Paul's Churchyard, discoursing about a

“Oh," said one, “he has travelled divined : : my one-legged, one-armed host was the owner of this complicated machine, and the performer on it, whose wonderful nearly all over the world ; he has been in Spain, and in Portugal,

“ Indeed!” Yes, that he has ; tone and execution had caused me so much pleasure. But what ay, and in. Barbary too!”. will be said when I tell the astonished and perhaps incredulous derful, and so it is—but, bless your heart, it's nothing to what

now, we think this building,” pointing to St. Paul's, “very wonpublic, that “ his good right hand" was the sole and simple one that bored and polished the wood, turned the keys and the ivory to what he's seen in Barbary and them places!”

he's seen." "Indeed!" " No, not it-why, it is a mere nutmeg which formed the joints, and accomplished the entire arrangement

Are minds such as these-mere mechanical minds as they seem of this instrument !

Being but an indifferent musician and worse mechanic, I shall to be-worth trying to reach, and would they repay the labour of not attempt to describe the peculiarities of the music, or the endeavouring to force them open ? Who that himself enjoys the with his four miraculous fingers, some of the most difficult solos in Bridge ; show them the mighty building towering over surroundarrangement of the flute, as the maker and performer ran over, pleasures of knowledge would be so ungenerous as to doubt it ?

But how? “Oh,” says the poet, “take them down to Blackfriars Vernes and Berlinger's compositions, which lay on the table before

ing brick and mortarhim.

This extraordinary man is a half-pay colonel in the French ser, “Rising o'er smoke, like wreaths from altar sent, rice, though a German by birth. His limbs received their sum

God's glorious tempie meets the awc-struck gaze, mary amputation by two quick-sent cannon balls at the battle of

And o'er the boundless city free conveys Deerden (I believe); since he was disabled he has lived in his

Feelings sublime of power pre-eminent." present retirement, “passing rich on thirty pounds a year," and Ask them if they feel it now, and explain to them the dimensions happy for him that nature endowed him with a tasteful and of the building. They would, doubtless, admit that it was a mechanical mind, -rare combinations !-while art furnished him wonderful big building, but then they might retort—" How do with knowledge of music, without which his mind would have been

we know but that in Barbary there is something far more won1 burden.

derful ?" Without regard to his flute-playing, he actually brought tears

Try them another way. If they cannot rise up to us, we should into my eyes by his touching manner.

go down to them. Tell them all about Barbary in a plain simple It needs not to be told he was an enthusiast in music, and when style--take them, as it were, in leading-strings, and after a time he believed himself thus deprived of the last enjoyment of his some of them, at least, will be able walk alone. life he was almost distracted. In the feverish sleep snatched at intervals from suffering, he used constantly to dream that he was listening to delicious concerts, in which he was, as he was wont, a principal performer. Strains of more than earthly music seemed From “ The National Advocate" (New York newspaper) of Nov. 7th, 1825. sometimes floating round him, and his own fute was ever the

THERE is something in a good Windsor Chair which has a leading instrument.

most delicious effect on the mind and the imagination, as well as Frequently, at moments of greatest delight, some of the inex

on the legs and the ribs. When a man has been harassed with plicable machinery of dreams went wrong. One of the sylphs, the business for the space of six long hours, how renovating it is to lovely imaginings of Baxter's fanciful theory, had snapped the chord

come home, throw yourself in a Windsor Chair, and tell your wife that strung his visioned joys. He awoke in ecstasy, the tones

to fill a glass of Racy's Ale! Your tired haunches recline with vibrated, too, for a while upon his brain; but, recalled to sensation the most pleasing sensations on the bottom, and your aching ribs by a union of bodily pain and mental anguish, his iuefficient find a restorative in the perpendicularity of the back. In the joy stump gave the lie direct to all his dreams of paradise, and the

of your heart, you say, Heaven bless the chair inventor, and may gallant and mutilated soldier wept like an infant for whole hours. the chair maker Montayne prosper for ever. He might make a fortune, I think, if he would visit England,

Again, suppose you invite a small party to your house, and see and appear as a public performer ; but his pride forbids this, and the pretty wives of your friends dropping one by one into your he remains at Arques to show to any visitor unusual proofs of

A dozen Fancy Chairs, or a dozen and a half of imita. talent, ingenuity, and philosophy !-- New Monthly Mag. 1822. tion Rose Wood ditto, bought at No. 13, Bowery, will set off your

room to every advantage, and make your visitors smirk and smile THE POET'S PEN.

like so many Ilebes. ** Oh! they are pretty," one will say.

“ Oh! what delicious Rose Wood Chairs !! another will utter. (FROM THE GREEK OF MENECRATES.)

Pray, Mr. Timothy,” asks a third, “where in the whole city I was a useless reed: no cluster hung

did you buy those beautiful Windsor Chairs ?' And this My brow with purple grapes; no blossom flung

Fancy Settee?" asks a fourth. “ Heaven shower its blessings The coronet of crimson on my stem ;

down upon you, my dears," then you must reply, "Of whom else No apple blushed upon me, nor (the gem

but of Montayne's, No. 13, Bowery." Of flowers) the violet strewed the yellow heath

'Tis sweet to sit on Windsor Chair, Around my feet; nor jessamine's sweet wreath

Beside the modest blushing fair, Robed me in silver : day and night I pined

Or in her eyes pure feeling see,
On the lone moor, and shiver'd in the wind.

While lolling on the Rose Sellee.
At length a poet found me. From my side
He smooth'd the pale and wither'd leaves, and dyed

But again, there are many worthy men and women who con. My lips in Helicon. From that high hour,

tract a friendship for old chairs. To such persons who admit this I SPOKE ! my words were flame and living power !

honourable emotion into their breasts, it must be a source of great All the wide wonders of the earth were mine;

satisfaction to know where such good old friends can be repaired, Far as the surges roll, or sunbeams shine ;

painted, or copal varnished anew. A good man could not see an Deep as earth's bosom hides the emerald ;

old chair cast aside because it has lost a leg, or perhaps got defaced High as the hills with thunder-clouds are pall'd ;

from long use. He would certainly apply to those men of art (of And there was sweetness round me, that the dew

whom Montayne is one) who put new leys into old friends with Had never wet so sweet on violets blue,

dispatch and punctuality, and who make the withered settee come To me the mighty sceptre was a wand;

forth from their shops as beautiful as a bride of fifty issues from The roar of nations pealed at my command.

the parson's on her wedding day. To me the dungeon, sword, and scourge were vain,

All those persons, therefore, who may want any Windsor I smote the smiter, and I broke the chain ;

imitution Rosewood Chairs and Fancy Setlees, Copal Varnish of Or, tow'ring o'er them all, without a plume

all kinds, or old chairs repaired and painted, will please call on I pierced the purple air, the tempest's gloom,

A. D. MONTAYNE, Till blazed th' Olympian glories on my eye,

Pulci. Stars, temples, thrones, and gods-infinity.

No. 13, Bowery,

room.

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WARNING TO DRUNKARDS.

ENGLISH FIRMNESS. Take especial care that thou delight not in wine, for there was not any man

Defoe gives a fine illustration of the sturdy nature of the English character, that came to honour or preferment that loved it ; for it transformeth a man

in an anecdote of Archbishop Cranmer. "If a king of England," says he, into a beast, decayeth health, poisoneth the breath, destroyeth natural heat,

“should, though for any real offence, send his orders to a subject, though of brings a man's stomach to an artificial heat, deformeth the face, rotteth the

the meanest sort, to be gone, and quit the country, he would not stir a foot; teeth, and, to conclude, maketh a man contemptible, soon old, and despised of

and 'tis forty to one but he would have manners little enough to tell him so in all wise and worthy men ; hated in thy servants, in thyself, and companions ;

plain English. If the message was to a man of quality, his reply would be for it is a bewitching and infectious vice. A drunkard will never shake off

more courteous, but equally firm. We have a very handsome instance of this the delight of beastliness; for the longer it possesses a man, the more he will

in Archbishop Cranmer in the days of King Henry VIII., when, for some speech delight in it; and the older be groweth, the more he will be subject to it; for it

made in the House of Lords, his Majesty commanded him out of the House, dulleth the spirits, and destroyeth the body, as ivy doth the old tree ; or as the worm that engendereth in the kernel of the nut. Take heed, therefore, that

which he very modestly and humbly, yet boldly refused to do, claiming his , such a cureless canker pass not thy youth, por such a beastly infection thy old

privilege of peerage and liberty of speech by right of the constitution; which age ; for then shall all thy life be but as the life of a beast, and after thy death

the king afterwards allowed to be just, when his anger was over.” thou shalt only leave a shameful infamy to thy posterity, who shall study to

DESCRIPTION OF JERUSALEM. forget that such a one was their father.- Sir Walter Raleigh.

The following beautifully descriptive and graphic delineation of Jerusalem RECANTATIONS.

is from M. Poujoulat's Egypt and Palestine :-"Jerusalem offers no illusions; Recantations usually prove the force of authority rather than the change of it is fair to behold, neither from far cor near ; take away a few monuments opinion. When a Dr. Pocklington was condemned to make a recantation, he and a few towers, and the prospect before you is the dullest that can be imagined. hit the etymology of the word, while he caught at the spirit-he began thus: It is a vast heap of stone houses, each of whose terraced roofs is surmounted "If canto be to sing, recanto is to sing again." So that he re-chanted his with a small dome: the dark grey colour of these monotonous groups-their offending opinions, by repeating them in his recantation.-D’Israeli.

mournful character-the rock and desert soil surrounding these walls, which

seem only to enclose tombs—the solitary sky above your head, whose wide A PERTINENT QUESTION.

expanse no bird traverses combine to form a spectacle uniting in itself all that I should like much to know, since Greek and Romans, French and Italians,

melancholy can produce of the most sad, all that solitude can produce of the bave all agreed in representing wisdom under the form of a woman, why a

most desolate. If we enter into Jerusalem, what gloom! Narrow and dark learned woman is always to be made a subject for mirth and ridicule ? Is it

streets; huge bazaars, in which you see a sprinkling of Jewish, Greek, and only in marble that we can endure to see a female endowed with knowledge ?

Armenian merchants; miserable shops for the sale of tobacco, kept by MussulKolzebue's Life.

mans; dilapidated inns, where the Arabian stranger reposes beside his steed;

whole districts deserted, houses in ruins, the ground covered with weeds, filih ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON.

and rubbish; ivy twining round disjointed fragments, and stunted palm-trees The learned and excellent Archbishop Leighton, whilst a minister of the

grouting up through crevices. On traversing the city, you see the white or red Church of Scotland, was once publicly reprimanded in a synod for not “preach

cloak of the Mussulman, the dark rest of the Rayah, or the veils of the women, ing to the times." “Who," he asked, “ does preach to the times?"

It was

who move with the hurried steps of fugitives. Such is the interior of Jerusaanswered that all the brethren did it. " Then,” he answered, “if all of you

lem. There is no joy, no movement, no noise, you would take it for a fast preach to the times, you may surely allow one poor brother to preach Jesus

prison, where the days are as silent as the nights; or rather an immense monasChrist and eternity."

tery, whose inhabitants are constantly engaged in prayer.” RULES OF HEALTH. The celebrated physician, Boerhaave, declared some time before his death,

FRIENDSHIP. that he had in his library, a book which contained the most important secrets of medicine. When his library was examined, there was a book maguificently life, the lenitive of our sorrows, and the multiplier of our joys; the source

Friendship is one of the fairest productious of the human soil, the cordial of bound; it consisted of blank paper, with the exception of these words written

equally of animation and of repose. He who is destitute of this blessing, amidst on the first leal—“Keep your head cool, your feet warm, and your bowels open, and you may laugh at physicians.”

the greatest crowd and pressure of society, is doomed to solitude; and however

surrounded with datterers and admirers, however armed with power, and rich JUDGMENT OF BOOKS.

in the endowments of fortune and of nature, has no resting-place. The most I have no other rule by which to judge of what I read, than that of consulting

elevated station in life affords no exemption from those agitations which can the disposition in which I rise up from my book ; nor can I well conceive what

only be laid to rest on the bosom of a friend.- Robert Hall. sort of merit any piece has to boast, the reading of which leaves no benevolent impression behind it, nor stimulates the reader to anything that is virtuous or

BON-MOTS OF QUIN. good.-Rousscau.

Though I have little to say yet it is worth while to write, only to tell you of ADVICE TO AN AUTHOR.

two bon-mots of Quin to that turn-coat hypocrite infidel, Bishop Warburton. If he wish his rolumes to support their character through the revolutions of That saucy priest was haranguing at Rath in behalf of prerogative; Quin said, time and of opinion, a respect to decency, and a reverence for religion, must be “ Pray, my Lord, spare me ; you are not acquainted with my principles; I am the characteristic of bis writings; he need not be afraid that his fame will be a republican, and perhaps I even think that the execution of Charles the First the less because he has gained it without artifice or violence, or that his works might be justified." Ay!" said Warburton, "by what law ? Quin replied, will be neglected because they do not produce excuses for folly, or arguments “ By all the laws he had left them." The bishop would have got off upon for wickedness. If his pages be tinctured with irreligion and obscenity, the judgments, and bade the player remember that all the regicides came to beauties they contain will be discovered in vain ; they may indeed rise for the violent ends-a lie, but no matter. “ I would not advise your lordship,” said moment by the patronage of the profligate and licentious, but it will be dis- Quin, “ to make use of that inference, for, if I am not mistaken, that was the covered that every moment brings them nearer to the gulf which has swallowed case of the tirelre Apostles.There was great wit ad hominem in the latter up the prose of Voltaire, and the poetry of Rochester. --The Saunterer.

reply, but I think the former equal to anything I ever heard.

It is the sum of the whole controversy couched in eight monosyllables, and comprehends at once ARCHBISHOP SHELDON.

the King's guilt and the justice of punishing it. The more one examines it Bishop Sheldon seems to have been as insensible to the decorum belonging the finer it proves. One can say nothing after it, so good night.-Private to religion, as he was to good feeling and humanity. Of this Pepys has recorded Correspondence of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford. a remarkable instance, in a piece of buffoonery and profaneness acted at Lambeth Palace, when he was diving there :-" 1669, May 14. At noon to dinner

REFORM. with Mr. Wren to Lambeth with the Archbishop of Canterbury; the first time

Instead of considering that the nation ought to be treated as a body amicted I was ever there, and I have longed for it. Where a noble house, and well

with some new and extraordinary distemper, and therefore requiring an unfurnished with noble pictures and furniture, and noble attendance in good order, and a great deal of company, though an ordinary day; and exceeding operations performed upon it ought to be altered—such is the force of preju.

common remedy, and that in proportion as its mechanism is better kuown, the great cheer, no where better, or so much, that ever I think I saw for an ordinary

dice, that men continue obstinately to endeavour the cure of their present table; and the bishop mighty kiud to me particularly, desiring my company

disorders, by means of which the inefficacy is demonstrated by their inability another time when less company was there. Most of the company gone, and I

to preveut the evils or to stop their progress. An injudicious reverence for going, I heard by a gentleman of a sermon that was to be there, and so I staid

antiquity, a fal notion of causes, occasioned by the distance of time, a want to hear it, thinking it serious, till by and by this gentleman told me it was a

of diligent reflection on the past and of clear views of the future, about which mockery of one Count Bolton, a very gentleman-like man, that behind a chair

our self-love hinders us from coming to any agreement, all contribute to per. did pray and preach like a Presbyter-Scot, with all the possible imitation in

petuate the wrong measures of ancient times. It is a maxim with some that grimaces and roice ; and the text about the hanging up of their harps upon the

laws and customs are not to be changed, a maxim to which I zealously adhere, willows; and a serious good sermon too, exclaiming against bishops, and crying

except when the adrantage, and, what is much stronger, the necessity, of the up my good Lord Eglinton, till it made us all burst ; but I did wonder to have

public, requires an alteration.-Sully. the bishop at this tine to make himself sport with things of this kind, but I perceive it was shown him as a rarity. And he took care to have the room door shut: but there was about twenty gentlemeu there and myself, infivitely

London : WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER pleased with the novelty."- Pepys's Memoirs.

AND CO. Dublin : CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars,

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THE DAWNING OF THE DAY.

foolish, and obstinate brethren ; and he fervently prays that God

would “pardon their iniquity and their sin, and take them for His When Moses came down from his awful and sublime interview inheritance.” He does not wrap himself up in supercilious conwith God, on “the mount that burned with fire," bearing in his tempt for those who, not able to ascend the mount with him, and hands the “two tables of the testimony,” he saw-can we marvel survey the goodly land that stretches on every side, are consuming that the sight first chilled and then fired his blood ?--he saw the the present brief moment in dancing round some golden calf.besotted people, whom he had led in triumph from Egypt, dancing which their own hands have made. Neither does he sit down in round the image of Apis, the Egyptian bull. Moved with a philosophic indifference, and, as it were, leave God to work out buman, yet a holy indignation, he cast from him the tables “which His own designs in His own time. The hope that the world will were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, yet one day be a better world than it is now, moves him with graven upon the tables,” and “brake them beneath the mount.” generous effort for the world as it now is; and so he enters narrow The rest of the terrible scene the reader of his Bible knows.

alleys, and dirty lanes, and dingy hovels, and tries to pour through Shortly afterwards, the LORD was speaking to Moses “face to the crevices of ignorance a portion of the light which illuface, as a man speaketh to his friend.” This great, this truly great minates and cheers his own soul. The story we are about to man, knew that he was living in the earlier part of the world's tell is a narration of how a poor youth, in passing through history—that mightier developments of God's wondrous workings the mist and darkness that surrounded him, felt his soul longwere reserved for future ages——that a time was coming when man ing to see the “glory of God;" and how there came a friendly would not be such a poor besotted fool, as to worship the work of hand that lifted him up, and placed him in “a clift of the his own hands—and he longed to look down through the vista of rock ;” and then the day dawned, the shadows flew away, and, the years of futurity, and have a glimpse of the glory that was to having bowed his head, and worshipped, he “ went on his way follow. So, taking advantage, as it were, of that familiarity with rejoicing.” which be was treated by the God of the spirits of all flesh, he breathed out his passionate desire, “I beseech thee, show me thy In one of those cities which are as the eyes of Britain, there glory !” And God forgave the forwardness of his servant, because lived a poor, ignorant, yet not altogether unhappy family, bearing of the spirit that was in his prayer. “Thou canst not see my the name of Jones. The city wherein they dwelt is a great city, face," said the Being who dwelleth in glory unutterable ; “ for and its merchants rank as honourable ones in the earth-their there shall no man see me and live." But in tender compassion ships are to be found on every sea. Products of all climes are He would reveal a little of that futurity which was to unfold His brought to that city, to be worked up into rare and curious fabrics, glory-He would place him in a clift of the rock, and make all or to be consumed for bodily satisfaction and heart's-ease. Our His goodness to pass before him. " And the Lord descended in poor family were not so poor but that they could afford to use a the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of little tea and sugar, though from whence these came they knew the Lord.” Doubtless, in that moment, light was poured into not, unless it was from some place far abroad, where the blacks the understanding of Moses ; and his heart and mind felt in its live. Intellect had begun its march, in those days of which we grandeur that proclamation, when the Lord passed by before him, now speak : but it had marched past the house of the Joneses. and proclaimed," The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, You might have made them stare, had you asked, whether the long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth.” What was laying down of the handsome pavement on which they daily trod, the effect of this revelation upon the mind of Moses? He“made or the building of the Egyptian pyramids, were the greater perhaste”—for the feeling of profound reverence is like an electric formance ? And grievously would they have been puzzled with the fiash, darting in a moment through the very soul of man—and he question, whether, when they opened their shutters of a morning, “ bowed his head toward the earth, and worshipped." Nay, more it was the darkness that went out, or the light that came in. Yet -as if all that was natural and human in his heart had received a they were human beings ; had hearts swelling with all human shock, and was suddenly overflowing, his thoughts flew towards emotions: maintained communion with the “region of invisibles,” his poor, ignorant, calf-worshipping, and perverse brethren and and were destined to live for ever. countrymen, and thus does he wrestle for them“ If now I have The father and mother of this family were as different in found grace in thy sight, O Lord, let my Lord, I pray thee, go their temperaments and dispositions, as day is from the night. among us ; for it is a stiff-necked people; and pardon our iniquity Yet, being married, they lived and agreed wondrous well. For and our sin, and take us for thine inheritance.”

though they had never studied the ethics of marriage, nor the Dull and unapt must his mind be that has never felt a desire to philosophy of living, nor analysed the why and the wherefore of penetrate the mystery of this existence-that has never felt his the reason of their agreement, by a sort of instinct, they seemed heart yearning with the prayer of Moses—“ Show me, I beseech to understand, that opposite tempers might be made to coalesce thee, thy glory!” But it is the enlightened Christian alone that instead of coming into collision ; and they saw as plainly as if it enjoys the privilege accorded to the Hebrew lawgiver. Know- had been laid down to them by a diagram, that the action of two ledge places him in " a clift of the rock ;" he cannot see God's opposing forces might drive the ball of existence, not in the direcface, follow out in regular succession all His future designs ; but tion of the one or the other, but as it were, in a medium between the Lord descends to him even in the cloud, and passing by before the two. As for the father, had you seen him, and conversed with his onsealed vision, proclaims His ineffable name. And the effect him, you might have pronounced him a grim, austere, sour, upon his mind is, or ought to be, just what it was upon the mind crabbed man, very ignorant, and very obstinate ; and so he was. of Moses. First, he “makes haste' to bow his head and worship; III health made him grim and austere-poverty and toil, ignorant acknowledging a present Deity in all that transpires upon the and obstinate. The mother was a lively, merry creature-light, earth. Then his heart turns towards his poor, ignorant, depraved, but not volatile,-cheerful, but hardly gay. The whole family, and

VOL. I.

E

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