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it was a large one, lived in the darkness and shadow of all the and they became of importance to the family: and though sur light of this land. Oye friends of education! walk into the lanes rounded with temptations of all sorts, with artless ingenuousnes and narrow streets of great cities. There lies ignorance ferment. he brought all his money home, and felt a delightful pleasure a ing in the shade, producing food for gaols, and criminal courts, he poured it into his mother's lap. and New South Wales. One is almost apt to imagine that in A young companion teased him to go with him to the theatre. a single city, proof may be found that God hath not made of The proposal was startling; but having learned at the fireside one blood all nations of men that dwell on the face of the earth ; somewhat of love and obedience, he carried the question home for for those spacious streets seem as the screen and fence put up consideration. The father was alarmed-solemnly warned his son between two races of intelligent creatures.
against compliance, and painted the theatre in dismal and black But in the family of the Joneses there was light. They lived colours, as a place hateful and vile, a cage of wickedness and in a narrow street, surrounded by dirt, and misery, and drunken- unclean birds. Herein he erred grievously, and many such errors ness, and brawls; but the candle of the Lord shone in their taber- does well-intentioned ignorance make. Peter refused to go, and nacle. Jones the father, was an ignorant, a very ignorant man-replied to his companion's solicitations, with some of his father's “ His soul proud science never taught to stray
description. But the young tempter was not to be so put off ; le Far as the solar walk, or milky way."
denounced the description, and gave another of a far different hue; But in the words of a more natural, though not so brilliant, a poet and a struggle began in Peter's mind. He longed to go for once ; as Pope, he knew, though he knew but little more, "his Bible he feared to disobey: but one day the father admitted that be true.” Grim, and crabbed, and austere, he was—that was his had once been at the theatre himself when he was a young man, misfortune, the misfortune of his position ; for ill health and and the disclosure made a tremendous inroad on Peter's resolu. poverty had driven happiness inwards, and almost turned it into tion. If he had been once, and was, notwithstanding, a good an acrid poison. But the Bible neutralised the effect of the man, why might not Peter go once, and sustain no damage! He poison; taught him to be honest, upright : and, in his reveren- struggled, but every struggle made him weaker. The temptation tial love for it, he became scrupulously scrupulous, and acquired came back again and again ; and every time it came, it seemed to have a stiff and unbending rigidity respecting words and actions. With redoubled force. At last á whisper was conveyed into the mind all his ignorance and all his faults, he was a good man. Had you
of Peter-Go! but conceal it. How ? A LIE! Tell a lie, but seen him at family worship !
Peter ; cover up your footsteps-you are ignorant of the theory
that the fable of the Trojan horse is the type and parable of the “ Then kneeling down to Heaven's ETERNAL KING, The saint, the father, and the husband, prays;
first lie in the soul of man. He told the lie—but the lie required Hope springs exulting on triumphant wing,
another to back it, and, if necessary, a third. He had to account That thus they all shall nieet in future days.
for his absence, he had to conceal the expenditure of what apThere ever bask in uncreated rays,
peared to him a large sum of money-a shilling! The double lie No more to sigh, or shed the bitter tear,
was prepared for use; and, joining his companion at the appointed Together hymning their Creator's praise
hour, Peter Jones, his heart throbbing, tried to hide himself In such society yet still more dear;
amongst the crowd, grouped at the entrance of the shilling-gallery While circling time moves round in an eternal sphere."
of the theatre. He prayed, but his words were few, feeble
, and rude ; for often of
The doors were opened: Peter and his companion struggled out on his knees had he to struggle with an asthmatic cough. Never- of the choked-up entrance, rushed up the stair, stunıbled oper theless, he prayed, and that with the heart, fervently; and, reader, benches, and, in an agony of joy, found themselves in possession you may firmly believe, that his prayer took its way to Him who of a front seat in the gallery. As his heart began to abate in sitteth on the circle of the universe.
violence of throbbing, the haze of joy that obscured his sight began One of the children of this family was called Peter Jones ; an to clear away, and he was able to look around. That curtain ! it odd-looking little urchin in his youth. His mother loved him, for concealed from Peter a more mysterious Paradise than ever it hid she thought him the wisest of her family; and with those aspira- from Charles Lamb; and he looked as if he would pierce it through. tions which even the poorest and most wretched feel, she indulged The pit and boxes were slowly filling, and that amused him; but the hope that Peter might one day be something of a great man, just as the theatre was about full
, there seemed to come a kind of and raise the family of the Joneses from their lowly condition. lull—a pause in the bustle ; and Peter, having made his eyes And yet, had a stranger passed, and seen the squab little fellow familiar with all sides of the house, and having minutely scrutinized sitting, with his feet in the kennel and damming up the puddle, the figures on the curtain, began to feel uneasy. He fancied that he might have paused twice before he answered the question, there was somebody in the theatre that knew him—there was some whether Peter was likely one day to be a great man? A closer one, surely, that had his eye upon him. Poor soul ! there was not inspection of his dirty face would have led to the conclusion that one in all that crowded assembly that knew he was in existence. it expressed much intelligence. His mother was no physiognomist, Again he fancied that there was a voice calling him by name ; he and had never heard of phrenology: but she was amused by the listened, and he imagined that he distinctly heard the words, questions of her little philosopher, such as Who Mr. Government “ Peter Jones! Peter Jones!” Could it be his father? that was was? If the king owned the sea? and How many men made an army? impossible. Ah! he had told a lie to both father and mother
. Often, in summer days, would he go to a little speck of green The tears started into Peter's eyes as he thought of that lie, and he that grew behind the houses which constituted his world ; and heartily wished himself out of the theatre again.
But he had not there, lying on his back, would he muse on immensity. And the courage to move, and it would have been difficult to get out, if what thoughts, 0 member of a Mechanics’ Institute ! think you, he had attempted it. Again he thought of the lie ;- but stop, did passed through the mind of this untutored child ? He would mark not his father tell him a lie too? Did he not describe the theatre the fleecy clouds as they floated high above him ; and, when he to be a very different place from what it is? Is this beautiful and went home, predict a severe winter, from the huge masses of snow enchanting place anything like that place of wickedness which his that he saw rolling onwards to the great storehouse of the land of father said it was? And he had been in the theatre, and knew frost.
perfectly well what kind of a place it was.
So Peter laid his lie But the time came, and that too early, when Peter should go against his father's lie, and felt his conscience becoming easier
. out to earn a portion of the family's sustenance. He had never And the bell rang, and the music struck up, and Peter's heart been at a school ; but his father had taught him to read the Bible; leaped. His blood began to bound from top to toe, his very fingers and he was familiar with many of the Old Testament stories. A felt a strange, exhilarating, curious kind of sensation. Once more year or two soon passed over; his diligence raised his earnings, the bell rang, and, oh, marvellous, the curtain drew up, the play
began. It was Richard the Third ; and it was followed by a farce a moral world moving in space, having a centre to which all that which made him laugh till he cried. Slowly and reluctantly did pertains to him gravitates, and an atmosphere of thought and Peter drag himself away when all was over. For a week after-feeling in which he is enveloped. And each has his own orbit wards he was in a dream. Earth became a stage, the sky was a wherein to move; and all intelligent creatures move round the curtain ; he heard nothing, he saw nothing, but the interior of a great Centre and Source of intelligence, running their appointed theatre. Thunders of applause were ever ringing in his ears-at circuits, and fulfilling a certain reason and law of creation. Therehis meals, or in the streets, he was ever ready to start into atti- fore, though this poor man died, and nobody saw it, the recordtude, or to mouth the broken fragments of a speech. During aing angel took note of the event. Poor as he was, he left in some brief period he lived in " glory and in joy;" he had a little world beating hearts an immortal memory; and at the great audit, God of his own, into which he could retreat, and with which a stranger will think of him, and recollect that there lived a man. could not interfere.
Now, Peter Jones often delighted to stand in the church-yard, A change now came over the spirit of Peter Jones. He had a and watch the whole process of committing “dust to dust." Yet secret to hide from his family, and a secret is often the essence of when his father died, it touched him as if this had been the first an evil. He was no longer open-hearted and cheerful at the little | death in the universe of God. He looked upon the stiff and fireside--artless boyhood was passing into a kind of dogged youth. haggard features, and asked himself, What is Death?
It was an He went back to the theatre again and again, and again and again awful mystery; and as he tried to penetrate it, a great horror and he had to renew a lie; and when the lie became hollow, and his darkness fell upon him. Then once more he turned to the worn father began to hint that he saw through it, he grew sullen, and and wasted face ; and he thought he saw the word “ IMMORrefused to tell where he had been at all. Then his mother took TALITY” written there. And he opened his Bible and read, and his part, to shield him from his father's anger; and often, after as he read, the tears gushed down his cheeks—"God shall wipe toiling all day, would she sit up till her son came home: for her away all tears from their eyes ; and there shall be no more death, quick ear could hear his footstep on the pavement, and she would neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain : run stealthily to let him in, without awakening her husband. for the former things are passed away.” Peter Jones saw this, and the pent-in sob of his mother, as she The situation of the family would have been at this time most Fould whisperingly press him to tell her where he had been, had desperate but for one of those ministers of mercy, who, thanks be sometimes well-nigh wrung his secret from him. His sister, too, to God and the Bible, walk this earth, and are not afraid to enter a sensible, prudent girl, often talked to him about the change that the huts where poor men lie. Such a one found out the Joneses, had passed over him, and he would turn away from her and cry. in his visits of mercy in a dreary and repulsive district. He For he was attached to his sister; there was much affection in the cheered the dying man; out of a not overloaded purse he aided the family; and in all their ignorance and darkness, they had light widow and the fatherless ; and, glancing beyond the insignificant enough to love one another by.
aspect and awkward appearance of Peter, he thought he saw someMany a shilling that would have been welcome at home did thing in him worthy of notice. He got him a situation where he Peter Jones devote to the upper gallery of the theatre. The con. could earn more money for the family; and Peter became grave and cealment of his passion for theatricals seemed to increase its serious, and applied himself to the duties of his situation with all intensity; he would sit during the performances in a delirium the thoughtfulness and anxiety of a man. of joy: but when he rose to depart, a chill seemed to freeze his Amongst the last words which Peter heard his father utter was, soul, and often, on returning home, and retiring to bed, he “ Seek the Lord while he may be found.” Now a strange kind of breathed out a pettish, passionate prayer, that God would take literal interpretation of these words found its way into Peter's back his life as he slept, and not permit him to rise in the morn- mind. He began to wonder where God was to be found: be ing. In the morning he would revert to the performances of the thought that he could not perceive Him in any object of nature. previous evening ; his work was a mere mechanical operation of It was of no use to tell him that God was everywhere presentthe hands, for the being had escaped from all sensation of misery, that conveyed nothing to his mind. He never doubted that God and was rioting in the region of imagination. He often wished existed ; but he wanted something to rest upon, as evidence of His that he was an actor; and then he would fold his arms, and walk existence. He looked upwards, and saw not God, but the sky; he across the stage, or advance to the "foot-lights,” and bow lowly, looked on the earth, and saw streets, and houses, and men as the hurricane of applause blew around him. At other times he moving to and fro, and green fields, and the bloom and beauty kould change his fancy, and wish he were a minister; and so he of flowers; but he saw not God. In the language of Job, rould mount the pulpit, and give out the text, and pour out his his heart said, " Behold I go forward, but he is not there; sermon, while an absorbed and delighted audience hung upon his and backward, but I cannot perceive him. On the left hand, lips. Again, he was an officer, and on horseback he gave out his where he doth work, but I cannot behold him ; he hideth himself orders, drew his sword, and rushed on with his men to the charge. on the right hand, that I cannot see him.” The more he revolved But this fancy did not please him so well as the others; and it it, the more he felt himself getting farther from the object of his was only when he had acted or preached his imagination into wishes. Often would he look up, and implore God to reveal him. fatigue, that he mounted the military hobby-horse.
self to him; often did he read the passage which we have quoted Ilis ailing father sickened, and visibly grew on to die. All the at the commencement of this paper ; and "Oh,” he cried, father's asperity and austerity melted away, and the spirit of “could I but be placed in a clift of the rock, and hear God prolove, meeting with no neutralizing influences, rose to the surface, claiming His own great name !” Then he thought that it was and acted on all the dying man's words and actions. He called because he was such a poor insignificant creature, that God disPeter to him, and spake as he had never spoken before. He dained to take notice of him; and under this withering thought conjured him, by the fear and the dread of Almighty God, his spirits sank-the mind preyed on the body, and he fell into ill that he would drop his mysterious habits, which he doubted health. not were habits of wickedness, and to walk in the path of duty His friend and patron saw that something was wrong ; and his Fhen he was dead and gone. The poor man died; and his neigh- kind and affectionaté manner drew out from Peter what had bours seemed to regard him as one of the unknown and forgotten hitherto been hidden in the youth's heart. Then, lending him a units, as one, who, if he had been crushed out of existence, would little popular treatise on astronomy, he desired him carefully to scarcely have left dust or ashes enough to indicate where a fire of read it; and when he had done so, to come back to him, and he life had once burned. He was, indeed, an atom-but it was an would show him the glory of God. atom of a manifold and mysterious being. He died unknown Peter read the book-nay, he devoured it. His mind was and unnoticed on earth, but not in heaven. For each man is at first staggered— his intellect seemed to recoil from tħe first
shock of those amazing facts. But he returned to it; and as Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh made ready for death—but just at he read, “there fell from his eyes as it had been scales." The the moment when the execution was about to take place, a cry world was round, and floated round the sun; the stars were
was heard, and a messenger was seen pressing forward through suns, and worlds floated round them ; and perhaps the whole uni- the crowd. A pardon! a pardon! the Regent had pardoned the
guilty-Hamilton and his companions were set free, their punish. verse moved round the throne of God! Peter could not prove an
ment of death being commuted to forfeiture of lands and iota of any of these statements; the word “mathematics " was goods. Greek to him. Yet he felt the truth of the great facts of astro- Hamilton felt the blood rushing through his body as he set foot, nomy; and having felt them, their grandeur and sublimity en- a free man, on the ground. His wife! his child! He should yet tered and enlarged his soul. He went out one night while he was clasp wife and child to his bosom, even though Woodhouselee was reading; and the heavens sparkled with stars. As he gazed, he
no longer to be his own. Soon he was out of Edinburgh, and seemed to himself to be looking out of the little closet of his own
pressing towards the Pentland Hills. When he got sight of existence into eternity of space, and eternity of time ; and as he heart leaped for joy that all was yet well. It was winter, and the
Woodhouselee, he saw smoke issuing from its chimneys, and his mused, the fire burned ; then spake he with his tongue-"Lo,
snow lay on the ground-but to him the scene was as if the sumthese are parts of His ways; but how little a portion is heard of mer's sun was shining over it. A sudden cry from the edge of a Him! The thunder of His power who can comprehend !" wood startled him-it was the voice of one of his faithful servants.
“AND HE BEHELD THE GOD OF ISRAEL; UNDER HIS FEET The poor man thought it was the ghost of his master; but on was, as IT WERE, THE PAVED WORK OF A SAPPHIRE stone, being assured, by the voice and manner of Hamilton, that it was he AND AS THE BODY OF HEAVEN IN HIS CLEARNESS.
himself, his fear seemed to be changed into horror. “My puir leddy, my puir leddy!” were the first words he could utter.
Hamilton, impatient, and unable to extract anything more from HAMILTON OF BOTHWELLHAUGH.
him, wheeled round, and ran towards the house, but he was stopThe murder of Darnley, and the criminal marriage of Mary of ped by the man calling out, “ Maister, maister, stop! dinna gang Scotland with Bothwell, led to that combination of Scottish up to the house-she's no there! she's no there!" The facts nobles, by which she was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle. One were soon told. The Regent, yielding to the importunities of his of her devoted partisans was Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, one of adherents, had granted Woodhouselee to Sir James Bellenden, and the great family confederacy, or clan of the Hamiltons, who then he, eager to secure his prey, had arrived on the previous night, formed an important body under the headship of the ancestor of with a body of armed retainers, to take possession. The ruthless the present Duke of Hamilton and Chatelherault. Hamilton of Sir James turned out the wife of Hamilton, of Bothwellhaugh, Bothwellhaugh was a rude, fierce, and daring soldier, partaking with her infant, on a severely inclement night'; growling out, with of much of the savage temper and manners of the time. During a kind of savage laugh, that when the wolf was killed the she-wolf the imprisonment of Queen Mary in Lochleven Castle, he retired and her cub need not look for gentle dealing. to his house of Woodhouselee, on the southern side of the Pent- Hamilton was conducted into the wood by the servant, and land Hills, not far from Roslin Castle. Here he spent the brief there he found the senseless bodies of his wife and child stretched period of inactivity with a wife whom he had recently married, on the snow. She had wandered up and down during the night; and whose gentle and engaging manners and disposition softened the infant had perished in her arms, but the mother was still alive. the roughness of his nature.
Hamilton raised her, endeavoured to rouse her from her stuporA son and heir was born to Hamilton of Bothwellbaugh ; and she opened her eyes, and looked upon her husband in a wild and on the very night of this joyous and important event to him, a
vacant manner-reason had been unbalanced during the agony of messenger on horseback eagerly inquired for the happy father. that dreadful night! She was carried to a place of shelter, and “What is the matter ?" demanded Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh. shortly afterwards died. “Great news, great news !" exclaimed the messenger, “ Mary has
Revenge and hatred concentrated themselves into a bloodyescaped from Lochleven Castle, and is now at Hamilton with her minded resolution in the soul of Hamilton of Bothwellbaugh. friends.” No further persuasion was needed to urge Hamilton of He would not stop to inquire what share the Regent might have Bothwellhaugh. He went up, kissed his young wife and new-born had in the conduct of Sir James Bellenden. The Regent's disposon, and, agitated by joy and regret, he armed himself and rode sition led him to a love of justice, and a detestation of oppression : off to join the forces of Queen Mary.
but Hamilton thought nothing of that; it was enough that Moray James Stuart, the Earl of Moray, natural brother of Queen had granted his lands to a ruffian. Sir James Bellenden he consiMary, had been appointed regent of Scotland during the minority dered but as an agent-a mere subordinate agent-of the Regent's of the infant King James. He was an able, active man; and oppression. He vowed, therefore, a horrible vow—he doomed whatever were his faults, while he held the supreme authority, the Regent to death with his own hand. For this purpose he Scotland, then in a most unsettled, turbulent, and barbarous con- watched his steps—he followed him from place to place. Having dition, was kept in order, and a security of life and property, learned that Moray was about to pass through the little town of which had not been previously enjoyed, was felt over the kingdom. Linlithgow, on bis way to Edinburgh, Hamilton made arrangeOn Mary's escape from Lochleven, the Regent was at Glasgow; ments for carrying his deadly purpose into effect. There was a and promptly taking his measures, there was fought the battle of house in its principal and only street, which belonged to his uncle, Langside, so called from a place of that name about three miles the archbishop of St. Andrew's. Of this he obtained possession ; from Glasgow. The Regent was victorious ; Mary fled to Eng and having provided himself with a war-horse of great strength land, and put herself in the power of Elizabeth, and was thence and fleetness, which he placed ready saddled behind the house, he forward a prisoner to the end of her unhappy life-a life that strongly barricaded the front door, and waited the approach of the might have ended differently, had she been half as good a woman
Regent with a calm impatience. as she was a beautiful queen.
The cavalcade of the Regent entered the street of Linlithgow, Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh was amongst the prisoners taken accompanied by a crowd of people. Mounted on horseback, he at Langside; and though, at the battle, the Regent exerted himself advanced slowly, returning the salutations which he received from with a clemency unusual to victors, in a time of civil war in a
the windows. Some stoppage took place in the procession; and semi-barbarous country, he nevertheless determined to make an
suddenly a flash, accompanied by smoke, was seen to proceed example of some of his opponents. Amongst the prisoners con
from a window, and the Regent was seen to fall over his horse. demned to be executed was Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh. As he It was the fatal effect of a shot fired by Hamilton of Bothwellascended the scaffold, at the Cross of Edinburgh, his demeanour
haugh. showed no shrinking, no fear, no concern for himself-his step
The noise was so great, that very few had heard the report of was firm, and his countenance stern but apparently calm. But the shot, though most saw the flash and smoke. Some of the a tempest was in his soul. His thoughts were with his wife, and Regent's attendants assisted him—the wound was mortal, and he his infant child, whom he had seen but for a moment; and though died during the ensuing night. Others of the attendants turned, he was ready to yield up his own life, if he had been solitary in and tried to batter in the door of the house from whence the shot this world, he was now ready almost to exchange every enjoyment had proceeded. Meantime, Hamilton, having first taken a glance that man can conceive, for a few brief years of existence with her from the window to see what effect he had produced, retreated to and that infant that had taught him something of the real use and the rear of the house, mounted his fleet war-horse, and was flying value of life.
across the fields,
His flight was discovered, and several well-mounted men gal- on the Mount? or been moved, even unto tears, over those divine loped off in pursuit. For a time he left them far behind; but discourses that immediately preceded his death? The inspiration gradually they gained upon him, and his horse began to show of sublimity, the touching tenderness of pathos, example speaking symptoms of distress. Closer and closer they approached, and by right and wrong, the nobility of goodness, the baseness and the the sound of their voices, and the clatter of their horses' hoofs, meanness of vice-all that stirs the soul of man, or fills his inrung upon his ear. Nearer still they came—their prey was within tellect, may be found in rich profusion in the Bible. their grasp. Hamilton, finding his horse no longer able to keep There was no translation of the entire Bible in Saxon times, in advance, directed its head towards a deep, boggy, and impass though portions of the Scriptures in Saxon versions still exist in able piece of ground, through which a sluggish stream flowed. As manuscript. Bede and other monks employed themselves in he approached its edge he pulled out his dagger, and suddenly translating the Gospels, the Psalms, &c. ; there is a manuscript in plunged it into the animal's neck. It leaped clear across the bog, the British Museum, which contains the Psalms in Latin, with an and dropped down dead. Now he was safe—the worn-out horses interlinear Saxon version. This work was continued for centuries; of his pursuers could not leap the bog, nor was it possible to and it is thought that by the thirteenth century a complete copy attempt it on foot. Hamilton contrived to conceal himself; and of the Bible might have been made, from copies of portions of it some time afterwards he escaped from Scotland to France. translated by different persons. Two individuals are said to have
The Earl of Moray was killed by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, thus, during the reign of Edward III., put the entire Bible together, on the 22d of January, 1570. Amongst the bulk of the Scottish from copies of portions which they found translated ; and it appears people, he was long remembered as "the good Regent,” partly doubtful whether Wickliffe undertook the laborious task of transas a result of his attachment to the Reformed faith, and partly lating the entire Bible himself, or made up his version by collectfrom the good order which he maintained during his vigorous ing and collating copies of these translated portions. administration.
From Wickliffe's time began the great struggle between authoHamilton of Bothwellhaugh was in Paris in 1572, during the rity, resisting the introduction of the Bible into English, and the horrible massacre of St. Bartholomew. His reputation as the awakening intellect of the people demanding it. Authority tri. murderer of Moray made it to be supposed that he would be a fit umphed for a time; and though printing was introduced about the person to whom to propose the murder of old Admiral Coligny, year 1474, no English Bible or Testament was printed till 1526, the head of the Huguenots. But Hamilton indignantly spurned and then at a foreign press. This was by Tyndal, who, before the the proposal. “Coligny," he said, " was no enemy of his ; and last mentioned year, had completed an English version of the New he was not a professional assassin." The reader may recollect Testament. His editions were bought up and burned in England; that Coligny was wounded by a French assassin, about thirty hours but this poor folly only supplied him with means to go on with before the general massacre commenced.
printing other editions, with such corrections and improvements as were suggested to him. No perfect copy of Tyndal's New
Testament is known, and the imperfect copies which exist are THE ENGLISH BIBLE.
treasured as choice book curiosities. COLERIDGE has remarked, that an intense study of the Bible Tyndal was personally acquainted with Luther, and Coverdale will preserve any writer from being vulgar in point of style. This was a friend of Tyndal's. With Coverdale commences the history is profoundly true. Let any man, who has had the unspeakable of the authorised complete English Bible. The recent celebration advantage of being familiar with the Bible in his youth, and who of the third centenary of the publication of Coverdale's Bible (on still preserves something of early ingenuousness, look back to the October 4, 1835), doubtless, makes his name familiar to all our influence which that familiarity has exercised over his mind. He readers. This Bible, finished in 1535, is supposed to have been may perceive its influence in the bent of his character; he may printed at Zurich. It was dedicated to King Henry VIII. Cromtrace it breaking out in words and actions, modifying them, qua- well ordered a copy of it to be placed in the choir of every parish lifying them, elevating them; and that in spite of surrounding and church in England. It was translated out of Latin and Dutch, counteracting circumstances. If he is a writer, it will infuse into and is printed in a black letter in double columns, with woodcuts his style a kind of latent heat-a moral toneman uprising purity by Hans Sebald Beham. This first Protestant translation of the of sentiment, of thought, of feeling, which, unless he has become whole Bible is considered to be the joint production of Coverdale deplorably deadened by worldly circumstances, or still more de- and Tyndal, and it is said that only two perfect copies exist : one plorably polluted by the prevalence of a worldly sensuality, will in the British Museum, and the other in the library of Lord Jersey. infallibly quicken his pen, and give a vitality to his productions. It has a woodcut title, and is dedicated to Henry VIII. It is The very outward form and garb of his writings will be of a bold divided into five “bokes," which have separate titles formed of and manly cast—he will be " preserved from being vulgar in point the woodcuts, which decorate the book. These, with the enof style.” This is owing to that inward purity which resides in graved initial letters, are executed with taste. This Bible has also the Bible, and that outward characteristic of old English-rough, the Apocrypha. It has parallel passages, and the contents premanly, clear old English-into which our standard translation has fixed to each chapter. At the end of the Testament is the folbeen made, and which has become so identified with the Bible lowing solitary erratum :-“A faute escaped in pryntynge the New itself, that it would appear almost a profanation to alter it. Testament. Upon the fourth leafe, the first syde in the sixt
Let us, for a moment, separate the Bible from its inseparable chapter of S. Mathew, 'Seke ye first the kyngdome of heaven, character of a REVELATion, and look upon it as a book-a great read, Seke ye first the kyngdome of God,' &c.” The following book—and our translation of it as a classic of the English lan- is an extract from the preface guage. What has it done for us? Merely as a standard work in our literature, it has done infinitely more for us than Chaucer, or MYLES COVERDALE'S PROLOGUE UNTO THE CHRISTEN Milton, or Sbakspeare, or all the great names in our literature combined. We are far from presuming to undervalue what our “ Consyderynge how excellent knowlege and lernynge an interimmortal authors have written. The life-giving power of genius preter of Scripture ought to have in the tongues, and ponderyng was bestowed upon them by the blessed God for great and noble also myn owne insufficiency therin, and how weake I am to perobjects ; how they employed their power is another question. But, fourme ye office of a translatoure, I was the more lothe to medle unquestionably, they were not gifted by accident with “ the vision with this worke. Notwithstondynge whan I consydered how and the faculty divine," and then thrown upon the world to employ greate pytie
it was that we shulde wante it so longe, and called to their faculty as they listed. No! they were given to mould the my remembraunce ye aduersite of them whych were not onely of English language, and to work upon the English character; and rype knowlege, but wolde also with all theyr hertes haue peryet all they have done in this way shrinks into little, when com- fourmed y' they beganne, yf they had not had impediment: conpared with the Bible. The Book of Job is a most marvellous siderynge (I say) that by reason of theyr aduersyte it could not so “Paradise Lost," as well as a “ Paradise Regained ;” and it is soone haue bene broughte to an ende, as oure most prosperous probably the oldest book in the world. The Book of Psalms, or
wolde fayne haue had it: these and other reasonable causes the prophecies of Isaiah, might kindle a poetic
feeling in the dull consydered, I was the more bolde to take it in hande. And to est mind. The Book of Proverbs is the choicest, pithiest, most helpe me herin I haue had sondrye translacyons not onely in latyn, comprehensive “ Lacon,” that was ever written.' Who has not but also of the Douche interpreters; whom (because of theyr synSearned with Joseph over his brethren, and been taught by that guler gyftes and speciall diligence in the Bible) I haue ben the delightful story the lesson of brotherly love, and forgiveness of more glad to folowe for the most parte accordynge as I was reinjuries? Who has not felt the mild grandeur of Christ's Sermon quyred. But to saye the trueth before God, it was nether my
laboure nor desyre to haue this worke put in my hande ; peuer- TAVERNER's Bible is a small plain folio, without woodcuts, theles it greued me ye other nacyös shulde be more plenteously first printed in the same year, 1539; The text is not materially prouyded for with ye Scripture in theyr mother tongue then we : altered, being formed on Matthews' Bible. There were eleven therfore whan I was instantly requyred though I coulde not do editions of the Bible in Edward VI.'s reign, but they were all of so well as I wolde I thought it yet my dewtye to do my best, and the former Bibles. that with a good wyll.”
The Geneva BIBLE, 1560, was undertaken by the English Matthews' Bible, 1537, printed at Hamburg, or Paris, refugees at the time of the Reformation. The translators were, varies little from Coverdale's. The name Matthews was assumed. Bishop Coverdale, Anthony Gilley, William Whittingham, Thomas The editor was John Rogers, who was the first person burned for Sampson, and Thomas Cole; to whom some add John Knox, John
This version was for many years heresy in the reign of Queen Mary. It is in larger and bolder Bodleigh, and John Pullein. type than Coverdale's; contains a calendar, an almanack for the most popular in England, and was the favourite Bible of the eighteen years; at the bottom of which it says “ | The year hath English puritans, and Scotch presbyterians. It went through about xii monethes, lii weekes and one daye, and it hath in all three fifty editions in thirty years. This is what is called the Breeches hundred and lxv days and vi hours." It has a variety of prefatory Bible, from the rendering of Gen. vii. 3. The Geneva Testament, matter, viz. “An Exhortation to the Study of the Scriptures ;'
, printed in 1557, was the first which was divided into verses. the contents, dedication to Henry VIII., address to the reader, and The edition of 1578, in the British Museum, is a pretty book, and a table of the principal matters in the Bible, alphabetically. The exhibits great variety of lype. The preface, arguments, &c., are following is an extract from the commencement of Matthews' in a very neat roman, in which italic is also used. Being in black Preface :
letter, the distinction of the italic in modern editions, is in this “As the bees dylygently do gather together swete flowers to
marked by roman character. It has a beautifully engraved title make by naturall craft the swete honny: so haue I done the pryn- border, contains maps of the Holy Land, &c. ; a variety of tables, cypall sentences conteyned in the Byble. The whych are ordened printed in red and black, which, with the general execution of the after maner of a table for the consolacyon of those whych are not work, and variety of material, would do credit to printers of more yet exercysed and instructed in the Holy Scripture. In the which modern times. In this edition there are two versions of the are many harde places, as well of the Olde as of the Newe Psalms; the Geneva in roman, and Cranmer's in black, opposite. Testament, expounded, gathered together, concorded and com
It also contains the Book of Common Prayer. pared one wyth another; to thintent that the prudent reader,
PARKER's, or the Bishops' BIBLE, edited by Archbishop (by the sprete of God) maye beare alwaye pure and cleare under Parker, and printed in 1568. It contains three copper-plate porstandynge,” &c. &c.
traits, of Queen Elizabeth, Lord Leicester, and Secretary Cecil. The Great Bible, or Cranmer's, was the first edition printed cut, representing “ Leda and the Swan,” hence it is sometimes
At the commencement of the Epistle to the Hebrews is a wood. by express authority, and publicly set up in churches, 1539. It
called the “ Leda Bible." There is in this edition a double transwas printed under the direction of Coverdale, and patronage of lation of the Psalms; one from what is called the Great Bible, Archbishop Cranmer, who wrote the preface. It contains some
the other an entirely new one, improvements of Matthews' translation. There were 2500 copies KING JAMES's BIBLE. The present translation was begun printed ; and Dr. Combe notices as a remarkable fact, that under the patronage of James I. Fifty-four learned persons (17 two copies of this Bible are rarely found alike. The engraved of whom undertook the task) were selected. They were divided title-pages are said to have been designed by Hans Holbein. It into six classes, to each of which a certain portion was allotted. has cuts. The following is the commencement of Cranmer's Each of the class was to produce a translation of the whole preface:
allotted to the class, which were revised at a general meeting of the " For two sondrye sortes of people, it seemeth moche necessary class; and then went through the other classes to obtain the sancyt somethynge be sayde in the entrye of thys booke, by the waye tion of the whole; two of the classes sat at Westminster, two at of preface of prologe, wherby herafter it maye be both ye better Oxford, and two at Cambridge. They were employed for three accepted of them which hitherto coulde not well beare it; and
years (1607 to 1610). It was first printed in 1611. It is a handalso the better vsed of them, which hertofore have mysused it.
some book with a well-executed copper-plate title, and contains For truely, some there are that be too slowe, and nede the spurre, many tables and maps. The genealogy of our Saviour, consisting some other seme to quycke, and nede more of the brydell
. Some of 34 pages, is a wonderful piece of workmanship. The Bible is loose theyr game by shorte shotynge, some by ouer shotynge," printed in black letter, but with the arguments &c. in roman, &c. &c.
and has marginal references.
The following are specimens of the style and orthography of six of the translations of which we have been speaking :
But who geveth credence unto oure preachynge ; But who hath geuen credēce vnto the thynge we Or to who is the arme of the LORDE knowne? haue hearde? Or to whom is the arme of the Lorde He shall growe before the LORDE like as a brauch, known f For he dyd growe before the Lord lyke as and as a rote in a drie grounde. He shal haue a braunche, and as a rote in a drye groude, he hath nether bewty ner fauoure.
nether bewtye nor fauoure.
But who geueth credence vnto oure preachenge? or to whome is the arme of the Lorde knowen? He shall growe before the Lord like as a bräunch, and as a rote in a drye ground. He shall haue neyther bewtie nor fauoure.
The Lord is my shephearde, I shall not want. He God is my shepheard, therefore I can lacke no- The Lord is my shepheard, I shall not want. He maketh me to rest in greene pasture, and leadeth me thynge. He will cause me to repose my selfe in maketh me to lie downe in green pastures : he leadby the still waters.
pasture full of grasse, and he wyll leade me ynto eth me beside the still waters.
calme waters Scotch BIBLE. 19th March, 1542. An act was passed by vulgar tongue, notwithstanding the protest of the Bishop of Glasthe Regent Arran, making it lawful to read the Scriptures in the gow, the Chancellor of Scotland; and through Sir Ralph Sadler,