Imagens das páginas


the English ambassador, some Bibles were imported from England.

LOYALTY. Yet more than thirty years elapsed before any Bible was printed in Scotland, but in 1568 a “ Psalm Buik,” in the end whereof was In the reciprocal services of lord and vassal, there was ample found “ane lewd song, called, Welcome Fortunes, was printed, scope for every magnanimous and disinterested energy. The which gave great offence to the General Assembly, who ordered heart of man, when placed in circumstances which have a tendency

to excite them, will seldom be deficient in such sentiments. No the printer to call them in. In 1576 appeared an edition of the Geneva translation, with a dedication to King James, in the occasions could be more favourable than the protection of a Scotch language. In 1579, a Bible for the use of Scotland, by the faithful supporter, or the defence of a beneficent suzerain against Commissioners of the Kirk, was printed. And in 1610, Hart's such powerful aggression as left little prospect except of sharing Bible appeared, which contains numerous engravings throughout in his ruin. From these feelings engendered by the feudal relation, of scriptural countries, events, and things. The Scotch Bibles are

has sprung up the peculiar sentiment of personal reverence and more ambitious of sculptures than could have been expected in attachment towards a sovereign, which we denominate loyalty, that country in such an age. The first edition of 1576 is hand-alike distinguishable from the stupid devotion of Eastern slaves, somely printed in a sharp roman letter, printed in folio, by Thomas and from the abstract respect with which free citizens regard their Bassandine.

chief magistrate. Men who had been used to swear fealty, to -the New Testament at Rheims, in 1582, and the Old at Douay, the monarch. It was a very powerful feeling which could make The Douar Bible is the Catholic version, and was first printed profess subjection, to follow, at home and in the field, a feudal

superior and his family, easily transferred the same allegiance to in 1609.10.

The Welsh Bible was first 'printed in 1568, with a Latin the bravest man put up with slights and ill treatment at the hands dedication to Queen Elizabeth. The version of 1620, now in use, of his sovereign, or call forth all the energies of disinterested says Anthony à Wood, is one of the best translations extant, and exertion, for one whom he never saw, and in whose character much better than the English. In 1630, an edition in 8vo was

there was nothing to esteem. In ages when the rights of the printed at the expense of several citizens of London ; and another community were unfelt, this sentiment was one great preservative in 1654, of which 5000 copies were printed. Again, in 1677, of society; and though collateral, or even subservient to more 8000 more.

Various other editions in folio, 4to. and 8vo. from enlarged principles, it is still indispensable to the tranquillity and 1690—1779. In 1799, 10,000 copies were printed. In later permanence of every monarchy. In a moral view, loyalty has years the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, and the scarcely perhaps less tendency to refine and elevate the heart than British and Foreign Bible Society, have circulated various editions. patriotism itself, and holds a middle place in the scale of human Mr. D’Israeli, in his “ Curiosities of Literature,” has an arti- motives, as they ascend from the grosser inducements of self

interest, to the furtherance of general happiness, and conformity cle, "The Pearl Bibles, and six thousand Errata,'' in which he has

to the purposes of infinite wisdom.Hallam's Middle Ages. given some notable specimens of the blunders which were perpetrated in the printing of Bibles in earlier times. The great

TO THE WINDS. demand which existed for Bibles prompted unscrupulous persons

Ye viewless minstrels of the sky! to supply the demand without much regard to carefulness or

I marvel not in times gone by accuracy. “The learned Usher," Mr. D'Israeli tells us,

That ye were deified ! day hastening to preach at Paul's Cross, entered the shop of one

For even in this latter day, of the stationers, as booksellers were then called, and inquiring

To me oft has your power or play for a Bible of the London edition, when he came to look for his

Unearthly thoughts supplied. text, to his astonishment and his horror, he discovered that the

Awful your power! when by your might verse was omitted in the Bible! This gave the first occasion of

You heave the wild waves, crested white, complaint to the king, of the insufferable negligence and incapa

Like mountains in your wrath ; city of the London press; and, says the MS. writer of this anec.

Ploughing between them valleys deep, dote, first bred that great contest which followed, between the

Which to the seaman, roused from sleep, University of Cambridge and the London Stationers, about the

Yawn like Death's opening path. right of printing Bibles.”

Graceful you play!—when round the tower, Even during the reign of Charles I. and at the period of the

Where beauty culls Spring's loveliest flower, Commonwealth, the manufacture of spurious Bibles was carried

To wreathe her dark locks thereon to an alarming extent. English Bibles were fabricated in Hol.

Your gentlest whispers, lightly breathed

The leaves between, flit round that wreath, land for cheapness, without any regard to accuracy. Twelve thou

And stir her silken hair. sand of these (12mo) Bibles, with notes, were seized by the king's printers as contrary to the statute. The London and Cambridge

Still thoughts like these are but of earth, printers undersold each other, till the price of folio Bibles, which

And you can give far loftier birth :

Ye came we know not whence ! were ten shillings in quires, was reduced to five, considerably

Ye go !-can mortal trace your flight ? under cost price. A large impression of these Dutch-English

All imperceptible to sight, Bibles were burnt, by order of the Assembly of Divines, for cer

Though audible to sense. tain errors. The Pearl 24mo Bible, which was printed by Field

The sun-his rise and set we know; in 1653, contains some scandalous blunders; for instance, Romans

The sea—we mark its ebb and flow; vi 13. “ Neither yield ye your members as instruments of righte

The moon-her wax and wane ; ousness unto sin"'--for unrighteousness. 1 Cor. vi. 9, “ Know

The stars_man knows their courses well, ye not that the unrighteous shall inherit the kingdom of God?"

The comet's vagrant path can tell, for shall not inherit.

But you his search disdain. We shall take up the subject of Bibles in a larger sense on a

Ye restless, homeless, shapeless things ! subsequent occasion; and conclude this article by informing the

Who mock all our imaginings curious reader, that there is a MS. Bible, in the King's Library,

Like spirits in a dream, in 2 vols. 4to. It was written for orge the Third, by Alexander

What epithet can words supply Weir, student of divinity, and is an extraordinary specimen of

Unto the bard, who takes such high penmanship, beautifully small; has every dot and mark of the

Unmanageable theme? standard 4to edition ; the marginal references, chapter heads, and

But one.

To me, when fancy stirs every identical thing, even the italic words are distinguished. The

My thoughts, ye seem Heaven's Messengers,

Who leave no path untrod; book is beautifully neat and clean, and in capital preservation.

And when, as now, at midnight hour, The patience and labour thrown away on this production might

I hear your voice in all its power, have been worthy of high praise in monkish times; to do such a

It seems the Voice of God. thing now is at best but an elaborate folly.


MUSICAL EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE. forests and the groves, it whispers in the breeze, it murmurs in ENGLAND has long been stigmatised as a non-musical nation, the brook, it rushes in the torrent, and roars in the tempest. Its and, to a great extent, the stigma is deserved. Whether it is that presence is everywhere—on earth, in sea—in the world that is, a predilection for the useful and the solid has hitherto left no room

and in that which is to come. There is music in every accent of for the cultivation and full enjoyment of the “softer arts” among joy; there is music in every response of gratitude ; there is music the masses, emphatically denominated the people; or that they in the plaint of sorrow; and there is music in the voice of pity. have been occupied for the last century with steam-engines, spin- We meet and own the power of this language in every walk ning-jennies, and rail-roads, to the exclusion of the relaxing, and of life, what some may consider the enervating, influences of sweet

In every burst of sympathy, sounds, we leave for speculating philosophers to decide. Certain

In every voice of love. it is, that in this country the science of music shrouds itself up Suppose the world destitute of all these sweet and melting accents. in an aristocratic exclusiveness, and is confined to the concert

these solemn and majestic voices, this daily appeal to the heart room, the theatre, or to the singing-club. Places of worship are

and the imagination; suppose this enchanting and endless variety scarcely to be added to the list ; for the rude state in which too all withdrawn, even for a short and single day, and in its stead generally parochial psalmody still remains, can hardly be classed dull monotony, and death-like silence. Ah, how would the most as music.

insensible heart and obtusest ear long and pray for its return, and But it is only in the cultivation of music among the many, that

own the beneficence of that power which had made all nature the accusation of our being “ deaf to the voice of the charmer".

vocal!"* has full force ; in their love for music Englishmen need not yield

But if music has been created in the external world for the to the most musical communities. To all national or local rejoic- delight of man, he is gifted with it in a much higher degree within ings, bands are considered indispensable; street-players are encou

himself. The pleasure he can, if he chooses, derive from keeping raged to an extent that has made them so plentiful, that they are

his ears open to, his heart susceptible of, the “ tuneful voice” of actually swelling into no inconsiderable integer of the British nature, is to be immeasurably increased by employing the powers population ; and few social meetings are thought tolerable without for its production, with which he is gifted above the rest of nature, " a song."

Among private families those who practise music with animate or inanimate. success, become at once celebrated among their particular friends;

The most beautiful of all natural instruments for the production and it will always be found, that the "musical family” is always of sound is that which the Almighty has bestowed, in greater or looked up to and sought after more than its neighbours. The less perfection, upon all mankind, namely, the human voice. Yet, credit of having a good voice frequently introduces persons into the usual answer to the question, “Why do you not sing?" is, societies and connexions, from which, without that qualification, “ I have no voice;" which the very means employed to make the they would have been excluded ; and so highly is an individual, reply disprove. It is a fact, which cannot be too impressively thus gifted, prized for his powers of song, that should you inquire inculcated, that every person with perfect organs has it in his into his character, you are not immediately told that he is a well-power to give utterance to musical sounds. It is a great and too conducted person, has a good temper, is an affectionate son, a kind general error to suppose, that unless an individual be gifted with brother, &c. ; but you are eagerly informed that " he has such a a superior voice that he cannot sing at all. No one can tell how charming voice !"

well he can sing till he tries. It is undeniable, that whoever In truth, to say that Englishmen in particular have but little can speak can sing, with greater or less success. The many taste for music, would be attributing to them a degree of insensibi- tones of voice used to express different emotions, and even diflity that does not belong to the character of savages. The most ferent sentences in ordinary conversation, are just as nicely discribarbarous men have a love for, and take a delight in, sounds, minated as the various inflections of tone in a melody, though the which, though not sufficiently refined to please a European, are range or compass of sound is not, during the former, so extensive. quite equal to their desires and taste. Nature herself is filled with Besides the objection of a bad or imperfect voice, persons with music, which it requires not art to awaken ; and, as all external the organ of hearing in the best and most healthy condition for the objects are adapted to the organs of man, it would indeed be ordinary purposes of life, frequently despair of enjoying music, strange if the appeals of inanimate nature to the ear were made in because they may be so insensible to it that they can with difficulty vain. “The empire of music,” eloquently remarks the present distinguish one melody from another. But the functions of the Gresham professor of music, “may with truth be said to be uni. ear are as readily to be improved as those of the voice. The con. versal, and the pleasure which it is capable of diffusing seems to stant habit of hearing good music will render the hearing so have overspread all created existence. If the song of the lark is its sensitive to ill-assorted sounds, as to receive the most painful senjocund and instinctive welcome to the new-born day, we are also sations from the latter. Teachers of music constantly find, that taught that the highest created intelligences circle their Maker's beginners will endure and perpetrate the most heinous sins against throne with songs of praise, and every intermediate link of that harmony without the smallest consciousness or inconvenience ; golden chain which descends from heaven to earth vibrates at its yet the same pupils, when they attain some proficiency, will not touch. Music is the language of nature *, and is, for that reason, only readily detect any falsities of sound that they may hear, but a beautiful, an expressive, a varied language. It echoes in the will instinctively avoid them while performing themselves. It

may also be generally remarked, that as families, in which music " For all that pleasing is to living ear Was there consorted in one harmony;

is much cultivated, increase, the young folks will, from constantly Birds, voices, instruments, winds, waters, all agree.

hearing it, acquire so complete a taste for the art, that they will The joyous birds shrouded in cheareful shade

not be long in feeling a desire to learn it. Thus it would be with Their notes unto the voice attempered sweet;

adults. Were music so generally cultivated in the nation as to The angelical, soft, trembling voices made

force it constantly upon them, we should seldom hear of persons To th' instruments, divine respondence meet:

having "no voice," or “no ear for music."
The silver-sounding instruments did meet;
With the base murmur of the water's fall;

The difficulty of learning to read music is, we are inclined to
The water's fall with difference disoreet

think, very much overrated. There was a time when the bulk of the Now soft, now loud, unto the wind did call;

community looked upon plain reading and writing as if a knowledge The geulle warbling wind low answered all !”

of them demanded superior natural gifts to acquire ; but now, The Faery Queene-Canto xii, Stanzas 70, 71. Here too is music! Does not the beautiful play of words in the last four lines School," by Edward Taylor, Gresham Professor of Music. First lecture,

Three inaugural lecturcs, delivered in the theatre of the City of London attunc the most exquisite melody?'

pp. 13-15

happily, everybody is master of them. It may be set down as forth the notes so familiar to our ears; they sang the air in parts, a general rule, that every English man and woman reads and and with wonderful correctness." writes: the exceptions or those persons who can do neither- It is with pleasure, however, we observe the increasing desire being looked upon with that kind of pity which unfortunates for acquiring vocal instruction that is generally manifesting itself excite, who have some mental deficiency or bodily infirmity. We throughout Great Britain. In mos of the manufacturing towns contend that the excuse for any person, who can read or write, societies have been established for promoting it. At Glasgow, in that they have not sufficient natural capacity to study music with particular, great progress has already been made. In London the success, is quite inadmissible. It is evident that, with very few “ Sacred Harmonic Society' has succeeded beyond expectation ; exceptions, they have capacity and feeling sufficient to enjoy its and although most of its members are respectable artisans, or performance. Many expedients are resorted to by the labouring persons engaged in trade, yet they have managed to find time and classes for agreeably spending their leisure time—for what is talent enough to execute the most elaborate oratorios, in a style called " enjoying themselves." There are clubs for drinking beer which eminent musicians have pronounced to be decidedly supeand smoking tobacco, and debating societies for various pur-rior to similar displays of the professional singers of London. poses, with other contrivances for wasting money, and that The old controversy has been recently agitated,—to what extent which is far more valuable-time. But even smoking and are oratorios fit and proper for serious-minded persons to engage drinking do not supply all the required enjoyment, which is in, or to patronise by their presence? The question appears to seldom thought complete without “a song;” and any person us to be wholly a relative one, each case to be judged of by the who has learnt one by rote, and can give it utterance with a tole- particular circumstances connected with it. In recommending, rable power of lungs, is sure of a hearty welcome. What an

for instance, young men to join in such exhibitions, as a suitable accession of happiness would there be if, instead of these, other relaxation after a day of toil

, we are not supposing that they will clubs were formed, leaving out the beer and tobacco but retaining do such violence to the soul of music, as to trifle and dawdle over the song! Clubs, which may be removed from the alehouse to the subject, till they have vulgarised both sound and sense. Let the happy fire-side, and held for the purpose of learning and them enter into it in a right and earnest spirit; and if they do so, studying music?

the performance will not differ, in principle, from that necessary Although it is unquestionably a great defect in our system of practice of psalm or hymn singing which is essential, when a con. education, that vocal music is not regularly taught in schools, gregation wishes to perform all portions of divine service “ de. yet the difficulties of acquiring it are not so great as to render it cently and in order." out of the reach of grown-up persons.

The ease with which If the moral and national happiness of the people would be students may attain sufficient knowledge of music to produce har- improved by the general cultivation of music, how much more mony, by singing together in parts, is much greater than is gene- would their spiritual welfare be enhanced ? Singing, though a rally thought. The gamut is easily learnt. That conquered, a minor duty, is as much a part of the Christian religion as worship little daily practice in singing the scales, slowly at first and gradu- -we are enjoined to praise as well as pray. Though the object ally quicker, would, in a short time, prove to the student that his of psalmody is chiefly to glorify the Creator, it should also produce belief of his having little or “no voice” is groundless. Then such an effect upon the mind as to fit it for impressions to be comes the difficulty, thought to be so great, of producing harmony received from religious instruction, and to frame it for prayer ; by singing in parts; this, too, a little application will master. but the manner in which parochial psalmody is at present executed, When the scales have been well learned, let the singer exercise his certainly cannot effect these objects. voice in distances, thus :-begin, for instance, with the note C,

It is the custom in some parish churches, but more frequently which he must take from some instrument (a pitch-pipe is the most

in episcopal chapels, for the minister to print, for the use of his simple one); then rise to its third E, from E to the fifth of C,

congregation, a selection of sacred lyrics. But it would materially which is G, and then to the octave C again. Let him then get a

forward the object we are advocating, if, besides the mere poetry friend to join him, and sing one of the above notes while he sounds of psalms and hymns, the music were published with the words in another. Thus will the ear become accustomed to harmony, and books for altos, trebles, tenors, and basses, and distributed amongst prevent each singer from taking up the other's note. By degrees the congregation according to their voices. Even were such a another voice might join, and then a fourth, till at last the person plan adopted in the present general ignorance of music, it would who once thought it was quite out of his power to sing at all

, will not fail of having a good effect, for there are few respectable confind himself assisting in the production of the most delightful | gregations among whom some knowledge of the science does not Focal combinations. The mere songs he has been in the habit of exist, and these would find the learning the harmonies to psalm hearing performed at the public house will have become distaste- tunes—the subject or trebles of which are already familiar to every ful to him ; he will, perhaps, discover that they have been sung church-goer-an easy task ; the melody being, as usual, suppo ted with false taste, and wretchedly out of tune ; his ear will hardly by the charity children. be satisfied with mere melody, if even it be well executed, but he

Would not such an improved system of psalmody draw many will desire it to be accompanied and filled up with harmonies.

persons to the house of God, on whom entreaties and example One principal advantage possessed by the system of education have been expended in vain? Has the reader never passed a followed on the Continent over that pursued in England, is the church or a chapel, when he was in a listless, a desponding, or making singing one branch of elementary knowledge. In Italy, perhaps an irritated and evil mood, and felt the powerful influence and all over Germany, vocal music forms part of daily instruction, of a multitude of concording voices ? Let the following anecdote both in public and private schools.

of the effect of church music upon savages (from Southey's " While loitering through the street of St. Goar,” says Mrs. “ History of Brazil”') answer the question : Trollope, in her · Belgium and Western Germany,' “we were sur- Nolrega (a Jesuit) had a school where he instructed the native prised at hearing our own beautiful national hymn pealing from a children, the orphans from Portugal, and the mestizos, or mixed large building near it; for my part I could not resist the tempta- breed. Reading, writing, and arithmetic, were taught them ; they tion to enter the open door, and discover who the parties were were trained to assist at mass, and to sing the church service, and who showed so excellent a taste in choosing an air, let the words frequently led in procession through the town. This had a great to which they applied it be what they might. This building, I effect, for the natives were passionately fond of music, so pasfound, was used as a school-house, and on each side the door had sionately, that Nolrega began to hope the fable of Orpheus was a a large room, one for girls the other for boys. It was the male type of his mission, and that by songs he was to convert the part of this youthful population whose shrill voices were pouring pagans of Brazil. The Jesuit usually took with him four or five of

of man.

these little choristers on his preaching expeditions ; when they commencement of the music-school, it was found that the profi. approached an inhabited place, one carried a crucifix before them cients were liable to be enticed away and to commence as teachers and they began singing the Litany. The savages, like snakes, of music. To remedy this, the members of the orchestra are were won by the voice of the charmer; they received him joyfully, bound to remain at his works for seven years. Mr. Strutt has and when he departed, with the same ceremony the children fol. ingeniously contrived an orchestra, with desks and boxes containlowed the music. He set the catechism, creed, and ordinary ing the instruments, to fold and pack up, so that with the addition prayers, to sol fa ; and the pleasure of learning to sing was such of a pair of wheels, the whole forms a carriage, &c.; and with an a temptation that the little Tupis sometimes ran away from their omnibus for the performers, he occasionally moves the corps de parents to put themselves under the care of the Jesuit."

musique to Derby, or the surrounding villages, where their ser. We have a word or two to say also on the subject of instru. vices are required for charitable occasions. The liberality with mental music. Although it is obvious that the human voice is not which this musical establishment is supported is as extraordinary only the best, but the cheapest and most ready of all instruments, as its novelty. As an incentive to excellence, when he visits yet there are others which are not above the reach of the poorest town, he occasionally takes half-a-dozen of his cleverest people artisan. An alarming and melancholy report has lately gained with him, who are treated to the opera and the concerts to hear currency, that in some manufacturing districts in the North of the finest performers of the age *.” England, workmen are laying by a certain sum out of their hard If the general study of music had no better effect than diverting weekly earnings for the purpose of buying—what? coals for the the "greatest number" from less innocent employments, it winter-bread for their families--clothes for their children ? no ; would for no stronger reason be productive of much good; but, but rifles! For what purpose, one may well tremble to ask. Now besides that, it humanises and soothes the mind, softens the manif these deluded men are so well off as to be able to afford even

pers, refines the taste, and raises the character. As an amusesixpence a week each, for a purpose that can never turn to any ment, it promotes mirth “ that after no repenting draws; it is other account than destruction; if they are able, after providing a most delightful ingredient in social enjoyment, and is a neverthemselves and their families with the necessaries of life, to spare failing help to good fellowship, order, and civilisation. ever so small a sum, let us ask them whether the "amount so accrued would not be much better employed in providing them

THE PHILOSOPHY OF EATING, with a humanizing, cheering, and even profitable source of amusement. These targeteers" will perhaps smile at our suggestion, of Eating !" It will contain moral and natural philosophy, his

What a glorious book has yet to be written on the “ Philosophy but we do most earnestly appeal to their reason and their hearts, tory, biography, statistics, political economy, anecdote, notices of when we advise them to leave off purchasing instruments of the monsters, of men whose brains lay in their stomachs, and of others vilest discord, and recommend them to lay in a stock of fiddles, whose stomachs might be found in their brains! The writer will, &c. With the latter they will acquire also a lasting stock of of course, begin with the beginning of the world, and the creation happiness, content, and prosperity. Instead of forming themselves into societies for shooting at targets, let them meet to learn and history of the race before him. He will inquire very minutely as

Defining man as “a cooking animal," he has the whole practise overtures, symphonies, quartettes, &c. We are certainly to whether animal food was in use before the Deluge, linking this not such enthusiasts as to imagine that poverty, destitution, and

with an examination of the human teeth, and their carnivorous and vice, are to be charmed away by all the string or wind instruments in Britain. We are just as anxious as any of our readers can be, their exclusive system of eating, the feast which Joseph gave to

herbivorous indications. Then he goes on to the Egyptians, and to see remedial measures-effectual remedial measures-adopted his brethren, and the reason why there was a peculiar honour in to relieve the misery of a large portion of our population, and to

sending his brother Benjamin five times more food than the rest. see them advance in a just estimate of their rights and duties as

After which, he takes up the Mosaic polity-of clean and unclean men, and as citizens. But all of this matter that is pertinent to our present subject is simply this :--if workmen can spare money and prohibitions were based on a special regard to the bodily

creatures, and finds out, if he can, how much of those distinctions to purchase rifles, for which, in our social state, they cannot possibly have a fitting use, surely they can spare as much for health of the Israelites, and how much was intended to have a what may be made available in tranquillising their spirits, soothing their idolatrous neighbours. For as eating is the bond of friend

social effect, in preserving them from contact and association with their sorrows, and, by aiding in the humanizing of the mind, ship and of faith, so a separation in the matter of clean and render it a generous recipient of that knowledge which is power.

unclean food has a most marvellous prohibitory power over the We are quite sure that if, in large manufactories, masters were

social tendencies. From thence, our author has to pass to the to encourage music among their people, they would find the large field of the influence of diet on national character; he must interests of both much improved. The man who comes to his find out how much of the “Roast beef of Old England” has its work after a drunken debauch can hardly do it equal justice with origin in the fact of animal food being the cheapest of all food in another who has been employing his time more like, in a manner

Anglo-Saxon times; what has been and is likely to be, the moral more worthy of, a human being. At least one great firm is not

and physical effects of the transition from salt meat and thin ale, insensible to such advantages.

to tea and sugar ; what the potato has done, and what is the "The Messrs. William, George, and Joseph Strutt, of Derby, influence on population from the quantity and quality of food; men of great wealth and acquirements, employ nearly the whole

the cooking arts, and dining hours of all nations; tell us about the of the population of Belper and the neighbourhood, where their

famous Apicius that invented the Apician cakes, and his less works, as cotton-spinners and manufacturers, are situated, a

famous namesake, who invented the pickling of oysters ; tell us country not long since wild and barbarous, now highly cultivated by the intelligence they diffuse around them. To give a higher Earl of Carlisle, who made a great fortune and spent it by and

about that extraordinary notability, a Scotch Apicius, John Hay, taste to the work-people at Belper, Mr. John Strutt has formed

in the art of tickling the palates of his guests-not forgetting a musical society, by selecting forty persons or more from his mills and workshops, making a band of instrumental performers Napoleon's celebrated dinner-giving great chancellor, Cambaceres,

nor any famous patron of cooks and cooking; while the book is and a choir of singers. These persons are regularly trained by masters, and taught to play and sing in the best manner. What

to be found wound up with a profound disquisition on dyspepsia ever time is consumed in their studies is reckoned into their

and gout; gelatinous, fibrous, and farinaceous food, and a tabular

statement of how many meals delicate men may take in a day. working hours. On the night of the general muster you may see

If the “philosophy of eating " has yet to be written, the pracfive or six of the forge-men in their leather aprons, blasting their terrific notes upon opheicleides and trombones. Soon after the *" Music and Friends, by William Gardener, pp. 311–13.

tice of eating has yet to be much improved. Not that cookery is motives are of a high order ; an honour to themselves, and a great to be made a more tempting and provocative art than it is ; not light to the world. Example is everything. Punctuality is a jewel. that we are to eat and drink any more than we do: but that the

WASHINGTON said so, and he was a man of veracity. The hour science of eating in all its branches has yet to receive far more

to dine, as specified in the rules and regulations, posted up in the

“ office," was three. Not one minute before or after three, but attention from us, and to be extended and elevated. We were

three precisely. Some inconsiderate man may think that a minute not merely made to eat, but to enjoy what we eat-to receive,

or two out of the way could make no material difference. Don't what the lower animals cannot receive, moral satisfaction and trust such a one with the conveyance of your wife and five small social improvement from the very act of eating. This is defeated, children to a steam-boat pier ! Ten chances to one he misses the when we attach too much importance to the dinner itself, or

boat. “Time is money,” and two minutes lost daily is seven set too much value on mere dinner accomplishments, or, at some

hundred and forty minutes per annum. At this rate, supposing a public entertainment, or on board, say, of a steam-boat, “ take the caoutchouc case of Joyce Heth-thirty-five days eleven hours

man to live seventy years—a fair computation when we consider eare of ourselves," without caring much for our neighbours. A and four-sixtieths, are wasted in lifetime, by being two minutes truly social dinner is one where the whole party feel for all, behindhand at dinner! Shades of Washington, Franklin, and Dr. and sympathise with all. While there should be that grace- Alcott !—what a dissipation of money! It was of this that the men fulness of manner which gives a zest to every thing, no one at the door ruminated. They wished, like Washington, to set a who eats peas or fish with his knife should be made to feel good example, in being punctual. If, in virtuously striving to is if he had committed a crime against morals.

While all excel in such a cause, they tread on each other's corns, and tumble should be able to handle dinner apparatus with ease and pro- ridiculous, it is our business not to laugh at, but to condole with

over each other's heels, making themselves appear excessively priety, no man who, from want of facility or mechanical dexterity, them, as martyrs who suffer for our sake. Many a gouty toe has is unable to carve a goose without mangling it, should be made to been ground into torture, in its owner's generous emulation to be feel as if he were a goose himself. A true gentleman never im- first and most punctual at the dinner-table. What disinterested plies, by a single attitude, that he bas been used to any other martyrdom ! company better than that in which he is in at the time, unless The crowd have squeezed themselves into the room.

Such a something should occur requiring him to do so, in defence of his scrambling and jostling for seats ! Spare the crockery. The dinown feelings or character.

from din comes dinner-redoubles. Such an outcry! Babel is

music to it. " Waiter !" " Waiter !" “ John !" " Waiter!" It is, however, something more than an offence against etiquette,

“ Thomas !" " Thomas !" "Waiter !" “ John!" - Thomas !" when all the rules of etiquette are observed in setting and ar

“Soup !" " Soup !” “ Soup !"-were iterated in all octaves, from ranging a dinner, and all the rules of social propriety are violated contralto to soprano. I was a "looker-on in Vienna," when the by those who eat it. A man may have a coarse and vulgar nature, scenes which follow occurred, and “ I speak the things which I Fbo yet exhibits the most scrupulous and graceful propriety of do know." manners and language at dinner : þut there is far less likelihood “Give us a stout, hearty plate of soup, William !" said a short of a man having a mind capable of polish, who is brutish and

crimson-faced man, with an abdominal periphery like a semigross in his conduct. It is not the soup or the fish coming first into the waiter's hand, open to receive the plate of a gentleman

globe. As he gave this order for a second plate of soup, he shoved that makes a dinner “polite."

who had as yet secured nothing, his own dish, and bade him These remarks are made by way of introducing an American make haste. 'Ignorant of “ dinner etiquette," as Fanny Kemble sketch, somewhat humorous, though rather broad and coarse. styles it, a dozen of those around us had at once commenced on The likeness is avouched to be good, though it evidently runs into the solids ; which of course made the rest work like beavers to caricature. It is from the · Knickerbocker,' a New York maga- having but just received the initial liquid, were still sipping after

finish their soup ; and some of those at the end of the table, who their luckier friends at the favoured end of the table had con. cluded, were admonished of the necessity of making haste, by the

removal of their plates by the impatient waiters. Waiters are FROM NOTES IN PENCIL, ON THE BACK OF A BILL OF FARE. systematic. People should be more simultaneous in eating soup.

How startling is the sound of the dinner-gong! The tympanum A polite man swallows his, scalding hot, that he may keep pace suddenly recoils beneath the swell of the brazen instrument, and with his more fortunate neighbour. echoes the alarum to its fellow member of the lower house, of which “ Here! here! you rascal, bring my soup !" bawled out a man Appetite is the speaker. In a large hotel the effect is magical. with a thin vinegar aspect. His plate had suffered abduction, What a rush from all quarters of the house to the dining-room! The waiter feigned not to hear. The wrinkles on the pungent Chambers, offices, and closets, are hastily deserted by their occu- face visibly sharpened. That look would have soured an entire pants, that the elements of an unspeakable hurly-burly may mingle dairy. In a voice thin and sharp as his features, he exclaimed, at the table-d'hôte. Loungers in the street catch the sound with “Here! here ! you unmannerly Irish scape-goat! (Ah! you hear Wonderful acuteness, and hasten homeward to the hotel. The at last, do you?) bring back my soup instantly!" boarder under the barber's hands frets at the practitioner's slow- It's ag'in' the rules, Sir-r; I can't do Sir-r! But here's a Dess, gets cut while uttering a violent oath, starts up, looking beautiful arrangement !” replied the Irishman, passing a bill of daggers, and wiping the soap hastily from his half-shaved chin, fare. seizes his hat, and rushes to the place of feed.

“I want my soup, you Irish blackguard !" In one dense crowd, they pour in at the door ; pushing and Can't do it, Sir-r; the rules must be observed. Can't give squeezing, jostling and swearing, as if life itself depended upon you any more soup, Sir-r; the mates is on, Sir-r; them must be the celerity of their entrance. Dignity is nothing, decency is ate nixt; them's the rule, Sir-r;" and the waiter ran to answer nothing. A choice seat at the table is everything.

a call farther up the table. The twenty or thirty individuals who are already seated at the The discontented man swore as terribly as if he had formed one head of the board, and in the immediate vicinity of the choicest of the celebrated army in Flanders. “ Pretty hotel this ! Excel. eatables, are "old heads ;" they have “cut their eye teeth ;" they lent regulations! Polite servants! Must eat meat, must I? I'll are “ up to snuff ;" or, to cut the classics, and descend to homely see 'em hanged first. Here you Chowder-head, bring back my English, they know how to dine in an American hotel ; an accomplishment by no ineans to be lightly regarded. Every day, about "Green peas, gen'lemen-green peas," squeaked a bean-pole half an hour before the dinner hour, they station themselves near waiter, with a nose like a sausage, and little twinkling eyes. А the door of the dining-room, and, with a patience worthy of Job, dozen hands grabbed convulsively at the dish. Green peas were await its opening. Barely does John the waiter have time to a great rarity; a fact sufficiently evinced by the complacent air of sound the gong, the notes of which I have said are so magical, the servant, as he announced them. A dish of gravy and a bottle before they dart by him, and the last vibration of the brazen moni- of catsup were upset in the scuffle, much to the annoyance of the tor finds the men of brass seated at the table. Some unsophisti-sour man, in whose lap a greater part of the first sought a dépôt. cated persons may think this a contemptible subserviency to the "You have got your soup, I find, sir!" said a wag opposite, at appetite; if so, they do the worthies much injustice. Their which everybody laughed; and one individual at an untimely



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