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moment when his mouth was full of Scotch ale, whereby a great was unceremoniously seized, and carried to the obese, who had gurgling and spluttering ensued, ending by a general spit upon bribed the waiter with a shilling to execute the manoeuvre. the fixins' of all who were near him; a most impartial division, Whereupon my modest friend looked very blank, and Vinegar for all received a portion. As soon as he could make himself took occasion to dilate sarcastically upon the expense of feeding heard above the discord, the person to whom the wag's remark pigs in the west ; in which the fat man, unsophisticated, and had been addressed answered, with much asperity, " That's Irish seeing no allusion, coincided with fervour. He had swine to sell, wit, I s'pose ; I hate Irish !"
and crying up the expense of fattening them would tend to ia. “ Peas, waiter !” “Waiter, peas !" " Peas ! peas ! peas !” ex- crease their value in the market. And here ensued a confab claimed a hundred voices in a breath. Reasonable souls ! they between the wag and the obese, in which the latter was made the looked to be all helped at once !
unwitting butt of a thousand and one small shafts, touching his “Pass those peas?” said a score of impatient voices to the professional and personal affinities. gentleman with the crimson face, who in the scuffle had succeeded “ Clear the tables !" sang out the authoritative voice of one in securing the dish to himself.
decked in a short white apron, who brandished in a masterly “Ha, ha !” he spluttered, complacently, with his mouth half manner a huge carving-knife and fork. This was no less a perfull of salmon, “ I haven't eat any of these 'ere for a long while !'' sonage than the head waiter or “butler," as he directed his fellow
“ They look very fine !" said the next but one adjoining, in a servants to call him. He knew the responsibility of his situa. manner that implied a strong desire to ascertain whether they did tion, and filled it with great dignity. His own talents had raised not taste respectably.
him, step by step, from the comparatively low office of a knife* Very, very!" replied the fat man, as he scooped nine-tenths scourer and cook's errand boy, to the high stand which, knife in of all there were in the dish on to his own plate. Sundry eyes hand, he now occupied. His history is an excellent illustration glanced pitch-forks at him. They were evidently astonished. of the old maxim, that “talent, like water, will find its level.” They should not have been. The gentleman came from a western I could dwell upon the hopes and aspirations of the lowly knifepork-growing district. He fatted his own swine.
scourer-his surcharged bosom overflowing in the lonely watches cial fond of peas !” said he, half in enthusiasm at his own of the night, as he plied his rag and “rotten-stone;" his long. a ppetite, and half as a sort of an apology.
ings for the berth of porter ; the attainment of his wish ; his Split me if I didn't think so," exclaimed the wag.
enthusiasm upon his first debut with Day and Martin ; his still “Well, it's nothing strange !" snapped out Vinegar, taking the craving ambition ; in short, his whole rise and progress and final part of the obese, and chuckling at the discomfiture of the others. attainment to that pinnacle of usefulness, the situation of bead
“ Some people will eat until, being unable to help themselves, waiter. we shall be compelled to lift them out of their seat !” exclaimed My modest neighbour, supposing that the last-named order one of the disappointed, giving the fat man a look that was not to was intended as an insinuation that the guests had eaten enough, be misconstrued.
arose and walked off. Upon reaching the door, and turning I looked about me for some peas, but saw none. As I was round, he seemed to perceive his mistake, and that the order was scrutinizing, my eyes encountered the rueful and bewildered face but for a clearance of the meats, to make room for the pastry; of a modest young man, with an empty plate. In all probability but, ashamed to expose his ignorance of “etiquette,” by returnhe had never dined before in a hotel; at least the diffident manner ing to the table, he left the room, hoping, I doubt not; from the with which he received the inattention paid to his modest requests, bottom of his soul, that those he had left behind him would seemed to say as much. A constant fear, too, lest he should not ascribe his withdrawal to surfeit rather than ignorance. He pro. behave quite like the rest, (!!) appeared to haunt him ; and the bably adjourned to a neighbouring eating-house, to appease his longer he was neglected, the more he appeared embarrassed. Poor tantalized appetite. fellow! he had not yet received a mouthful to eat. What a bore “What pudding is this, waiter?” said a gentleman opposite. is modesty! Brass is, emphatically, an accomplishment. The " It's a pud-ding, Sir-r," was the satisfactory reply. young man looked very ridiculous for the lack of it; and I pitied “We know it's a pudding, but what kind of a pudding is it? him.
Find out what pudding it is." “Waiter!” said I, winking peculiarly to an Adonis with squint “ That's aisily done,” said he, as with the utmost sang-froid he eyes, and a mouth like a cod-fish. He sprang to my side. The perforated the crust of the doubtful dish with his dirty thumb. wink had touched his feelings. I knew it would. A waiter's “Sure, gentlemen, it's a rice!” heart is open to a wink, when words are useless.
"You ignorant ape! don't you know better than that? You “Get me some peas and fresh salmon, on a clean plate.” ought to be lynched!
The fellow's eyes concentrated into the deepest squint, as he “He would if he was in our parts," said the fat gentleman, looked inquiringly, first into my face, and then at the space swallowing a glass of Champagne, which he had taken, uninvited, between my thumb and forefinger. Apparently not seeing there from my bottle. what he had expected, his sprightly, helpful manner died away “Look here, Cabbage-head!” said Vinegar, twigging the very suddenly, and his answer, as he stared mechanically up the offender's ear; “ bring me my soup ! table, was unqualifiedly brief.
I left the table. It was my last hotel dinner. “Guess there arn't any here—don't see any." I pointed to my thumb and fore-finger. A quarter-dollar filled
AMELIORATION OF THE CRIMINAL LAW. the space so lately vacant. “Do you see any now?"
One practical result of our reading should be, that it has a tenThe mouth opened wide and assumed an amiable grin, and the dency to make us call to those who sit upon their watch-towers, eyes an extra squint, and for half a minute glanced scrutinizingly “ Watchmen, what of the night ?" and to make us glad, if they around the table.
have seen, in the erents of the past, or in the promise of the future, “ I think I does,” said he. His sight was completely restored. anything to enable them to return the cheerful cry: “ The morn
“I thought you would,” said I, dropping the coin into his ing cometh !" We believe that the morning cometh : and it will horny palm. What wonders “the root of all evil' can accom- be the most pleasant of our duties to record, from time to time, plish! It makes the best vegetable pills in the world, and may be the circumstances on which that impression is founded. used with equally astonishing success in all climates.
On the present occasion, when desirous of finding evidence, in The disinterested servant brought me the peas and salmon the circumstances of the year gone by, that a day-spring from on with great alacrity, and looked as if he would like to have the high was visiting our minds and hearts, scarcely any one thing silver dose repeated, but I had no further use for him, and more forcibly struck our attention than the fact that the year stared coldly upon his enthusiasm. He was a philosopher, and a 1838 had the fine distinction of being, in the metropolis, an deeply-read student of human nature. He understood that cold unbloody year. It is true that blood has flowed from the acci. look as readily as he had done the wink, and, to adopt a western dents of life and the carelessness of men ; it is true that more phrase, quickly“ obsquatulated. Helping myself to a por- than one man has laid his impious hand upon the sacred life tion of the viands which I had been so fortunate as to obtain, of his brother; it is even true that there are parts of England I passed the remainder to my modest neighbour. He appeared where the hand of Justice has exacted the life of the guilty: very grateful, but was too much embarrassed to thank me. Hav. All this is true; and to these things we do not refer. We ing helped himself to salmon, he was proceeding (leisurely, lest confine our remarks to the districts which collectively form he should seem indecorous) to take some peas, when the dish this immense metropolis : and we call attention to the fact,
that the tribunals of London have not been, in the past year, Paley, it will be observed, alleges that the number of capital stained with blood. Fifty years ago—nay twenty-nay ten-if a punishments actually inflicted were but “few." Few! How man had been told that some future year might come, in which many? Ten? Twenty?-We should think these large numbers London-abounding in iniquity, and full of all the incentives and But the words “ few" and " many" had, in Paley's time, opportunities of sin-should not witness a capital punishment, and a good while after, a very different meaning. And since Paley that man would have wondered how the prophet had managed to lays so much stress on the pr gative of mercy, vested in the escape from Bethlem or St. Luke's.—But this great thing has crown, it may be well to state that George III, was in the habit happened in our days, and shall we not be glad ? Yea, we are of paying very minute attention to the Recorder's reports ; but as glad, we do rejoice, that we have lived to see this grand and beau- his policy varied at different parts of his reign, so did the numbers tiful indication, that at last the human heart is getting civilised. of executions. Sometimes it went on at the rate of from 150 to
We must take care not to be misunderstood. The circumstance 200 a-year, and sometimes from twelve to twenty. It will be seen that, in the past year, the metropolis of England had not been de- from the subjoined note *, that the average number of executions graded by even one of those horrid exhibitions which harden the yearly, in London alone, during the fifty years ending 1820, fell wicked, and make good men hang their heads, would itself have been little short of thirty : but an average of nearly double this amount of small importance. It might have resulted from some happy might be obtained in a shorter period ; thus, the number of metrocombination of fortuitous circumstances : but there is something politan executions in the ten years, 1780 – 1789, was not less than more in it, and something better, than this. It is a marked | 534, being a yearly average for these years of 534. In one of result of anterior causes of causes which must continue to these years the number was as high as 97, and in another not operate in producing effects still more remarkable than these. below 92. Indeed we have seen, in the records of so recent a Perhaps most of our readers will imagine they have found these year as 1820, notices of the executions of no less than fourteen causes in the mitigation of the criminal code-once the severest | persons at the Old Bailey within one week, not one of which was and most stained with blood of any upon earth. But it is not so. for any crime which would now be capitally punished. Of these A little reflection will show that the mitigation was itself but a six were executed on one day (Nov. 6th), and eight on one other slow and reluctant concession to the resistless operation of an day (Nov. 11.) Contrast this with the fact that in the year of grace anterior cause—the advancing civilisation of the human heart : 1838, there has not been one capital execution at the Old Bailey ; which, we fully believe has, of late years, been far more than com- that the office of the hangman has become a sinecure, and almost mensurate with our very great progress in more outward civili- ceased to be an office ; that all the functionaries of death are losing sation.
the practice which experience gives ; and that the gibbet has nearly While the law sought to drown crime in rivers of blood, learned ceased to be the sign and by-word of our civilisation. Verily and wise men sat down at their desks to tell us why these things the morning breaketh ; and it is not the least of our joys to know were so, and why it was needful they should be so, and how it was that the children of the coming day will have tribunals unstained impossible that they should be otherwise : good and mild men with blood, and that they will not allow even the law to play these saw in these things the perfection of wisdom! Thus Paley, after horridly fantastic tricks before high heaven, which made their adverting to the milder principles of other criminal codes, pro- fathers of yester-night close their eyes in disgust, or grind their ceeds :-" The law of England is constructed upon a different and teeth with anguish. better policy. By the number of statutes enacting capital offences, The change which has taken place in the doctrine and practice it sweeps into the net every crime which, under any possible cir- of our criminal law, is certainly very rapid. But it is to be cumstance, may merit the punishment of death ; but when the remembered that such changes belong to government, and governexecution of the sentence comes to be deliberated upon, a small ments seldom think of any change in an established practice, proportion of each class are singled out, the general character, until public opinion assumes a loud voice. To such men as of the peculiar aggravations of whose crimes render them fit ex- Basil Montague, Romilly, and Mackintosh, is due the praise of aiples of public justice. By this expedient, few actually suffer having. in this respect, taught public opinion to speak, and to death, while the dread and danger of it hang over the crimes of speak in a voice that would be heard. And it was heard. We many. The tenderness of the law cannot be taken advantage of. are careful to explain this, that public opinion may not be thought The life of the subject is spared, as far as the necessity of restraint to have always given its sanction to the enormities of the law; and intimidation permit; yet no one will adventure upon the but that, as in other matters, it was a step in advance of its commission of any enormous crime, from a knowledge that the practical condition. This remark the chronicler of 1820 appends Jaws have not provided for its punishment. The wisdom and to the notice of the executions (fourteen in one week) which humanity of this design furnish a just excuse for
the multiplicity he records :-" These successive executions created through the of capital offences, which the laws of England are accused of metropolis the most lively sentiments of horror. The cruelty of enacting beyond those of other countries. The charge of cruelty our sanguinary laws begins now to be universally felt, an ameliorais answered by observing, that these laws were never meant to tion of their spirit and practice being due to the improved intel. be carried into indiscriminate execution ; that the legislature, ligence of the age. The feeling excited was the more pungent, when it establishes its last and highest sanctions, trusts to the because no circumstance of peculiar atrocity had distinguished benignity of the crown to relax their severity, as often as circum- the conduct of the criminals. Transportation to Botany Bay Stances appear to palliate the offence, or even as often as those would have been the appropriate and satisfactory punishment." circumstances of aggravation are wanting which rendered the In fact, it was found in the very same year, by a Select Commitee rigorous interposition necessary. Upon this plan, it is enough to of the House of Commons, that while executions had increased to findicate the lenity of the laws, that some instances are to be an extent which was most appalling, the gradual civilisation of the found in each class of capital crimes which require the restraint of English heart had been indicated by a remarkable decrease of murcapital punishment, and that this restraint could not be applied derous crimes. Its report informs us that “ If the increase of the without subjecting the whole class to the same condemnation.” population during a prosperous period of one hundred and thirty All this was sound doctrine fifty years ago ; yet there are, we years, be taken into the account, and if we bear in mind that, apprehend, few who read it now without perceiving in it much that within that time a considerable city has grown up on the southern is atrocious, much that is futile, and much that is repugnant to bank of the Thames, we shall be disposed to consider it no exagmoral principle. In fact, the reader in our day is shocked with geration to assume that in the home district (not one the most that , with which, fifty years
since, most judgments were satisfied ; favourably situated in this respect) murder has abated in and we claim this differing perception as a collateral evidence the remarkable proportion of three, if not four, to one." that the heart has become more civilised. It would be easy
to answer this passage which we have extracted * Number of Convicts sentenced to death, and the number executed, in the from Paley. But it needs no answer now.
One of his strong points, indeed, he proceeds, unconsciously, to answer himself.
Years, . 1812. For, whereas, in the above passage, he alleges that there was no
Sentenced, 532 intention that these severe laws should be executed, he subse
Executed, quently states , that the certainty of punishment was necessary to
The numbers executed in the three following years were 97 in 1818, 108 In the prevention of crime. Thať a milder penalty, more certainly years, 167 were executed in the metropolis; namely, 21 in 1814, 11 in 1815, 29
1819, 107 in 1820, being 951 in nine years. Of the 649 in the seven last of these enforced, is likely to be more operative, than one too severe to be in 1816, 16 in 1817, 21 in 1818, 23 in 1819, 46 in 1820. The total number of always inflicted, is precisely the contrary doctrine to that which persons executed in London during the fifty years ending with 1820, was 1371, Paley states : but this is the modern and true doctrine ; and from giving a yearly
average of between 27 and 28. it some happy results have
already been obtained.
years 1812-1817 :
1817. 1302 115
The detailed accounts which this (Sir James Mackintosh's) to the punishment of death. But all these blood-exacting laws Committee supply, particularly indicate the gradual progress of have within these few years been virtually (and nearly all of them the abatement.
legally) repealed by the force of public opinion. The law scarcely If things were so, how came it to pass that in these, still recent now dares to sacrifice life except for life, blood except for days, the law continued to pour out the sacred life of man like blood. water spilt upon the ground? The answer is found in the number This humane, blood-loathing tendency of public opinion, is one and character of the secondary offences which the law of England among many indications of the advancing civilisation of the public swept into its most deadly net. The breadth of that net is indi. heart; which, by virtue of this civilisation, begins to love peace, cated by the description of the felonies which were then held to be to hate war and its rumours, to abhor murder, and dislikes to see capital, but to which the Committee recommended that the pun- even guilty blood poured out for unbloody crime. For these things ishment of death should be no longer attached. The public mind we are very glad. We thank God for the past, and take courage is already so far advanced as to be astonished that the punishment for the future. of death ever was attached to such offences; and perhaps our pre- We have merely broken gound on this most interesting subject, sent language has not words to express the indignation and grief and shall return to it again and again. with which a coming generation shall read such a passage as this, (extracted from the Report in question) in the book of some unborn collector of the curiosities of criminal jurisprudence.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASLES. "The statutes creating capital offences, which the Committee About this season of the year, maternal care ought to be have considered, are reducible to two classes ; the first relate to directed towards an expected attack of measles amongst those acts either so nearly indifferent as to require no penalty, or, if children who have not already had that disease. We therefore injurious, not of such a magnitude as that they may not safely be call the attention of the young and inexperienced mother to a few left punishable as misdemeanours at common law. Of these the observations respecting this disorder, and to the usual symptoms Committee propose the repeal ; they are as follows.
which mark its first and subsequent stages. It is one of those " 1 and 2 Phil. and Mary, c. 4., Egyptians (gipsies) remaining maladies incident to the human frame, which, generally speaking, within the kingdom one month.–18 Charles II., c. 3. Notorious only attacks once during life, and is usually understood to be conthieves in Cumberland and Northumberland. -9 Geo. I., c. 22. tagious ; that is, capable of being communicated from the indiBeing armed and disguised in any forest, park, &c.—9 Geo. I. c. 22. vidual labouring under its influence to another who has never had Being armed in any warren.—9 Geo. I. c. 22. Being armed in any it, by means of their approaching each other, going into a house high road, open heath, common, or down.-9 Geo. I. c. 22. Un. where it either prevails or has recently prevailed, or by the clothes lawfully hunting, killing, or stealing deer.—9 Geo. I. c. 22. Rob- worn by the infected individual being brought near the unprobing warrens, &c.—9 Geo. I. c. 22. Stealing or taking any fish tected person. The period between the contagion being imbibed out of any river, pond, &c.-9 Geo. I. c. 22. Hunting in his into the system, and the appearance of the fever which always Majesty's forests or chases.-9 Geo. I. c. 22. Breaking down the attends measles, is difficult to determine, but it may be stated io head or mound of a fish-pond.-9 Geo. I. c. 28. Being disguised be from eight to fourteen days. And there is reason to believe, within the Mint.-12 Geo. II. c. 29. Injuring of Westminster that it becomes infectious before the eruption shows itself : for, bridge, and other bridges by other Acts.
otherwise, it would be difficult to account for the many instances “ The second class consists of those offences,which, though in the in which children have taken the disease, without ever having been opinion of the Committee never fit to be punished with death, are immediately exposed to the contagion where it is known to exist. yet so malignant and dangerous as to require the highest But the susceptibility of receiving the infection varies with different punishments, except death, which are known in our laws. These individuals. About eighteen months since, in a family consisting the Committee would make punishable, either by transportation, of four children, the following case occurred. The eldest had or imprisonment with hard labour, allowing considerable scope to measles very severely; the others slept in the same room through. the discretion of the judges respecting the term for which either out the progress of the disorder ; no precaution was taken to prepunishment is to endure.
vent their having it, and yet to this period they have all escaped. “31 Eliz. c. 9. Taking away any maid, widow, or wife, &c.- Before proceeding to trace the symptoms and progress of this 21 Jas. I. c. 26. Acknowledging, or procuring any fine, reco
disease, we would wish forcibly to engrave on the minds of parents, very, &c.—4 Geo. I., c. 2, s. 4. Helping to the recovery of stolen that it is of a decidedly inflammatory nature, affecting the skin, goods. 9 Geo. I., c. 22. Maliciously killing or wounding cattle. the lining membrane of the bowels, and also the same membrane -9 Geo. I., c. 22. Cutting down or destroying trees growing, of the tubes or passages which convey the air to the lungs; there. &c.—5 Geo. II., c. 30. Bankrupts not surrendering, &c.- fore, great care should be observed to keep the patient in an equal 5 Geo. II., c. 30. Bankrupts concealing or embezzling their and agreeable temperature, and to avoid that too frequent occur. goods.-6 Geo. II., c. 37. Cutting down the bank of any river. rence, the practice of giving strong and irritating doses of purga. -8 Geo. II., c. 20. Destroying any lock, fence, sluice, &c.
tive medicine. 26 Geo. II., c. 23. Making a false entry in a marriage-register, Individuals may be subject to an attack of measles at all periods &c., five felonies.—27 Geo. 11., c. 15. Sending threatening let- of life, but infancy and age are more exempt than childhood and ters.-27 Geo. II., c. 19. Destroying bank, &c. Bedford level. adolescence. It generally prevails in the beginning of spring, and —3 Geo. III., c. 16. Personating out-pensioners of Greenwich dies away towards the end of summer, so that it is seldom known Hospital.-22 Geo. III., c. 40. Maliciously cutting serges.- during the autumn; but frequent cases present themselves in the 24 Geo. III., c. 47. Harbouring offenders against that (revenue) winter months. Towards the latter end of November it reappears act, when returned from transportation."
in an isolated form, infecting probably a few children; as the Of the three other capital felonies-of privately stealing in a spring advances its virulence increases, and occasionally it becomes shop, to the amount of five shillings—of privately stealing in a an epidemic, attacking almost all who have not had the complaint. dwelling-house, to the amount of forty shillings—and of privately The symptoms which usually indicate measles are, listlessness, stealing from a vessel in a navigable river, to the amount of forty irritability, restlessness, a loathing of food, to which soon succeed shillings-the House of Commons had already declared its opinion sneezing, coughing, running at the nose, eyes heavy and watery, by passing bills for reducing the punishment from death to trans- and unable to bear a strong light; the child rubs its eyes and nose, portation or imprisonment; and these bills the committec proposed and experiences a general itching. If closely observed, it will to revive.
exhibit frequent chills, and a contraction of the features. The The committee of this year thought their recommendations very skin is hot and dry, with a quick-beating pulse. These symptoms bold; and the House of Commons thought them too bold; for the continue for three or four days, and may induce the parent to Bill brought in by Sir James Mackintosh, embodying the above suppose that the child has taken cold ; but it becomes gradually recommendations of the Committee, though allowed to be read less inclined to exertion, is very unwilling to leave its bed, and in three times, was rejected on the motion " That this bill do now every respect appears to get worse. About the fourth day the pass,” by a majority of 120 to 114. Yet this measure, which the rash makes its appearance on the forehead, face, and chin, in the Legislature deemed so bold and dangerous, did but propose to cut form of small, red, and elevated spots, and these spots may conoff the outer fringes of Paley's “net,” and still left it with a tinue, in cold weather, for two or three days, without further breadth_more ample than public opinion could much longer tole eruption, as we have witnessed lately in several cases, but generally rate. Forgery, house-breaking, robbery, sacrilege, letter-stealing, speaking, the spots soon coalesce, or run together, forming patches sheep-stealing, horse-stealing, and other offences, were still liable of an irregular figure, but of a distinct red colour, occasionally
vivid though frequently dull and slightly elevated, the intervening
LORD THURLOW. portion of the skin retains its natural appearance at this period. At times Lord Thurlow was superlatively great. It was the There is frequent hoarseness, with dryness and soreness of the good fortune of the Reminiscent to hear his celebrated reply to the throat. On the fifth day the rash has extended to the body, and Duke of Grafton, during the inquiry into Lord Sandwich's admiis very vivid on the face, the eyelids swelled, and often so much nistration of Greenwich Hospital. His Grace's action and deli. so that the child cannot separate them, and is consequently for a very, when he addressed the House, were singularly dignified and time deprived of sight: the face appears enlarged, and the fever graceful, but his matter was not equal to his manner. He continues unabated. On the sixth and seventh days the legs and reproached Lord Thurlow with his plebeian extraction, and his arms are covered whilst it is declining on the body, and by the tenth recent admission into the peerage. Particular circumstances day the eruption has partially or totally disappeared, leaving the caused Lord Thurlow's reply to make a deep impression on the skin rough and scaly, and the patient nsually with a cough and Reminiscent. His Lordship had spoken too often, and began to much debility. But the disease frequently runs a more violent be heard with a civil but visible impatience ; under these circumcourse, and at certain periods has too often blighted the hopes of stances he was attacked in the manner we have mentioned. He many a fond parent.
rose from the woolsack, and advanced slowly to the place from Such are the ordinary symptoms and progress of measles ; but whence the Chancellor generally addressed the House ; then fixing it is not our intention to follow it through all its varieties. We on the Duke the look of Jove when he grasps the thunder—" I would however wish, before concluding, to impress on the minds am amazed,” he said in a loud tone of voice, “at the attack which of the inexperienced mother the necessity of carefully noticing this the noble duke has made on me.
lord. considerably disease through all its stages, and more particularly at the decline raising his voice, “I am amazed at his Grace's speech. The of the eruption, when inflammation of the brain, lungs, or bowels, noble duke cannot look before him, behind him, on either side of may very suddenly take place, and render the most prompt and him, without seeing some noble peer who owes his seat in this active treatment necessary for the preservation of life. In some House to his successful exertions in the profession to which I cases it will happen that the rash, which is vivid and freely out, belong. Does he not feel that it is as honourable to owe it to suddenly disappears, which change is generally caused by violent these, as to being the accident of an accident * ? To all these noble and dangerous inflammatory action of some important internal part, lords the language of the noble duke is as applicable and as insult. and it too often happens, when the eruption thus suddenly disap-ing as it is to myself. But I do not fear to meet it single and pears, that nurses and others who assume a knowledge to which alone. No one venerates the peerage more than I do. But, my they have no just pretensions, will recommend and give stimulating lords, I must say, that the peerage solicited me, not I the peerdrinks, such as gin and water, hot wine, or other spirituous com- age. Nay, more I can say, and will say, that as a peer of parliapounds. But we earnestly caution mothers against yielding to
ment—as Speaker of this right honourable House-as Keeper of such advice, and on no account to give stimulants without the con
the Great Seal-as guardian of his Majesty's conscience—as Lord sent of the medical attendant, as the smallest quantity given may High Chancellor of England-nay, even in that character alone in cause irreparable injury, whilst the withholding the same, until which the noble duke would think it an affront to be considered, proper professional advice is procured, can never endanger life. but which character none can deny me, as a man—I am at this We will now close this subject with a few important observations.
moment as respectable, I beg leave to add, I am at this time as Avoid keeping the child in a hot room, with a load of bedclothes, much respected, as the proudest peer I now look down upon.”and the curtains closely drawn, to prevent, if possible, a breath of Butler's Reminiscences. air. This external heat always tends to increase the fever, and frequently occasions wandering and delirium. As we before said,
THE TRIAL BY JURY. let the patient be kept in a comfortable and equable temperature, avoiding the extremes of heat or cold.
The trial by jury diffuses the most valuable information amongst The room should, however, be darkened, on account of the every rank of citizens. It is a school of which every jury that is inflammation and tenderness of the eyes, which usually attend the impanelled is a separate class, where the dictates of the laws, complaint, light causing uneasiness and pain.
and the consequences of disobedience to them, are practically The diet should be of the blandest kind, such as arrow-root, taught. The frequent exercise of these important functions, moresago, &c., and the drink barley, rice, or toast-water. During the
over, gives a sense of dignity and self-respect, not only becoming period of convalescence, every precaution should be taken to avoid
to the character of a free citizen, but which adds to his private exposure either to a cold or a damp atmosphere ; the diet should happiness. Neither party spirit nor intrigue, nor power, can continue for a time to be light and of easy digestion, and the deprive him of his share in the administration of justice, though bowels regularly attended to. Were these precautions ordinarily they can humble the pride of every other office, and vacate every used, parents wonld frequently be saved great anxiety and trouble, other place. Every time he is called to act in this capacity, he and instead of having an ailing, weak, and debilitated child, or
must feel that though perhaps placed in the humblest station, he children, requiring the utmost maternal care to save it or them is yet the guardian of the life, the liberty, the reputation, of his from an early grave, they would be cheered and blessed with a
fellow citizens against injustice and oppression ; and that while healthy offspring.
his plain understanding has been found the best refuge for innocence, his incorruptible integrity is pronounced a sure pledge that
guilt will not escape. A state whose most obscure citizens are PLAN OF STUDYING A LANGUAGE.
thus individually elevated to perform these functions, who are · In my French and Latin translations I adopted an excellent alternately the defenders of the injured, the dread of the guilty, method, which from my own success I would recommend to the the vigilant guardians of the constitution, without whose consent imitation of students. I chose some classic writer, such as Cicero, no punishment can be inflicted, no disgrace incurred; who can and Vertôt, the most approved for purity and elegance of style. by their voice arrest the blow of oppression, and direct the hand I translated, for instance, an epistle of Cicero into French, and of justice where to strike-such a state can never sink into after throwing it aside till the words and phrases were obliterated slavery, or easily submit to oppression. Corrupt rulers may perfrom my memory, I re-translated my French into such Latin as I vert the constitution, ambitious demagogues may violate its precould find, and then compared each sentence of my imperfect cepts, foreign influence may control its operations, but while the version, with the ease, the grace, the propriety of the Roman people enjoy the trial by jury, taken by lot from among themselves, orator. A similar experiment was made on several pages of “The they cannot cease to be free. The information it spreads, the Revolutions of Vertôt." I turned them into Latin, re-turned them, sense of dignity it inspires, the courage it creates, will always give after a sufficient interval, into my own French, and again scrutinised them an energy of resistance that can grapple with encroachment, · the resemblance or dissimilitude of the copy and the original. and å renovating spirit that will make arbitrary power despair. By degrees I was less ashamed, by degrees I was more satisfied The enemies of freedom know this ; they know how admirable a with myself; and I persevered in the practice of these double vehicle it is to convey the contagion of those liberal principles translations, which filled several books, till I had acquired the which attack the vitals of their power; and they guard against its knowledge of both idioms, and the command at least of a correct introduction with more care than they would take to avoid a style. This useful exercise of writing, was accompanied and pestilential disease.-Report made to the General Assembly of succeeded by the more pleasing occupation of reading the best | Louisiana on the Plan of a Penal Code, by Edward Livingston. authors. The perusal of the Roman classics was at once my * The Duke of Grafton was the grandson of Charles the Second by one of exercise and reward. -- Gibbon's Misc. Works.
DISCOVERY OF ROMAN SKELETONS.
MEANING OF THE WORD DEODAND. Several Roman skeletons have recently been discovered on the line of the
The word deodand signifies a thing given to God Almighty. Our law upon Great Western Railway, in a high portion of ground contiguous to the Berkshire
this subject is extremely barbarous as well as impious. The deodand was of Downs, in reference to which the Medical Gazette contains the following in
Catholic origin, and the priests made, or pretended to make, the offer to God, teresting observations :-" The bone is still hard and compact, and has under
for the repose of the person killed. If a person falls from any part of a cart gone but little alteration of structure. Some of the animal matter has disap- not in motion, the whole of it, as well as every thing in it and about it, is for. peared, and its place been supplied by the carbonate of lime from the nidus
feited to the Deity. No deodands are given for accidents happening at sca; in which it reposed, and effervesces strongly when acted upon by the mineral
not that the law does not suppose God to have been present at the death, or bot acids. The surface had a reticulated appearance owing to the partial denuda.
to be entitled to the perquisites, but because the jurisdiction of the Court of tion of the external surface by ossiphagous insects. The bones of the head and
Queen's Bench does not extend by the common law to the bigb seas. AI face are of dimensions exceedingly contracted, at least in comparison with those of a well-formed adult of the present day. The ossa nasi of the skulls possess
animals or things occasioning the death of man are, by the laws of England,
deodands, or perquisites of God. Jurymen, in fixing the value of the forfeit, most extraordinary incurvations, which must have had the effect of subjecting invariably perjure themselves. An intelligent correspondent from a manufaethe wearers, though Romans, to particularly “pug" noses, and we are all
turing town writes to us, that in the last fisty years he has seen given to God as aware of the characters assigned by popular consent to pasal organs of this
deodands, seren waggons, two waggon-wheels, nineteen carts, one wheel-barrow, peculiar conformation. The great departure from the regular structure, however, remains to be noticed. The existing teeth of the upper jaw (the only ones,
eleven stage-coaches, three private carriages, forty horses, one sword, one mule
and two jackasses-all gifts to God by the law of England! When will the unfortunately, preserved) are eleven in number; five of the molares were lost
people get rid of the remnants of the superstitions of their ignorant ancestors ?during life, as the sockets or alveolar processes are consolidated by ossification. London Paper. The crowns of the incisors stand prominently from the jaw, and are evidently not worn to any extent by attrition; but instead of presenting the usual wedge
BENEFICENCE. shaped appearance (having the posterior and anterior surface meeting at a
A tender-hearted and compassionate disposition, which inclines men to pity sharp angle), they are of an irregular solid oral form, strongly coated with
and feel the misfortunes of others, and which is, even for its own sake, incapable enamel, and in every respect like the natural molares. The fangs are single, and of the usual long pyramidal form at their insertion in front of the maxillæ.
of involving any man in ruin and misery, is, of all tempers of mind, the most The bicuspides have lost their identity, and partake of the same peculiarity ; 80 Fielding.
amiable; and though it seldom receives much honour, deserres the highest.that, in fact, the whole now presents the unusual appearance along the entire line of a set of sturdy and uniform molares. I look upon this as a purely acci.
SUBSTITUTE FOR THE SUN. dental conformation, not presuming that the inhabitants of the Eternal City so far departed from the universal system as to wear their molar teeth in the most The newly-invented light of M. Gaudin, on which experiments were recently conspicuous part of their maxillæ.”
made at Paris, is an improred modification of the well-known invention of
Lieut. Drummond. While Drummond pours a stream of oxygen gas, through PRESENCE OF MIND.
spirits of wine, upon unslaked lime, Gaudin makes use of a more etherial kiod At the battle of Seneff, fought between the French and the Dutch, towards
of oxygen, which he conducts through burning essence of turpentine. The the end of the summer, 1674, the Prince of Orange (afterwards William the Drummond light is fifteen hundred times stronger than that of burning gas; Third, of England), commanding the Dutch, was once engaged among a body of the Gaudin light is, we assured by the inventor, as strong as that of the French, thinking they were his own men, and bid them charge. They told him
sun, or thirty thousand times stronger than gas, and, of course, ten times more they had no more powder. He perceiving they were none of his men, with so than the Drummond. The method by which M. Gaudin proposes to turn great presence of mind got out of their hands, and brought up a body of his the new invention to use is singularly striking, He proposes to erect in the own army to charge them, who quickly routed them.-Burnet's Own Times. island of the Pont Neuf, in the middle of the Seine and centre of Paris, a light. THORWALDSEN.
house, five hundred feet high, in which is to be placed a light from a hundred That" great erents from trivial causes spring,” was exemplified in the early
thousand to a million gas-pipes strong, the power to be varied as the nights are history of this distinguished sculptor. His native country, which has recently
light or dark. Paris will thus enjoy a sort of perpetual day, and as soon as welcomed his return as a kind of national triumph, witnessed his departure a
the sun of the heavens has set, tho sun of the Pont Neuf will rise.- Mechanic's lone and unfriended stranger to visit and mature his genius in contemplation
Magazine. of the immortal monuments of art which adorn the Eternal City. There, how.
ABORIGINES OF AUSTRALIA. ever, he languished in obscurity, and in a moment of despondency he determined to distrust his future fortunes, and return to his household gods. Nay,
The patire population is very thinly spread over the regions 1 hare explored, he had actually made preparations for his departure, when fortunately for him amounting to nearly a seventh part of Australia. I cannot estimate the pumsome of his performances attracted the attention of Mr. Thomas Hope, the ber at more than 6,000 ; but on the contrary, I believe it to be considerably celebrated author of " Anastasius." He sought out the obscure artist, em
less. They may increase rapidly, if wild cattle become numerous; and, as an ployed him to complete some of his unfinished works on his own account, and
instance, I may refer to the number and good appearance of the Cudjallagong by his commissions, and still more by his kind and consoling advice, rescued tribe, near Macquarric range, where they occasionally fall in with a herd of the sinking hopes of the artist, and induced him to abandon his design. Mr. wild cattle. The kangaroo disappears from cattle runs, and is also killed by Hope was shortly afterwards joined by his brother, Mr. Henry Philip Hope, stockmed merely for the sake of the skin ; but no mercy is shown to the natives now of Arklow House, Connaught-place, himself a munificent patron of the who may belp themselves to a bullock or a sheep. Such a stale of things must arts, and the countenance and encouragement of these two brothers, then in infallibly lead to the extirpation of the aboriginal natives, as in Van Dieman's the flower of their youth, rich, elegant, and caressed and known in the first Land, unless timely measures are taken for their civilisation and protection. I circles of Rome, diffused a knowledge of Thorwaldsen's merit, and his extra- have heard some affecting allusions made by natives to the white man's killing ordinary powers developing themselves, he soon attained the summit of his the kangaroo. At present, almost every stock man has sereral strong kangaroo profession. But he never forgot those whose timely interference rescued him dogs; and it would only be an act of justice towards the aborigines, to prohibit from obscurity, and has, we believe, always gratefully acknowledged his obli. white men by law from killing these creatures, which are as essential to the gations for the assistance rendered him in his hour of adversity by our generous
natives as cattle to the Europeans.--Mojor Mitchell's Expeditions.
PASSAGE OF THE RAPIDS OF ST. MARY's.
The canoe being ready, I went to the upper end of the portage, and we launched ther we have not lost more than we have gained by it. No one thing has
into the river. It was a small fishing-canoe, about ten feet long, quite new and occasioned so much degeneracy of the human body. An Indian goes on foot light, and elegant and buoyanı as a bird on the waters. I reclined on a mat at nearly as far in a day as an enfeebled white does on his horse, and he will tire
the bottom, Indian fashion (there are no seats in a genuine Indian canoe); in the best horse. A little walk of half an hour in the morning, when you first
a minute we were within the verge of the rapids, and down we went with a rise, is advisable, it shakes off sleep, and produces other good effects in the whirl and a splash ! the white surge leaping around me-over me. The Indian, animal economy.-Jefferson,
with astonishing dexterity, kept the head of the canoe to the breakers, and some
how or other we danced through them. I could see as I looked over the edge CHRISTIANITY.
of the canoe that the passage between the rocks was sometimes not more than The late eminent judge Sir Alan Park, once said at a public meeting in the two feet in width, and we had to turn angles-a touch of which would have sent city—“ We live in the midst of blessings, till we are utterly insensible of their us to destruction; all this I could see through the transparent eddying waters : greatness, and of the source from which they flow. We speak of our civilisa- but, I can truly say, I had not even a momentary sensation of fear-but rather tion, our arts, our freedom, our laws, and forget entirely how large a share of of giddy, breathless, delicious excitement. I could even admire the beautiful all is due to Christianity. Blot Christianity out of the page of man's history, attitude of a fisher, past whom we swept as we came to the bottom. The and what would his laws have been-what his civilisation ?--Christianity is whole affair, from the moment I entered the canoe till I reached the landing mixed up with our very being and our daily life; there is not a familiar object place, occupied seven minutes, and the distance is about three quarters of a round us which does not wear its mark, not a being or a thing which does not mile.--Ilm. Jamieson. wear a different aspect because the light of Christian hope is on it, not a law which does not owe its truth and gentleness to Christianity, not a custom which London : WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER cannot be traced in all its holy and healthful parts to the Gospel."
AND Co. Dublin: CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars.