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finished in the sense of completion, and perfect as to what is conHOME EDUCATION.*
sidered its extent—and yet we may remain practically ignorant The most busy and internally occupied citizen must have and uneducated, as far as the great uses and objects of education occasionally observed the swallow trying to tempt its young to are concerned. take wing, and quit the nest : and the most careless reader must This idea of a finished or completed education, is one of the have remarked that even amongst the rudest tribes—those of greatest obstructions of our social advancement. It is a portion Australia, for instance—the youth are trained in those manual of the fence which hems in the mind of the savage, and shuts exercises which are considered essential to the hunter or the him out from improvement. It leads to a certain amount of warrior. The lower animals and the savage tribes thus act information being considered as the entire of education, and to practically on the principle, that education is the preparation of its being hastily squeezed into the mind; whereas genuine eduyouth for the business of after life ; and, in so doing, they show cation has but little sympathy with mere quantity of knowledge. the vast difference between themselves and civilized man. For It causes a large portion of that furious struggle and perpetual knowing nothing but the present existence, and nothing of how collision which is ever going on in the world of opinion : for,to improve it, they teach that which they have been taught, and borne on the tide of new discovery, alteration, and improvement, hand down from parent to offspring unaltered and immemorial –fixed system comes in contact with fixed system, and the jar usages. The lower animals are perfect, each after its kind ; the and shatter of the conflict prevent us from listening to the simple swallow taught its young to fly in the days of Adam precisely as accents of truth. Instead of converting the mind of youth into it will teach them in the last age of the world. Savage tribes a spacious picture gallery, lighted from above, with ample space also have no idea of improvement ; it must come to them from for acquisition while the fabric endures, it turns it into a warewithout; and, until it comes, that which the father practised is house, where knowledge is classed, and ticketed, and shelved, all that it is considered essential for the children to learn. but where nothing is received that is out of the line. On such
But civilized man has a far more glorious prerogative. His a subject it is pleasing to have the opinion of such a mind as the whole natural life should be one of acquisition and improvement author of the “ Natural History of Enthusiasm.” In his recent
- he is intended to be a school-boy from the cradle to the grave. work, “ Home Education,” he says : “ A teacher of philosophical The education of youth in civilized communities should be but a temper, who is aware, not merely of his own party bias, (with preparation for a preparation--an education for an education. which he is careful not to infect his pupil) but of the general fact We should be trained not merely for the generation in which we that the mind, as it advances, becomes unconsciously subject to live, but for the generations that shall follow-educated not certain fallacious modes of reasoning, will not disdain, while merely for our existence as mortal men, but for our existence as assuming to guide the minds committed to his care, to watch and immortal intelligent creatures. And when this principle shall wait for their uncontrolled workings, when the requisite materials thoroughly expand our narrower systems and practices of teach of thought are placed before them. . ... The pellucid ingenuing, a power, not differing in kind, but differing in degree, from that
ousness of young persons, who (unless miserably infected by by; which we have hitherto advanced, will carry us forward as on sectarian sentiments) have no predilections, should be attena moral rail-road ;-comprehensive education is the lever for tively listened to, and delicately treated. A mind may be injured lifting the character and condition of man.
beyond remedy, which is roughly dealt with, or acrimoniously How objectionable then is such a phrase as a finished educa- rebuked, in any instance of its not immediately falling in with tion ! Finished, in what manner, and for what ? Are we taught a teacher's opinions. To the young mind, the broad fields of to read, and write, and cipher, and to exercise a handicraft, just thought are, as yet, all unfenced ; nor has it learned to notice as the savage has been taught to make a canoe, and set a snare, enclosures, or to respect rights of way, or manorial prerogatives and throw a spear? Has a certain amount of facts and words -earth is as open as air and sky. ....
If there be room been crammed into our minds, to be used in after life as inclina- | to hope that mankind will, in a coming age, reach a more advanced tion or ability may prompt, or circumstances may require ? Have position on the road of genuine wisdom than has yet been our minds been set into certain shapes or moulds—our ideas attained, so desirable an event is likely to be favoured by a stereotyped, as the printers would say, so that, though fresh impres- greater care, on the part of teachers, in managing the first sponsions may be taken from them, they cannot be detached without taneous expansion of the reasoning faculty. Too often the worst violence or force ? Can we twirl a globe, and tell off glibly the prejudices are authoritatively forced upon the young, which the longitude and latitude of Petersburgh, or Canton, or Washing- feeble-minded retain through life as shackles, but which the ton? Do we know by heart the years of the birth and death of strong resentfully throw off, to the peril of all faith and practice.” Alexander the Great, or Mary, Queen of Scots, or Alfred, or A remedy prompt and general for such an evil we cannot Justinian, or Charles the Twelfth ! Can we describe the con expect. But it may be modified considerably: and to Home struction of the steam-engine, or point out the difference between Education we must look as the source of the modifying influences. an acid and an alkali ? Have we picked the bones of Greek and Home Education, indeed, conducted on the principles laid down Latin ! Alas ! our education may be both finished and perfect in this book, requires a rare combination of moral and intellec
• Home Education. By the Author of "Natural History of Enthusiasm." tual endowments, and physical circumstances. The parents who London: Jackson and Walford. 1838.
undertake such a task must themselves have received the benefit
(Bradbury and Evads, Printers," Wbitefriars.)
of a sound moral and intellectual training; they must be damage would be sustained by the community, if it were entirely thoughtful, considerate, and intelligent; have their own infirmi- deprived of the moral and political element which they bring ties of temper and conduct under control; be able to govern into the mass. As the moral machinery must come to a stand if their families in the spirit of love, and enjoy life so easily as to all possessed so fixed an individuality, as to think and act without make education one of its practical businesses. It supposes, if regard to the general bent of opinion; so would it acquire too possible, a country-house, or at least one removed from the much momentum, if none were distinguished by habits of feeling bustle of a city, and where the youths can be under a super- springing altogether from within. In this view, a systematic intendence which never interferes with their sports, nor stints Home Education fairly claims no trivial importance, as a means them in the free expression of a joyous or even a boisterous of sending forth, among the school-bred majority, those with hilarity. It supposes that, amid all the freedom and apparent whose habits of mind there is mingled a firm and modest sentilaxity of a home, there is an unseen parental firmness, ever turning ment of self-respect—not cynical, but yet unconquerable, resting, all things to the grand purpose of forming, enlarging, and elevat- as it will, upon the steady basis of personal wisdom and virtue. ing the minds under its care. How seldom do all these conditions It is men of this stamp who will be the true conservators of their combine in one household-how happy and blessed is the house country's freedom.” hold where they do!
Having thus set forth the advantages of Home Education, and But a consideration of “ Home Education” will not be without provided us with, in his own words, an “IDEAL Home,” where its use, even if we should find that it is adapted only for a mino- it can be carried on to its fullest extent, our author then expounds rity of families, and that in only a minority of that minority can his system, of which the following is the keystone :-“ The docit be carried out to its legitimate extent. “I ought to premise,” trine so much talked of, of late, and so eagerly followed by many, says our able author, " that the phrase, Home Education, is not, is that of DEVELOPMENT ; and the question put on all sides is, in my view, to be strictly confined to the training of the children. What are the readiest and the surest means of expanding the of a single family, under the paternal roof; but may embrace faculties at an early age ?' But the very contrary doctrine is the any instances in which the number assembled for instruction is one professed and explained throughout this work : for I am not greater than may well consist with the enjoyments, the inti- bold to avow my adherence to the principle of repression and macy, the usages, and the harmony, that ought to attach to a reserve, in the culture of the mind ; and it is this principle which family. Understanding the term in this extended sense, I enter. I would fain convince the reader may be put in practice contain the hope that, while professing to write for parents, I may sistently with the conveyance of really more information, or of render some aid to teachers also, having the charge of a limited information more comprehensive and substantial, than is usually number; for it is only reasonable to suppose that, as well the communicated at school.” general principles of intellectual culture, as the specific methods The first step in this system of education is to allow free scope of instruction which are applicable to the eight or ten children of for the natural felicity of childhood. “ Particular instances of a family, may be brought to bear, with perhaps a little modifica- ill health, ill treatment, or ill temper excepted, children are as tion, upon the twelve, or fifteen, or even twenty, who may be happy as the day is long, although grimed and grovelling about gathered from several families.”
the gutters and lanes of London or Manchester ; much more He carefully guards us from supposing, that he means to exalt certainly are they happy, tattered, dirty, and ruddy, at the door Home over School Education, as a means of general instruction of a hut on a common or road-side ; they are happy, more than In the opening of his book, he says_“I am not about to com- might be believed, in the cellar or the garret of the artisan, or in pare public and private education, as if intending to disparage a jail, or even in a poor-house.” This happiness we are not to the one, that the other, which is my chosen subject, may appear spoil by our interference-all we have to do is to let it expand of to the greater advantage. No question can reasonably be enter. its own accord, and to remove whatever might obstruct its devetained as to the great benefits that attach to school discipline, lopment. “ The happiness of children is not a thing to be prowhether effected on a larger or a smaller scale ; nor is it to be cured and prepared for them, like their daily food ; but a somesupposed, whatever may be said of female education, that that of thing which they alREADY POSSESS, and with which we need not boys could, in the majority of instances, be well conducted concern ourselves, any further than to see they are not despoiled beneath the paternal roof.”
of it. This simple principle, if understood, trusted to, and conIt is, however, of vast importance to our future welfare, as a stantly brought to bear upon the arrangements of a family, would nation, that there should be even a small minority of minds at once relieve the minds of parents from an infinitude of superamongst our population, trained up in the broad and liberal fuous cares." manner laid down in this book. To thoughtful-minded parents The influence of a “gaily happy childhood" upon the future we must therefore look—and hence the great importance, the moral and intellectual character, is strongly insisted upon by our great value, of Home Education. “ The school-bred man is of author. On this subject volumes have been, and volumes may one sort—the home-bred man is of another; and the community be, written-for we are yet far from appreciating rightly the has need of both : nor could any measures be much more to be power which the remembrances of childhood, carried into maudeprecated, nor any tyranny of fashion more to be resisted, than hood, exert upon the body, feelings, and mind. Wordsworth has such as should render a public education, from first to last, com
condensed a volume into a few well-known but immortal lines : pulsory and universal. It is found, in fact, that a quiet, firm
My heart leaps up when I behold individuality, a self-originating steadiness of purpose, a thoughtful
A rainbow in the sky:
So was it when my life began; intensity of sentiment, and a passive power, such as stems the
So is it now I am a man; tide of fashion and frivolous opinion, belong, as their ordinary
So be it when I shall grow old, characteristics, to home-bred men ; and especially to such of this
Or let me die ! class as are mainly self-taught. Now we affirm, that whatever
The child is father of the man;
And I could wish my days to be may sometimes be the rigidness or the uncompliant sternness of
Bound cach to each by natural piety.' persons of this stamp, yet that a serious, and perhaps a fatal We are all acquainted with that amusing instance of the sub
division of labour—the manufacture of dolls' eyes. “On my first say, from the richness and vivacity of the conceptive faculty, journey to London,” said Mr. Ostler, a Birmingham manufac- comes all, or nearly all, the never-failing delight of which toys turer, when before a committee of the House of Commons, are the occasion." respectable-looking man in the City asked me if I could supply We shall follow out this subject in subsequent articles ; meanhim with dolls' eyes; and I was foolish enough to feel half of time we recommend “ HOME EDUCATION” to all thoughtful and fended. I thought it derogatory to my new dignity, as a manu- intelligent parents and teachers. facturer, to make dolls' eyes. He took me into a very large room, and we had just space to walk between stacks, from the floor to the ceiling, of parts of dolls. He said, These are only the
THE VOW. legs and arms; the trunks are below.' But I saw enough to convince me that he wanted a great many eyes; and as the article
In the ancient heathen times of the Saxons, there happened appeared quite in my own line of business, I said I would take an
once a great war with the Danes. Adalbero, Duke of Saxony, order by way of experiment ; and he showed me several speci- who had counselled it, now, in the hour of earnest conflict, stood mens. I copied the order. He ordered various quantities, and at the head of his people. There flew the arrows and the javelins; of various sizes and qualities. On returning to the Tavistock there glanced many valiant blades on both sides ; and there shone Hotel, I found that the order amounted to upwards of five hun- many bright gold shields through the dark fight. But the Saxons, dred pounds."
at every attack, were repulsed, and were already so far driven This little story may be made to serve a far higher purpose, army and the country, disperse the enemy, and change a ruinous
back, that only the storming of a steep height could deliver the than merely to stand as an illustration in political and social eco
and destructive flight into a decisive victory. Adalbero conducted nomy. Why do children delight in toys! What is the source
the attack. But in vain he forced his fiery charger before the of that extraordinary demand, by which infants and children give squadron ; in vain he shouted through the field, the sacred words, the means of employment and wealth to men and women? Is it “ Freedom and Fatherland!” in vain streamed his own warm simply because the little girl is a little girl, that she finds such blood, and the blood of the foe, over his resplendent armour. delight in dressing, nursing, and putting her doll to sleep? And The ponderous mass gave way; and the enemy, secure on the is it simply because the boy is a boy, that he girds on his mimic height, rejoiced in their decided victory. Again rushed Adalbero sash and sword, blows his trumpet, and beats his drum? The
on with a few gallant warriors; again the faint-hearted fell behind; question is answered by the author of “ Home Education.” “Too
and again the enemy rejoiced.
“ It is yet time," said Adalbero ; and again he shouted, “ For. little attention has," he says, “ been given to the broad fact, that
ward! and if we conquer, I vow to the gods, to set fire to the a child's mental existence is constituted almost entirely of the
four corners of my castle, and it shall blaze forth one bright workings of the conceptive faculty. The human mind, in its first funeral-pile, in honour of our victory and of our deliverance." period, may be said to be all IDEALITY : for it is exclusively so
Again was the attack renewed, but again the Saxons fled, and during the half of its time, or more, which is passed in sleep; the enemy sent forth shouts of joy. chiefly so whenever no vivid impressions are made upon the Then cried Adalbero aloud before the whole army, “ If we senses ; and so, to a great extent, while left to find its own spark- return victorious from the charge, ye gods, I devote myself to ling felicity among its toys and gimcracks...... If we go on to you as a solemn sacrifice!” Shuddering, the warriors hastened the time when the notion of property has just got a lodgment in after him,—but fortune was still against him; the boldest fellthe mind, we may meet with a pertinent instance of the vivacity the brarest fled. Then Adalbero, in deep affliction, rallied the of the conceptive power, when the little stickler for its rights finds scattered band; and all that remained of the great and noble its own horse or doll in its brother's or sister's hand, and then, thou hast counselled this war.” Adalbero replied, “ My castle
collected round him, and spoke thus :—“Thou art our ruin! for running to find brother's or sister's horse or doll, eagerly dis
and myself I have devoted to the gods for victory, and what can cusses the question of meum and tuum ; and, notwithstanding the I more?” close resemblance of the two subjects of debate, fixes its grasp The sad multitude called only the more to him, “Thou art our upon the real and genuine meum. That is to say, this same lisp- ruin! for thou hast counselled this war." ing assertor of its rights has in its brain a picture of its plaything Then Adalbero tore open his bosom and implored the mighty so exact and particular, that it serves at any time as a tally, by god of thunder to pierce it with a thunderbolt, or to give the means of which it may recover the archetype. Yet this same victory to his army. But there came no bolt from heaven; and mental miniature of the hobby, or the rose-lipped darling, does
the squadron stood timid, and followed not the call. In boundless not merely come back, when recalled by the presence of the ori- despair, Adalbero at last said, “There remains only that which is ginal, but it floats before the internal eye, called for, and uncalled, for victory. My beautiful blooming wife,-my only heart-loved
most dear to me-wife and child I offer thee, thou God of Armies, waking and sleeping : of which further fact, with all its endless child, they belong to thee, Great Ruler in Asgard : with my own consequences, we have evidence enough ; as, for instance, when to hand will I sacrifice them to thee; but I implore thee, give me the little girl, lost in reverie, we suddenly put the question, the victory!" • What are you thinking about ?' 'About dolly.' About Scarcely were these words uttered, when, fearful thunderings dolly ?—which dolly?' 'Oh, my best dolly, that moves her eyes !' rolled over the field of battle, and clouds gathered around the Sometimes, indeed, dolly's own dear name is heard muttered in combatants ; and the Saxons, with fearful cries, shouted as with sleep ; when, as we need not doubt, the fair image is vividly pre
one voice, “ The gods are with us!” With invincible courage, sert to the fancy. Nor is this all ; for while the doating little
forward rushed the host ;-the height was carried by storm, and mama has her own dolly' on her lap, or is dressing and un
Adalbero, with sudden shudder, saw the enemy flying through the
field. dressing it, or is taking it abroad, or preparing its breakfast, and despatching it to school, the conceptive faculty is working in delivered Saxony, came wives and children forth, and with out
The conqueror returned home in triumph ; and, in all parts of another and a copious manner, and so as to involve all sorts of stretched arms, greeted their husbands and fathers. But Adalconsequences to the future character. Dolly is the heroine of a
bero knew what awaited him ; and every smile of an affectionate drama, vividly acted in the soul's little theatre. Hence, that is to wife, and every shout of a blooming child, pierced, as with a
poisoned dart, his anguished heart. At last they came before his
PARKER'S MISSIONARY TRAVELS IN THE “FAR magnificent castle. He was not able to look up, as the beautiful
WEST.” Simelde met him at the gate, with her daughter in her hand; while the little one always leapt and cried, "Father, father! beloved THE “ Far West" is a somewhat indefinite term, applied to father!"
that vast extent of territory which extends from the western Adalbero looked round on his people, in order to strengthen boundaries of the United States to the Rocky Mountains ; and himself; even there he met quivering eyelids and bitter tears; for even beyond them, to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. The among his warriors, many had heard his horrible vow. He dis- Oregon Territory” is its proper and definite appellation ; at missed them to their families, feeling what happy men he, the least, of what is known as the North-West Territory. That large most unhappy, was sending to their homes ; then rode into the portion of it which lies west of the Mississippi, to the foot of the castle, and sending the domestics away, under various pretexts, mountain range, and which is drained by the Missouri and its sprang from his horse, closed the gates with thundering sound, numerous tributaries, is an extensive level or rolling meadowsecured them carefully, and pressed his beloved wife and child to country, to which the French word “prairie” (meadow) has been his heart, shedding over them a torrent of tears.
applied ; its prairies presenting a rich undulating extent of surface, “What is the matter, husband?" said the astonished Simelde. with but few prominent landmarks, to catch the eye of the travel“Why do you weep, father?” stammered the little one. ler. The country on the other side of the mountains, towards the “We will first prepare an offering to the gods,” replied Adal Pacific, has a different aspect. “Towering mountains, and wide
extended prairies ; rich valleys, and barren plains; and large rivers bero; " and then I shall relate everything to you. Come to me
with their rapids, cataracts, and falls, present a great diversity of soon, to the hearth.”
prospect.” “I will kindle the flame, and fetch, in the meantime, the implements for sacrifice;" said the sweet Simelde; and the little one lingering remains of the aborigines of central North America
The " Far West" is becoming the repository of the last and cried out, clapping her hands, “ I also will help; I also will be the last standing-ground of the red Indian, the shaggy bison, and there !” and skipped away with her mother.
the grisly bear. The government of the United States are sending These words, “ I also will help ; I also will be there," the hero
or driving the various Indian tribes on their southern and western repeated, as, dissolved in grief, he stood by the flaming pile, with frontiers into the “ Far West,” on the principle avowed in Prehis drawn sword in his trembling hand. He lamented aloud over sident Van Buren's recently published message to Congressthe joyful innocent child, and the graceful obedient wife, who
" that a mixed occupancy of the same territory, by the white and brought the bowl and pitcher, perfuming-pan and taper, used in red man, is incompatible with the safety or happiness of either, is sacrifices.
a position, in respect to which there has long since ceased to be Then it passed through his mind, that his vow could not be room for a difference of opinion. Reason and experience have valid; for such sorrow could not find a place in the heart of man. alike demonstrated its impracticability.” The same document, But the answer was given, in dreadful peals of thunder down from which must have recently come under the eye of all our readers, heaven.
contains a detail of the transactions between the American go. “I know," said he, sighing heavily, “your thunder has assisted vernment and the Indian tribes. “I can speak,” says the Preus, and now your thunder calls on your devoted believer for the sident," from direct knowledge; and I feel no difficulty in affirmperformance of his vow."
ing that the interest of the Indians in the extensive territory em. Simelde began to tremble as the frightful truth burst upon her ; braced by them, is to be paid for at its fair value, and that no more and, with soft tears, she said, “Ah, hast thou made a vow? Ah ! favourable terms have been granted to the United States than husband, I see no victim !-shall human blood !-".
would have been reasonably expected in a negotiation with civi. Adalbero covered his eyes with both his hands, and sobbed so lised men, fully capable of appreciating and protecting their own terribly that it echoed through the hall, and the little one terrified rights. For the Indian title to 116,349,897 acres, acquired since shrunk together.
the 4th of March, 1829, the United States have paid 72,510,656 Simelde knew well of such vows, in ancient times. She looked dollars, in permanent annuities, lands, reservations for Indians, entreating to her lord, and said, “ Remove the child !”
expenses for removal and subsistence, merchandise, mechanical
and agricultural establishments, and implements. When the “ Both, both !-I must!" then murmured Adalbero ; and heavy expenses incurred by the United States, and the circumSimelde, with a violent effort, forcing back her tears, said to the
stance that so large a portion of the entire territory will be for little one, “Quick, child! and bind this handkerchief on thine
ever unsaleable, are considered, and this price is compared with eyes ; thy father has brought a present for thee, and will now give that for which the United States sell their own lands, no one can it thee.
doubt that justice has been done to the Indians in these purchases “My father looks not as if he would give me a present," also." sighed the child.
Besides defending the American government from the charges “ Thou shalt see; thou shalt see presently,” said Simelde of cruelty and oppression, which had been brought against it, the hurriedly; and as she placed the bandage over the eyes of the President speaks in the following pleasing, though rather general child, she could restrain no longer her tears, but they fell so terms, respecting the emigrants :softly, that the little one knew it not.
“ The condition of the tribes which occupy the country set apart The affectionate mother now tore the drapery from her snow. for them in the west is highly prosperous, and encourages the hope white bosom, and kneeling before the sacrificer, beckoned that she of their early civilisation. They have, for the most part, abanmight be the first victim.
doned the hunter state, and turned their attention to agricultural * Quick quick, only quick," whispered she softly to the lingerer; pursuits. All those who have been established for any length of “ else will the poor child be so terrified !”
time in that fertile region, maintain themselves by their own in. Adalbero raised the dreadful steel—then roared the thunder, dustry. There are among them traders of no inconsiderable capiand flashed the lightning through the building. Speechless sank tal,
and planters exporting cotton to some extent ; but the greater the three to the earth.
number are small agriculturists, living in comfort upon the produce As the evening breeze rushed through the broken windows, the of their farms. The recent emigrants, although they have in some little one raised her head, from whence the bandage had fallen; unavoidable destiny. They have found at once a recompense for
instances removed reluctantly, have readily acquiesced in their and said, “ Mother, what present has my father brought to me?" The sweet voice awakened both parents. All lived, and nothing | dance and comforts around them. There is reason to believe that
past sufferings, and an incentive to industrious habits, in the abun. was destroyed but Adalbero's sword, which was melted by the all these tribes are friendly in their feelings towards the United avenging flash of Heaven.
States; and it is to be hoped that the acquisition of individual " The gods have spoken !” cried the pardoned father; and, wealth, the pursuits of agriculture, and habits of industry, will with a gush of unutterable love, the three delivered ones wept in gradually subdue their warlike propensities, and incline them to each other's arms.
maintain peace among themselves. To effect this desirable object, Far distant, over the southern mountains, roared the tempest, the attention of Congress is solicited to the measures recommended where many years afterwards Saint Boniface converted unbelievers by the Secretary of War for the future government and protection, to the true faith
as well from each other as from the hostility of the warlike tribes From the German of Frederick de la Motle Fouqué. around them, and the intrusions of the whites. The policy of the
government has given them a permanent liome, and guaranteed The route was now for St. Louis, by water 690 miles from to them its peaceful and undisturbed possession. It only remains Cincinnati; on the 30th, Mr. Parker passed Louisville, a flourishto give them a government, and laws which will encourage indus- ing city near the falls of the Ohio ; it being high water, they were try, and secure to them the rewards of their exertions. The im- passed over without accident. Leaving the romantic and beautiful portance of some form of government cannot be too much insisted scenery of that noble river, they entered the Mississippi, where the upon. The earliest effects will be to diminish the causes and two streams spread out in the form of a narrow sea, and flow on occasions for hostilities among the tribes, to inspire an interest in in united grandeur. On the 4th of April, he arrived at St. Louis, the observance of laws to which they will have themselves assented, a stirring place of business on the west side of the Mississippi, and to multiply the securities of property, and the motives of self- 200 miles above the mouth of the Ohio, and 20 below the mouth improvement.' Intimately connected with this subject is the of the Missouri, in lat. 38° 36' N. and long. 89° 36' W. It is the establishment of the military defences recommended by the Secre central western depot of the American Fur Company. Adventary of War, which have been already referred to. Without them turers of almost every description of character and nation come the government will be powerless to redeem its pledges of protec- here, such as trappers, hunters, miners, and emigrants, as to a tion to the emigrating Indians against the numerous warlike tribes starting-point, to go into the still far west, many of whom seek a that surround them, and to provide for the safety of the frontier miserable fortune in the Rocky Mountains. It has 15,000 inha. settlers of the bordering states."
bitants, and its locality for trade is one of the finest in the valley The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, of the Mississippi. The author was here joined by Dr. Whitman, being desirous of obtaining accurate information respecting the who was appointed to be his associate. moral and physical characteristics of the “ Far West,” despatched The American Fur Company have about 300 persons employed an exploring party, the principals being the Rev. Samuel Parker, about the Rocky Mountains, and annually at this time despatch a and Dr. Whitman, to examine and report from personal inspection. caravan of sixty persons to convey their necessary articles of food, This was undertaken in the years 1835-37, and Mr. Parker has now clothing, &c. ; and in return bring back the produce of the year. published the results of his tour, in a volume which appeared in 1838. The travellers made arrangements to proceed with the caravan,
Mr. Parker is evidently a very honest and a very religious man. which starts from Liberty, one of the most western towns in the So sternly attached is he to the truth, that he would tear in pieces United States, whither they went by steam up the Missouri, by the finest description of Washington Irving, if he thought it was slow stages by St. Charles, Jefferson, Boonsville, Franklin, Lexnot rigidly exact. Indeed, though he is not a controversialist, he ington, &c. At Liberty commences the long journey for the hits Irving's “ Tour on the Prairies” very hard ; and Ross Cox west-where horses and men are mustered. Here much may be does not escape without a passing blow. “The license,” he says, learned of the Rocky Mountains ; and from several intelligent speaking of his own work, * given to poets and writers of romance, friends, the travellers had very encouraging accounts of the likely cannot be tolerated here, and no flights of a lively imagination, or success of missions among the various tribes of Indians scattered graphic powers in relating passing occurrences, can atone for over the widely-extended country of the " far west.” impressions which are not in accordance with truth." We shall, On the 15th of May, they commenced their journey for Council therefore, take Mr. Parker exactly as we find him ; and in giving Bluffs, directing their course N.W., and, for the last time for a our readers the accompanying abstract of his journey, beg them long period to come, lodged in the house of a civilised family. to recollect, that they are following the track of one who seems On the morrow they entered upon the Indian country, and ento us, from an inspection of his book, to be a scrupulous, intelli- camped on a prairie beyond the limits of civilisation, amidst gent, and candid writer, though his intelligence is somewhat nar- anxieties and sensations peculiarly exciting. rowed by peculiar views, and even his exactness tinged by a gene- The caravan proceeded slowly, and having crossed the east or rous sympathy with the Indians.
Little Platte, the Nodaway, and Neshnabotana rivers, journeying Mr. Parker's principal instructions were to collect all the infor. over some rich country, and meeting some of Ioway, Sioux, and mation in his power relative to the climate and productions of Fox tribes, passed down from the high rolling prairie through the the country; but especially in respect of the numbers, manners, widely extended valley of the Missouri, towards Council Bluffs, and customs of the Native Indians, with the view of ascertaining amidst scenery at once beautiful and interesting. The extraorhow far and to what extent missionary enterprise might be dif- dinary mounds which are to be seen here, which some have called fused amongst them. He was absent upwards of two years, having the work of unknown generations of men, are scattered in every journeyed 28,000 miles in his tour from the State of New York variety of form and magnitude—some conical, some elliptical, some to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and visiting the Sandwich square, and some parallelograms. If they were isolated, who would Islands on his homeward voyage. Wherever he went he found not say they are artificial ? But there are ten thousand such. The good opportunity of acquiring a knowledge of the ground he mind seeks in vain for some clue to assist it in unravelling the passed over, in which he was much assisted by the kindness of mystery. the agents of the Hudsou’s Bay Company and the American Fur They continued at Council Bluffs three weeks. At the agencyCompany; and discovered ample room for the labours of the house of the company, they met several missionaries of the Christian missionary. In the course of the work be observes :- Pawnees belonging to the American Board, and three of the " It seems apparent to any observing Christian, that the present Baptist mission sent to labour among the Otoes. While waiting is the favourable time for the introduction of the gospel and civili- the movement of the caravan, they made short excursions over sation among the natives of this wide interior. Soon the cupidity the surrounding country, gleaning intelligence as they went. The and avarice of men will make the same aggressions here as on Papillon unites with the Missouri from the east, and the Platte the east, and the deadly influence of frontier vices will interpose six miles above from the west, flowing through a rich alluvial a barrier to the religion which they now are so anxious to em- plain opening to the south and south-west, as far as the eye can brace and practise. Every circumstance combines to point out reach, where may be seen hundreds of horses, mules, and herds of the time when this work should begin, and not the least that cattle. The north is covered with woods. Few places can present which has enlisted these Indians in favour of white men, and a prospect more interesting, and when a civilised population shall made them feel their condition, in all respects, for this world as add the fruits of their industry, but few places can be more well as the coming one, is better than their own."
desirable. In respect to efforts for the religious instruction of the On the 14th of March, 1835, Mr. Parker proceeded from Indians, the author is convinced that the first impression the Ithaca, New York, by Geneva and Buffalo, to Erie, Pennsylvania. missionary makes upon them is most important. it from any Next, to Pittsburgh, the Birmingham of America, 'situated at the motives, or from any cause, instruction is delayed and their confluence of the Alleghany
and Monongahela rivers, 960 miles expectations are disappointed, they relapse into their native apatby, above the mouth of the Ohio, where he arrived on the 25th. from which it is difficult to arouse them. The Indians of this Then to Cincinnati, 455 miles, by the steamer, gently down the part of the Sioux country,
are the Omahas upon the Missouri, Ohio, calling at Wheling, a considerable manufacturing town. Ma- about 2000; the Yanktons, about 2000, on the Vermilion river, rietta, 76 miles below Wheling, a little above the confluence of the where it unites with the Missouri from the north ; the Ponca Muskingum, is one of the earliest-settled towns in the state. On Indians on the south side, 800 ; then there are the
Santas Yankthe 27th, he stopped at Maysville, Kentucky, and on the following tonas, Tetons Ogallalahs, Siones, and the Hankpapes. The day arrived at Cincinnati. This is a large city for a new country, aggregate numbers of these tribes may be 40 to 60,000. The its settlement being so late as 1789. Commerce and manufac" Mandans are a more stationary tribe than the others, and hold tures are carried on to a large extent, and religion and morals are out good opportunities for missionary exertion. well sustained by the character of its institutions.
Journeying west, the Black Hills is the next principal stopping