Imagens das páginas

virtues. In various publications he defends his memory, and Newgate had no terrors for De Foe. He continued to write his celebrates his praise. “ His name," says he, " is a word of con- “ Review” in an unsubdued tone. The Tories, mortified by his gratulation ; and The immortal memory of King William will be a wit and satire, “ tried hard to enlist him in their service; but he health as long as drinking healths is suffered in this part of the preferred poverty to the shame of serving a cause that his soul world.”

abhorred,' and remained in durance while they were in power. From this time De Foe's pen became exceedingly prolific, and Some time after Harley's accession to office, the queen, through tract after tract kept pouring from the press on almost every topic him, became acquainted with De Foe's merits, and was made conthat started into notice : it would be endless to enumerate them. scious of the injustice of his punishment, which she now appeared Among these was the celebrated piece of grave irony called the desirous to mitigate. For this purpose she sent relief to his wife “Shortest Way with the Dissenters” (published anonymously), and family through Lord Godolphin ; sent him a sufficient sum by which all parties were at first imposed upon. It met with for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his disapplause in the two Universities as the work of a violent Church- charge from prison.” man, while the Dissenters became alarmed lest the measures re- Almost any other man than De Foe would have sunk under the commended should be actually put in execution. Under this trials and persecutions to which he was hourly and daily exposed impression they joined in the general outcry against the author. for many years, by the unceasing malice of his political enemies. De Foe complained " how hard it was that his intentions should Not only was he subjected to their slander and abuse, but threatnot have been perceived by all the town; and that not one man ened with violence. His writings were misquoted, even reprinted could see it, either Churchman or Dissenter.” Mr. Chalmers in the most garbled manner to suit party purposes. His works observes, “This is one of the strongest proofs how much the minds pirated and hawked about to prevent his receiving emolument from of men were inflamed against each other, and how little the virtues ihem ; his property intercepted, and made away with in the most of mutual forbearance and personal kindness existed amidst the lawless manner. He was obliged to withhold his name from his clamour of contradiction which then shook the kingdom, and gave works to ensure their reaching the public. His Reviews were rise to some of the most remarkable events in our annals." A stolen out of the Coffee-houses to prevent their being read. His proclamation was issued, offering 501. for De Foe's apprehension. printer and publisher were threatened with extinction for their conA formal complaint was also made to the House of Commons, nexion with him. His debts were bought up that proceedings who ordered the book to be burned by the common hangman in might be had against him. However, with undaunted courage he New Palace-yard. The printer and bookseller being taken into set his face against all that came across his path, and he continued custody, De Foe surrendered. His wit was construed into a libel, to lash the vices of the age with an unsparing hand. and nothing but weakness or wickedness on the part of the bar, De Foe wrote, in 1706, voluminously on the subject of the bench, and jury, can account for the issue of the trial. Party union with Scotland, and acquired ministerial favour, which opened feeling pervaded even the seat of justice, as was apparent in the the way for him to be received into the service of the queen. His severity of his sentence, which was, " that he pay a fine of acquirements and his general knowledge pointed him out as a fit 200 marks to the queen ; stand three times in the pillory; be person for a mission to Scotland, and he was received there in a imprisoned during the queen's pleasure ; and find sureties for his character almost diplomatic. His labours in that country progood behaviour for seven years." De Foe was particularly hurt cured him great approbation. While in Edinburgh, he published with the Dissenters : of them he says, “ All the fault I can find “ Caledonia, &c., A poem in honour of Scotland and the Scots in myself as to these people is, that when I had drawn the picture, nation.” Of the Union he says, in his Review, “ I have told I did not, like the Dutchman with his man and bear, write under Scotland of improvement in trade, wealth, and shipping, that shall them, This is the man, and this is the bear, lest the people should accrue to them on the happy conclusion of this affair ; and I am mistake me : and having, in a compliment to their judgment, pleased doubly with this, that I am likely to be one of the first men shunned so sharp a reflection upon their senses, I have left them that shall give them the pleasure of the experiment." During his at liberty to treat me like one that put a value upon their penetra- residence in Scotland the “ Review" continued to be regularly tion at the expense of my own. The pillory was no disgrace to him, published. for, contrary to the expectations of his enemies, he was greeted De Foe returned to London in January 1708, and was rewarded with triumphant acclamations by the populace; and “the mob, with an appointment and a fixed salary, but he visited Scotland instead of pelting him, resorted to the unmannerly act of drinking several times during that and the following year. When the Union his health." De Poe, undaunted, published on the very day of was completed, he published in Scotland the first edition of “The his exhibition “ A Hymn to the Pillory.“ In this ode," says Union of Great Britain,” folio, pp. 685. Mr. Chalmers, “the reader will find satire pointed by his suffer- In his Review, De Foe gave discourses concerning trade from ings, generous sentiments arising from his situation, and an time to time, which excited great interest. Of the unproductive unexpected flow of easy verse.

.” In this he had ample revenge classes of society he writes, “ When I am describing the people," upon his enemies. Cibber remarks, that “ As the ministry did says he, “I mean not the passive, good for nothing, who walk not think proper to prosecute him for this fresh insult against starving through the thoroughfare of life, and have no share in the them, that forbearance was construed a confession of guilt in their active part of it, leaving no notice to posterity that ever they have former proceedings."

been here ; but the people who labour, or employ those that Till this befell him, and his being imprisoned, De Foe was in labour; trade, or assist those that trade ; enjoy, or assist them good circumstances, and could keep his coach ; but he was now that enjoy this life, like men, like benefactors to their country, and ruined in business, and lost 35001. While in Newgate, he studied like Christians assisting futurity by laying up funds of wealth, and the habits and pursuits of the prisoners, which he made so good improvements for posterity, and a posterity instructed to manage use of on future occasions; and engaged himself in the composition them." of various political works. The Reformation in Scotland also was De Foe informs us that Church-politics now became the order now a favourite study of De Foe; and, as will be seen, he had of the day; that women and children, and the very street-gentry, afterwards an active part assigred him in advocating the Union of arranged themselves in the hostile attitudes of party. The followthe two kingdoms, when he spent much of his time in Scotland : ing is a curious picture of the times :-" The women lay aside their was exceedingly partial to the country, its inhabitants, their tea and chocolate, leave off visiting after dinner, and, forming manners, and form of religion, and wrote largely on the contests themselves in cabals, turn privy-councillors, and settle the affairs of the opposing parties. It was likewise while in prison that he of state. Every lady of quality has her head more particularly full projected his “ Review," a periodical work of four 4to pages, of business than usual ; nay, some of the ladies talk of keeping which was published for nine successive years without intermission, female secretaries, and none will be fit for the office but such as during the greater part of the time three times a week, and without can speak French, Dutch, and which is worse, Latin.' Gallantry having received any assistance whatever in its production; an and gaiety are now laid aside for business ; matters of government extraordinary undertaking for one man, when his various literary and affairs of state are become the province of the ladies ; and no and other employments are taken into account. Throughout this wonder they are too much engaged to concern themselves about work he carried on an unsparing warfare against folly and vice in the common impertinencies of life. Indeed, they have hardly all their forms and disguises, and, but for the mass of temporary leisure to live, little time to eat and sleep, and none at all to say matter with which it is encumbered, it would have long outlived their prayers. If you turn your eye to the park, the ladies are not its day. It pointed the way to the Tatlers, Spectators, and Guar- there; even the church is thinner than usual, for you know, the dians, and may be referred to as containing a vast body of matter mode is for privy-councils to meet on Sundays. The very playon subjects of high interest, written with great spirit and vigour. house feels the effect of it; and the great Beiterton died a beggar on this account. Nay, the Tatler, the immortal Tatler, the great sinking fast in health, and was tormented by the gout and stone, Bickerstaff himself, was fain to eave off talking to the ladies, which in a few months brought his troubles to a final close. For during the Doctor's trial,* and turn his sagacious pen to the dark some time previous to his death, his affairs had become again subject of death and the next world; though he has not decided deranged, and he was separated from his family. the ancient debate, whether Pluto's regions were, in point of De Foe's character will stand the severest test. His numerous government, a kingdom or a commonwealth.” De Foe was now writings proclaim his worth ; and posterity will bestow on him the residing at Stoke Newington, in easy circumstances, which place he credit and fame that his contemporaries denied him. In the left for a time to proceed to Scotland on the business of the go-storms that he had to withstand, he maintained a serenity of mind, vernment. While in Edinburgh, the corporation, grateful for his inspired by conscious rectitude. “He that cannot live above the former services, empowered him to publish the Edinburgh scorn of scoundrels," says he, “is not fit to live ; dogs will bark, Courant. This was the second newspaper published in Scotland, and so they shall, without lessening one moment of my tranquilprojected by James Watson, in 1705. The first was the Edin- lity." Temperate himself, he denounces drunkards as “philosoburgh Gazelle, established by the same writer, and printed by phers in wickedness," and ridicules swearing as that “ frenzy of authority in 1699. Affairs of more importance soon recalled De the tongue, in which there is neither pleasure nor profit.” His Foe to London.

religious scruples led him to discourage the theatre, the ball-room, The following is a curious specimen of how his conduct was and the card-table. De Foe was no friend to the doctor, thinking watched and punished even by private individuals :—“On board that unassisted nature, with temperance, would in most cases effect of a ship,” says he, “ I loaded some goods. The master is a a cure ; he therefore advises people to let their friends die a whig, of a kind more particular than ordinary. He comes to the natural death. port, my bill of lading is produced, my title to my goods undis. puted ; no claim, no pretence, but my goods cannot be found. The

A THANKSGIVING FOR HIS HOUSE. ship sailed again, and I am told my goods are carried back, and

LORD, thou hast given me a cell, all the reason given is, that they belong to De Foe, author of the

Wherein to dwell ; Review, and he is turned about, and writes for keeping up the

A little house, whose humble roof public credit. Thus, gentlemen, I am ready to be assassinated,

Is weather-proof, arrested without warrant, robbed and plundered by all sides ; I

Under the spars of which I lie can neither trade nor live; and what is this for? Only, as I

Both soft and dry. can yet see, because there being faults on both sides, I tell both

Where Thou, my chamber soft to ward, sides of it too plainly." He sums up the scenes of his life in

Hast set a guard this distich :

Of harmless thoughts to watch and keep
« No man has tasted different fortunes more,

Me while I sleep.
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor."

Low is my porch, as is my fate,
In the midst of his other avocations, De Foe now gave to the

Both void of state. world a considerable work—“ The Present State of Parties in Britain, &c.He was again the subject of a prosecution, and

And yet the threshold of my door

Is worn by the poor, under the pretence of writing libels in favour of the Pretender, was

Who thither come and freely get committed to Newgate ; but the government took the matter out

Good words, or meat. of the hands of the instigator, and he was soon released.

Like as my parlour, so my hall After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had now been a poli

And kitchens small; tical writer for thirty years, gradually left that field to others, beating

A little butterie, and therein out for himself a new path to fame. In bidding adieu to politics,

A little byn, De Foe considered he had an account to settle at parting. The

Which keeps my little loaf of bread ill-usage he had received from both friends and enemies, was greatly

Unclipt, unflead; aggravated by the misconstruction that had been put upon his

Some brittle sticks of thorn or briar writings; he therefore furnishes a defence of his life and conduct,

Make me a fire ; in " An Appeal to Honour and Justice ;' but before he had fully

Close by whose living coal I sit, completed it, he was struck with apoplexy. The ill-treatment he

And glow like it. had received, it was believed, was the accelerating cause of the

Lord, I confess too, when I dine, calamity. His friends, however, published the tract. De Foe

The pulse is thine ; eventually recovered from the attack, and regained sufficient health

And all those other bits that be and vigour of mind to delight the world by his writings.

There placed by thee. In 1715 appeared “The Family Instructor," which was followed

The worts, the purslain, and the messe by many others, which were well received. In 1719, Robinson

Of water cresse, Crusoe, after making a circuit of the trade for a purchaser, was

Which of thy kindness thou hast sent, published, and in four months there were as many editions,—the bookseller clearing a thousand pounds by the bargain. This work

And my content, is now to be found in most languages of Europe, and gives delight

Makes those, and my beloved beet,

To be more sweet. even to the Arab. De Foe, now sixty years of age, lived to be the author of nearly fifty separate works, as may be seen in the

'Tis Thou that crown'st my glittering hearth

With guiltless mirth,
Chronological List prefixed to Mr. Wilson's “Memoirs.” “ The

And giv'st me wassail bowles to drink
Life and Adventures of Captain Singleton," “ The Fortunes and
Misfortunes of the famous Moll Flanders," ""Life of Colonel

Spiced to the brink.

Lord ! 'tis thy plenty-dropping hand “ Roxana, or the Fortunate Mistress," “ The History

That soiles my land, of the Plague,” “Christian Conversation," " Religious Court

And giv'st me for my bushel sowne, ship,” Tour through Britain,” “The Complete Tradesman,'

Thrice ten for one. &c. In many of his latter writings he assumes the name of Andrew Moreton, Esq., that his own name might not mar the

Thou makest my teeming hen to lay

Her egg each day, success and usefulness that might otherwise attend them. When

Besides my healthful ewes to bear in bis sixty-seventh year, in the preface to a pamphlet, he alludes

Me twins each year ; to his age and infirmities :—"I hope the reader will excuse the vanity of an officious old man, if, like Cato, I inquire whether or

The while the conduits of my kine

Run cream for wine. no I can yet do anything for the service of my country.”

All these, and better Thou dost send No subject--no circumstance, escaped De Foe's watchful eye.

Me, to this end, Popular prejudice, public impostures, notorious characters, ghosts,

That I should render for my part miracles, magic, whatever was uppermost in the minds of the

A thankful heart, public, were forthwith made the vehicles for conveying moral truths. The sale of his latter works was immense, and for some

Which, fired with incense, I resign time his circumstances must have been easy. He however was

As wholly thine ;

But the acceptance ! that must be, * The trial of the celebrated Dr. Sacheverel,

My Christ, by Thee.--Herriok.


come to

WEATHER ALMANACS AND THE LAW OF STORMS. law of the weather, but the great law of the universe, another far

While Mr. Murphy professes to bave discovered not merely the Mr. Murphy may be considered as standing in relation to the more practical observer has been confining himself to a particular yet up formed science of meteorology, in much the same capacity department of meteorology, “the law of storms.” Mr. Murphy that one of the old enthusiastic alchymists may be considered to begs to add the mite of his approval as to the general soundness have stood in relation to chemistry. It is decidedly doing him of his (Col. Reid's) views, but more particularly in regard to the injustice to call him a "quack.” He is not a quack ; he is simply doctrine of the vortex, as being the figure described by a storm. an enthusiast in a department of science, presenting a large and most But Colonel Reid himself does not advance his own theory or interesting field of observation, and which requires the combined " views" as being “sound,” i. e. established, but rather as a propowers of many intelligent and scientific observers for many years bable opinion, apparently supported by a number of facts, and to come. One of the dictionary definitions of a quack is, “ therefore worthy of receiving a more extended and searching invesboastful pretender to arts which he does not understand;" and the tigation. Colonel Reid, who belongs to the Royal Engineers, was "scientific notices” appended by Mr. Murphy to his almanacs employed to restore government buildings at Barbadoes, which are not calculated to impress the reailer with a favourable opinion were blown down by a tremendous hurricane in 1831. This led of the writer. We are apt to associate clearness of expression him to study the subject of storms. In seeking for information, with distinctness of idea ; and the very indifferent English which he found a theory suggested in a work on Winds and Monsoons, Mr. Murphy uses conveys the impression, that the writer is by Colonel Capper, which was published in 1801. This theory wrapping up his thoughts in a vague, incoherent jargon, in order seemed to him a reasonable one, and to be supported by a variety to mistify his readers. But whoever will take the trouble of of facts, and he therefore set about endeavouring to ascertain what disentangling Mr. Murphy's meaning from his language, will find result a much more extensive collection of facts would yield, either that his "theory of the universe" is ingenious, however fanciful by way of strengthening or destroying the theory. To this task he it may be.

set himself with zeal, earnestness, and industry; and, amongst Mr. Murphy attempts to do what has been attempted before, other modes of research, examined the “ logs" of a great number and, by cleverer men than himself, to upset the Newtonian doctrine of ships which had encountered violent storms. Besides furnishing of gravitation. It is rather an arduous task : but let him accom- a paper on the subject to the British Association for the Advanceplish it, and he may well afford to bear a temporary shower of ment of Science, at its last meeting in Newcastle, he has published banter and ridicule. Should the “ Weather Almanac"

a book-—"An attempt to develop the Law of Storms by means of supplant the “ Principia," no ordinary immortality awaits its | facts, arranged according to place and time; and hence to point author. If Mr. Murphy, to use his own words, can “shew the out a cause for the variable winds, with a view to practical use in futility of the principle of gravitation, considered as the source of navigation." planetary movement," let him do so, we do not believe that he The reader may often have observed, in a gusty day, the dust will find any predilection for the “principle" apart from the on a road caught up by the wind, and made to perform a kind of evidence on which it rests. Mere reverence for authority will not whirling motion, at the same time that it is carried along. This stand in the way of successful promulgation of his “first cause may serve as an illustration of Colonel Reid's “ law of storms. in physics,” or his “electricity and magnetism considered as the He thinks that those hurricanes in warm climates, whose tremenprimary active forces of nature in the sun and planets,” if they dous effects we know more by report than by experience, are are based on demonstrative evidence.

whirlwinds revolving on their own axes, but having a progressive Mr. Murphy's “ Weather Almanac" for 1839 shows a number motion. On this theory, a hurricane has a double motion, like of improvements, as compared with its predecessor. There is that of a planet,-a rotary motion, “whirling as a wheel," and an evidently as much reliance placed on its general usefulness as an onward motion, moving through a given space. The storms are almanac, to insure its sale, as on the weather predictions. The supposed to rise near the equator, and to whirl towards the poles, " trade" gossip on the subject of the sale is, that of the one for gradually losing their whirling or circling form as they move 1838, there were 60,000 copies sold; and that 20,000 copies of north or south—those which move towards the north pole, or in the one for 1839 were calculated upon, as being likely to "go off." the northern hemisphere, whirling or revolving from east to west, One of the improvements in the new almanac shows considerable and those which move towards the south pole, or in the southern tact : for, whether Mr. Murphy obtains his results by “ calcula- hemisphere, whirling from west to east. This is supposed to tion” upon certain discovered principles; or, like the sensible explain many of the remarkable circumstances which are often author of a “ Historical, Moral, and Weather Almanac,” by observed during a hurricane in the West Indies. Occasionaliy, a careful examination of meteorological tables for a series of years, particular spot in the very heart of a storm will escape without there is considerable likelihood, that, with ordinary care, such a | injury, while all around has been desolated. In other places, general correctness may be obtained, as to satisfy the majority, during the progress of a hurricane, the wind appears to blow from who do not compare actual and predicted results very rigidly. opposite points of the compass. In the first case,

the spot is Last year formed a decided exception to this general rule ; for the inclosed in a kind of magic ring, the storm raging round it

, but lucky coincidence of the "great frost,” which attracted such not upon it; in the second case the shifting of the wind is the attention to Mr. Murphy's almanac at the beginning of the year, result of the revolving motion of the storm. caused a more watchful inspection than would otherwise have been Should this theory of the circular and progressive motion of exercised; while the unusual irregularity of the seasons put the hurricanes be established as an actual fact, or

law,” it may predictions very much out. But, either in perfect confidence in ultimately be turned to great“ practical use in navigation." the soundness of his views, or acting upon the general rule of But it will require observations much more extended and much more there being a chance of general correctness, Mr. Murphy has minute to establish the theory: for though Colonel Reid has done boldly supplied the purchasers of his almanac with blank very much, as an individual, it will be necessary to obtain the columns, in which they may enter their own daily observations labours of many individuals completely to develop it. In his on the state of the weather, alongside of the printed predic- work, however, he has brought together a very great number of tions. We would urge our readers to act on the suggestion, facts illustrative of the subject; and the admirably lucid manner and to become weather registrars, not for the mere comparatively in which he has treated it is an example to all practical scientific men. paltry purpose of finding whether predictions given out in almanacs are right or wrong, but for the higher purpose of forming a very useful habit. In our present very ignorant state with regard The great number of persons afflicted with dyspepsia are to be to the causes of meteoric phenomena, such habits, adopted and stea- found among care-wom speculators, stock-brokers, and ardent dily maintained by a large portion of the reading community, would students; or among those whose nervous system has, by injudicious help to stimulate philosophical investigation, by an assurance of a education, been too greatly developed, and rendered readily exlarger audience to which scientific observers could appeal, and also citable. There can be no doubt that sedentary habits concur with by contributing an additional number of accurate and trustworthy mental excitement in producing this disease ; but exercise derives observations to the general stock now available for the purposes of much of its utility to them by determining the blood from the scientific men.

The habit itself would be found to be useful, head to the extremities. So long as excessive mental excitement without any reference to the recorded observations being of the is kept up, but little relief can be obtained by the strictest attenslightest value. A few minutes would suffice each day for the pur- tion to dietetics. Abstinence from mental toil, cheerful company, pose ; and there are many persons to whom the keeping of a diary a country excursion, and relaxation of mind, will soon accomplish of observations on the weather, seasons, &c.. would be of more real a cure, where all the dietetic precepts and medicines in the world advantage than keeping a record of personal feelings.

would prove inefficacious.


In a

means of education, and from the struggle for existence, that a PROSPECTS AND DUTIES OF OUR YOUNG MEN.

nomadic spirit will grow up with our youth, and that a large Steam and railroads are turning the entire population of Eng. portion of the working population will become mere wanderers, land into a marching regiment. There was once a time when a the gipsies of civilisation. Workmen settled in some particular man might have acquired a little reputation by venturing away locality have something to care for; they may have wives and from home; he could return and make his fellows wonder “ with children, or if single, have acquaintances, friends, employers, to a foolish face of praise" at all he had seen and heard. But every whom they are known, and a specific character to maintain. But body travels now—he who has been“ nowhere” feels himself the wanderers have little feeling or affection for any one ; they are becoming quite ridiculous. Even Hodge has an itching to venture isolated creatures, shut up in themselves, and wedded perhaps to farther than the neighbouring market-town ; and already, to travel mean and coarse enjoyments ; and broken down in moral prin. by that venerable conveyance, the waggon, is becoming about as ciple, hard-hearted and selfish, they go hither and thither over the whimsical as to ride upon a file. The sanctities of remoteness are whole breadth of the land; and, as was said of the wits in the all removing ; old associations are breaking up ; places that once early period of English literature, they live men know not how, had a shadowy and mysterious character are becoming plain, and they die men know not where. palpable and distinct; the " distance" that “lent enchantn.ent Now, if we have the good fortune to address but a few hunto the view,” is taken away; and that garrulous old man, the dreds out of the two millions of youths in the empire, we would

aveller, is losing all his consequence, and becoming a common say to such of them as are becoming impatient of home, and long place and very ordinary personage.

to ayail themselves of steam-boats and railroads in changing their All young men have a natural desire to travel. Some “green habitation-Consider well what you are about, before you take a island” of imagination is ever holding out to them its tempting step that now seems so easy. He, doubtless, is a simpleton who aspect, and inviting them to venture forth. They have a passionate sits at home, when employment may be obtained abroad. desire to go abroad from their homes, some to seek their fortunes, proper state of society, he might go anywhere, sceking for a restothers to “survey the world," and mark men and manners. ing-place; to a man of enlarged views, who considers that God Such a feeling is very strong amongst young men who have to formed the earth to be inhabited, and that wherever he can extract earn their bread by the labour of their hands. They get tired, the means of comfortable existence, and fulfil his duties as a for a time, of their native places ; home becomes too homely for human being, there he may go, and make it his country and his them, at that time when the shell of non-age is burst, and the home, it may be, and it ought to be, a matter of comparative youth is thrown npon his own resources In former days, many indifference whether he remaics in England or settles in Australia. a youth had to crush such desires in the bud ; and those who, But this is a very different thing from the mere rambling of which overcoming the expense, and unawed by the risk of the experi. we are speaking. A young man suddenly quits his native place, ment, contrived to ramble over the country, visited London, or and comes to London ; he has come out, as it were, from the even Paris, were regarded on their return, by their home-keeping trade-wind in which his bark of life has sailed; he enters this fellow-workmen, with something of the feeling with which a member 'great city, this mighty city," a stranger, without a friend, and of the Traveller's Club, who has merely crossed the Alps, looks with scarcely an acquaintance ; and he finds himself in the midst upon a fellow-member who has touched at Nova Zembla, or been of two millions of his fellow-creatures, all of whom have their own on a voyage of discovery to the Antarctic occan.

wanis, interests, and concerns to attend to. He may obtain employBut now, we have only to put our precious selves on board a ment, for the field of labour is large ; but if he is impatient of the steam-boat, or take a seat in one of the carriages of a railroad time which it requires to establish himself, to make himself known, train, and away we go, we scarcely know where sometimes, and we or becomes discouraged by the fluctuations in the share of work sometimes scarcely care. The ancient, standing on the shore, as he is aðle to obtain, he may start away to some other district, it were, and watching the receding iide, mourns over the destruc- wandering from London to Birmingham, or Leeds, or Liverpool, tion of that sentimental seclusiveness, which threw over even crossing the channel to Dubiin, or turning to Edinburgh or physical nature a sort of moral haze and dimness; but the modern Glasgow, and in his progress perhaps contracts habits destructive claps his hands, laughs aloud for joy, tells you how the market of of all his future peace and comfort. labour and the market of produce are brought now almost to a The truth is, with all the benefits which steam and railroads level nearly all over the empire ; how prejudices are melting away, are imparting to us, they are also, in our crowded community, and provincial peculiarities vanishing; how trade and commerce productive of serious evil. We are driven too fast; and each are multiplying, and making out for themselves new channels man, in trying to keep his own feet, cares but little about his daily ; and how, hour by hour, public opinion is augmented, until neighbour falling. Men become intensely concentrated in them. it becomes like a stone cut out of the mountain without hands, selves; their own feelings and enjoyments become their chief and hurledagainst the image of gold, and iron, and clay, breaks concern and their chief good ; while that very facility of comit in pieces.

munication, which is knitting the extremities of the empire, is disWhat influence will all this ease and facility of communication jointing the population. It may be a good thing for our popula. have upon our young men ? Taking our population to amount, tior. to become fused, if the process is safely and effectually com. at present, to 26,000,000, there are, out of that number, about pleted—but the experiment in its progress is a dangerous one. two millions of young men from the age of fifteen to twenty-one. While it is going on, the youth of the present day, who are to be There are, at least, a million of them who have to depend exclu. the men of to-morrow, are peculiarly exposed to the deleterious sively on themselves, and who are looking about, and revolving in influences. their minds what they shall do the moment they become MEN. One of these is the habits of expense and appearance which The labour-market is crowded—the impulse of the demand for the young men are contracting far beyond their means. There are means of existence comes in aid of the natural inclination at that many young men, who are not in affluent but in comfortable cirtime of life to venture away from home ; and the facility of com- cumstances. compared with age and station in life. But instead munication opens a wide door for the gratification of the wish. of being moderate in their expenditure, and looking forward to Instead of hundreds, we shall have thousands of young men per- futurity, they not merely live to-day, letting the morrow care for petually on the move; thousands of half-educated young men, itself, but they take care that to-morrow shall find them embarwith moral principles but slightly fixed, snapping with ease, and rassed, if not ruined. Oh, it is so easy now to “ leave town" without the slightest consideration, all those ties of relationship for a little ; everybody does so, and why should not youths and local restraint, which often serve a man instead of defined with 1001. or 1501. a year ? Are they, forsooth, to be conprinciples. There is, therefore, a danger, with our present limited tented with a poor cockney excursion to Greenwich, or Graves


end, or Margate, when all the world is climbing the mountains Young men, help yourselves! Stand aloof from whatever is of Wales and Scotland, travelling the long,' monotonous, dusty degrading to personal character, for, as a body, you will never rise road between Boulogne and Paris ; or steaming it to Rotter-without 'the individual virtues. Aspire high, not in pretence, but dam and the Rhine? So off they go, in the proper travelling sea- in reality. Get all the knowledge you can, but do not vainly try son, each man during his absence standing on tip-toe, and striving to get all knowledge, for that is beyond the reach of the most to appear what he is not. When they return to the desk, they laborious student, dedicating all his faculties and time to the work. must still hug themselves with the delusion, that they are gentle- Avoid that mental trick of the age, by which, owing to the diffusion men, and can afford to drink their wine. So they congregate in of knowledge, men are supposed to know everything; and, therecoffee-houses, and other places of resort; they patronize landlords fore, they disguise their ignorance, as the Indian conceals his track and waiters ; learn the trick of accommodation bills, and become through the forest, by covering the prints of his footsteps with familiar with the Insolvent-Court. It is not of the merely vicious leaves. If your lot in life is laborious, you must content youryoung men that we now speak—the haunters of gaming-houses, selves with something like a superficial knowledge of many things : and the frequenters of third-rate hotels—but of young men whose but it is better that you should have a general idea of what is doing general conduct entitles them to the appellation of “respectable.” in the world, than remain ignorant, from the fear of being called What a miserable thing it is, that in London, in the very beart of smatterers. Personally, take care of yourselves---keep your heads all the intelligence of the age, there should be so many youths up. Let the tablet of imagination be kept clean and unstainedentering on a course of railroad extravagance, and for the sake of have no inner chambers of imagery within the temple of the heart, seeming to be what they are not in early life, becoming far less where, in silence and in secrecy, ye turn to worship the foul gods. than they might be all their lives after !

Shun illicit pleasuresSome intelligent youth may say, it is all very well to lecture ; but

“I waive the quantum o' the sin, what are we to do, who are only the straws and feathers that float

The hazard o' concealing, on the stream and current of society? We reply-Much, every way.

But oh! it hardens a' within, The youth who is determined to be a man, need not be altogether

And petrifies the feeling." the slave of circumstances, even though society should be running Some of our readers may lay us down with a smile, and perhaps on a railroad. The young men of the present day have a greater one or two with that bad expression in a young man- a sneer. necessity, and are furnished with more ample means, than were the But if the eye of one generous-minded youth light on our paper, youth of the past, to exercise a provident forethought. Why, for perhaps he may be moved to implore the benign influence of instance, should a young man inconsiderately choose an overloaded Almighty God, that he may become a man. And if, turning profession, when, by the exercise of a little inquiry and a little round to his companions, he speak to them with a man's voice, the judgment, he might foresee that it will keep him a poor impover- influence may spread farther than writer or reader dreams. Thus, ished slave all his days ? How painful is it, to see intelligent young dear young friends, for we speak to you in the earnestness of our men jostling each other in the crowded walks of law, medicine, or souls, shall you give hope to your elder fellows in the present day; mercantile pursuits ! All subordinate government situations are and when the palsy of age is benumbing our faculties, our dim hunted after hy packs of clamorous applicants ; and hundreds of eyes will be gladdened by the sight of a generation destined yet young men, educated, intelligent, in the spring-time of life, with to be the strength of Britain, the “salt” of our country. feelings warm and generous, and anxious to get what they consider a decent corner to sit down in, are wasting away their time, and (We intend occasionally to devote a portion of our Journal to American pining under the influence of hope deferred. Look into that splen- literature. This we propose to accomplish, not by formal criticism, unless

some special occasion should seem to call for it, nor even by interposing our did shop, hung round with India shawls, silk dresses, crape and

own opinion in any form, beyond an occasional brief expression of approbation cambric, “ mousseline de laine," Irish linen, ribbons, &c., with or dissent : but by selecting specimens, 'both in prose and poetry, which its cloth and blanket “departments.” Perhaps fifty young men

will enable our readers to form their own judgment, and at the same time, are there, all dressed out with superfluous elegance, their faces give variety and relief to our columns. We commence with an interesting

Tale, taken from The Token, one of the American annuals.] tutored into smiles, and lavishing their blandishments on the customers. The watchful eye of the superintendant, or “shop

THE REBEL OF THE CEVENNES. walker," as he is somewhat significantly termed, is ever glancing It was in the year 1703, whilst Louis the Fourteenth was round, to see that all are “pushing" business, and suffering no engaged in hostilities with foreign powers, that a domestic war of customer to go away unsatisfied, whether he or she has come to singular character was bafiling the skill of one of his bravest spend five pounds or sixpence. Surely these young men are happy generals in the south of France. The persecuted Huguenots had -so handsomely dressed are they, so bustling, so affable, and been scattered abroad, carrying with them to other climes their polite. Follow them up to their dormitory in the garrets, for the indomitable valour and all-enduring faith, -and much, too, that establishment is a sort of man-milliner's priory, and our youths France might have been glad to retain, for the sake of her own best are all monks of the counter, who dare not marry, though they interests,-their industrious habits, their skill in useful arts, and have taken no vow of celibacy. Mark how the system of herding their correct morals. A few of their expelled clergy had had the them together is crushing out self-respect! A canker-worm is ever courage to return; but, deprived of the wisest and best of the at their hearts, for they feel as if they were shut out from partici. Protestant party, the untutored mountaineers of the Cevennes had pation in many of the charities of life: yet if they complain aloud, become the prey of designing or deluded fanatics. A strange there are half-a-dozen competitors ready to step into each man's madness had broken out among them ; prophets and prophetesses shoes! Why should a young man, having no ulterior views, and had appeared, and the people listened to the voices of women and without the means of bettering his condition, tie himself to such a children, as to oracles. When the arm of military discipline was “profession" as this* ?

raised to lash or crush them into submission, the undaunted spirit

of mountain liberty blazed up; and heroes sprung forth from the * It is stated that in London alone, there are no less than twenty thousand lined-drapers'" assistants." These young men have lately been making laudable half-hour; but to be seen in crowds, of an evening, sauntering up and down the exertions to abridge their hours of labour ; and certainly, to be confined streets of the metropolis smoking cigars, or indulging in idle and profane ribaldry, bebind the counter from thirteen to sixteen hours a-day, must leave them is surely no evidence of a profitable employment of leisure time. But we have quite incapable of any mental exertion. They may, perhaps, succeed in little hope of the concession becoming general and permanent. Employers are inducing the more independent, and what are termed "respectable" firms, themselves the slaves of circumstances; “ profit” and “ loss" too closely to shut up their establishments earlier in the evenings, and to allow their meet together, for even a half hour not to be of importance; and we fear that exhausted shopmen an additional interval of relaxation ; if so, we beseech permanent help must come from without, not within. Young men must not them, for their own sakes, to give no handle to any avaricious employer to rush to be linen-drapers' assistants, merely because they think the business to withdraw the indulgence. Very far would we be from grudging a cheerful be « genteel.”

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