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and act, might he live over his days again : intermixed with the troubles and disturbances he met with in the world. He has ner discoveries the author has made in his travels abroad, and writ more than most men can read in a lifetime.” in his private conversation at home. Together with the lives and Of Ridpath, the political writer, he says:-“He is a considercharacters of a thousand persons now living in London, &c. able scholar, and well acquainted with the languages. He is a digested into seven stages, with their respective ideas."
Scotchman, and designed, first of all, for the ministry; but by " He that has all his own mistakes confessid,
some unfortunate accident or other, the fate of an author came Scands next to him that never has transgressid,
upon him. He has written much; his style is excellent ; and his And will be censured for a fool by none
humility and his honesty have established his reputation. He But they who see no errors of their own."
writes the Flying Post,' which is highly valued and sells well. De Foe's Satire upon Himsel, p. 6.
It was this ingenious gentleman that invented the Polygraphy, This work, containing a narrative of his own history, was
or writing engine, by which one may, with great facility, write written while Dunton was under the necessity of secreting himself from his creditors. It is a very curious performance. It ferent sheets of paper at once."
two, four, six, or more copies of any one thing upon so many difwas first published by S. Malthus in 1705 ; and, with selections
“ Mr. Daniel De Foe is a man of good parts and very clear from his other works, was reprinted by Mr. Nichols of Parlia
His conversation is ingenious and brisk enough. The ment-street, in two handsome 8vo volumes, in 1818. In this world is well satisfied that he is enterprising and bold: but, alas ! preface Danton informs the impartial reader, that the common business of life has given him many opportunities to know some
had his prudence only weighed a few grains more, he would certhing of the fate of books : and promises him that before he has tainly have wrote his “Shortest Way’a little more at length.”
To conclude-Dunton thus describes Tonson, his contemporary perused the whole, he will know something more of men as well. It contains notices of statesmen, divines, lawyers, booksellers,
brother in trade :-“ He was bookseller to the famous Dryden ; in short, lives and characters of every one he came in contact there is nobody more competently qualified to give their opinion
and is himself a very good judge of persons and authors; and as with in the course of a long and active life. It were endless to enumerate Dunton's various productions, or
of another, so there is none who does it with a more severe to give a description of his projects. In his latter years he was
exactness, or with less partiality ; for to do Mr. Tonson justice, affected with insanity, hence some of his effusions are rather he speaks his mind upon all occasions, and will flatter nobody.” extravagant. In 1723, appeared “ An Appeal to his Majesty ;
BURTON's ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY." with a list of his Political Pamphlets," which was probably his last Burton's “ Anatomy of Melancholy” is certainly an extrapublished production. He appears to have died in obscurity in ordinary book. Sterne is accused, with some justice, of stealing the year 1733, at the age of seventy-four.
much from it, never acknowledging his obligations to it; some An extract or two from his writings is subjoined :
of his stories are copied almost word for word from the “Ana.
tomy of Melancholy. The title of the work is, “ The Anatomy While in America, Dunton made frequent excursions into the of Melancholy: what it is; with all the kinds, causes, sympIndian territory, and one of his “ rambles ” was to Roxbury, in toms, prognosticks, and several cures of it. In three maine order to visit the Rev. Mr. Elliott, the great apostle of the Indians. partitions, with their severall sections, members, and subsec" He was pleased to receive me with abundance of respect, and
tions. Philosophically, medicinally, historically, opened and cut
up. By Democritus, Junior." In defence of his title he says, inquired very kindly after Dr. Annesley, my father-in-law; and It is a kind of policy in these days to prefer a fantastical title to then broke out with a world of seeming satisfaction, 'Is my
a book which is to be sold ; for as larks come down to a day net, brother Annesley yet alive? Is he yet converting souls to God?' many vain readers will tarry and stand gazing." Burton comHe presented me with six Indian Bibles, as also with twelve pares himself to a “ ranging epaniel that barks at every bird he
sees, leaving his game.' I am not poor," he says, “ I am not Speeches of Converted Indians, which himself had published.” rich ; I have little, I want nothing; all my treasure is in Minerva's
Dunton thus characterises his father-in-law:-“ Among my tower. I still live a collegiate student, as Democritus in his disenting authors, I shall begin with Dr. Annesley, a man of garden, and lead a monastic life, sequestered from the tumults and
troubles of the world." Wonderful piety and humility. I have heard him say, that he never
Burton's book was very popular in his lifetime, (he was born in knew the time he was not converted.' The great business and 1576, and died about the beginning of 1640,) but towards the close pleasure of his life was to persuade sinners back to God from of the 17th century it fell into oblivion, till Jobnson brought it the general apostasy;' and in the faithful discharge of his again into notice. It was the only book, he said, that ever took
him out of his bed two hours sooner than he wished to rise. ministry he spent fifty-five years. He had the care of all the Speaking to Boswell
, he said, “ Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy churches upon his mind, and was the great support of dissenting is a valuable work. It is, perhaps, overloaded with quotation. ministers, and of the morning lecture. His non-conformity But there is a great spirit and great power in what Burton says, created him many troubles ; however, all the difficulties and when he is writing from his own mind."* Warton also says of it, disappointments he met with from an ungrateful world, did never
“ The writer's variety of learning, his quotations from scarce and
curious books, his pedantry sparkling with rude wit and shapeless alter the goodness and the cheerfulness of his humour. And elegance [but query, Mr. Warton, how can “ elegance" be shape. what an ingenious author has said of himself, in a different case
, less” ? ) miscellaneous matter, intermixture of agreeable tales and was true of the reverend doctor:
illustrations, and, perhaps, above all, the singularities of his feel.
ings clothed in an uncommon quaintness of style, have contributed A slave to sickness, and to pains a prey,
to render it, even to modern readers, a valuable repository of I keep my humour, cheerful still and gay.'
amusement and information." After his decease, Mr. Williams preached his funeral sermon, and Nr. De Foe drew his character, and the reader may meet with Weigh your sins and your mercics together before you look at any of your it in that author's works.”
trials. Never think of your sufferings, but at the same time think of your sins. Of Baxter he remarked, that “ he was a man well versed in
AMictions will sit light when sin "sils heavy. You will find then that you
have sinned away this comfort, and orerloved the other blessing, have abused polemical divinity, and the modern controversies, that were then God's mercy, and stood in need of his rod, for he does not affice willingly, nor managed with a great deal of warmth and concern. His humour grieve the children of men. Whatever be the templation or affliction, there is
need for it. And then, have we no mercies in our trials ? " It is of the morose and sour, which may, perhaps, be imputed Lord's mercies that we are not consumed, because his compassions sail not."to the many bodily affections he laboured under, as well as to the Hill's“ It is well."
COMFORT UNDER TRIALS.
M. FREDERIC CUVIER. The sympathetic power of fascination is a most unaccountable phenomenon. M. Frederic Curier, the younger brother of the illustrious Baron Curier, It is well known that in regions infested with venomous snakes, there are Professor of Animal Physiology to the Museum of Natural History at Paris, persons cudowed both by nature and by art with the power of disarming the rep. and Inspector-General of the Unirersity, was born at Montbelliard, in Alsace, tile of his poisonous capacities. The ancient Cyrenaica was overrun with in 1773: he had from an early period attached himself to those studies which poisonous serpents, and the Psyhlli were a tribe gifted with this faculty. Bruce his brother had cultivated with so much success, and his appointment as keeper informs us, that all the blacks in the kingdom of Sennaar are perfectly armed by of the menagerie at the Jardin des Plantes furnished him with the most favournature against the bite of either scorpion or viper. They take the cerastes, or ablc opportunities of studying the habits of animals, and of prosecuting his horned serpent (one of the most renomous of the viper tribe) in their hands researches on their physiology and structure. The Annales d'Histoire Naturelle, at all times, put them in their bosoms, and throw them to one another as and the Mémoires du Musée, contain a series of his memoirs on zoological children do apples or balls ; during which sport the serpents are seldom subjects, of great value and interest, and his work Sur les Dents des Mammiirritated to bite, and, when they do, no mischief ensues from the wound. Seres considerées comme Caractères Zoologiques, is full of norel and original It is said that this power is derived from the practice of chewing certain views and observations, and has always been considered as one of the most plants, und this is probably the fact; these substances may impregnate the valuable contributions to the science of zoology which has been made in later body with some quality obnoxious to the reptile. The same traveller has times; the great work Sur l'Histoire des Mammifères, of which 70 Numbers given an account of screral of these roots. In South America a similar practice have been published, was undertaken in conjunction with Geoffroy St. Hilaire, prerails; and a curious memoir on the subject was drawn up by Don Pedro and is the most considerable and most extensive publication on zoology which d'Orbies y Vargas, detailing various experiments. He informs us that the has appeared since the time of Buffon. He was likewise the author of many plant thus employed is the vejuco de guaco, hence denominated from its haring other works and memoirs on zoological subjects in rarious scientific journals been observed thal the bird of that name, also called the serpent-hawk, usually and collections. sucked the juice of this plant before his attacks upon poisonous serpents.
M. F. Curier, like his celebrated relatire, combined a remarkable dignity pared by drinking a small portion of this juice, inoculating themselves with it and eleration of character, with the most affectionate temper and disposition. by rubbing it upon punctures in the skin, Don Pedro himself, and all his domes Like him, 100, his acquisitions were not confined to his professional pursuits, tics, were accustomed to venture into the fields and fearlessly seize the most but comprehended a very extensive range of literature and science. In his renomous of the tribe. Acrell, in the Amanitates Academica, informs us that capacity of Inspector of the Unirersity, he deroted himself with extraordinary the Senega possesses a similar power. This power of fascinating serpents is zeal to the improrement of the national education of France in all its depart. 80 great, that, according to Bruce, they sicken the moment they are laid ments, from the highest to the lowest. It was in the course of one of his tours hold of, and are as exhausted by this invisible power, as though they had been of inspection that he was attacked at Strasburg with paralysis; the same struck by lightning, or an electrical battery. Dr. Mead, and Smith Barton, of disease which, under similar circumstances, had proved fatal to his brother, Philadelphia, endeavour to explain this power by the influence of terror. and likewise in the same year of his age, 63.-Farercell address of the Duke This supposition, however, is not correct, since the serpent will injure one man, of Sussex to the Royal Society. and not another, if the latter is gifted with this faculty, and the former one is not. Thieres have been known to possess the power of quieting watch-dogs,
WOMAN'S LOVE. and keeping them silent during their depredations. Lindecrantz informs us How many bright eyes grow dim-how many soft cheeks grow pale-hou that the Laplanders can instantly disarm the most furious dog, and oblige him many lovely forms fade away into the tomb, and none can tell the cause that to fly from them with every expression of terror. Sereral horse-breakers have blighted their loveliness. As the dove will clasp its wings to its sides, and cover appeared at various periods possessing the same art, and they would make the and conceal the arrow that is preying on its ritals—so it is the nalure of woman wildest horse follow them as tamely as a dog, and lie down at their bidding. It to hide from the world the pangs of wounded affection. The love of a delicate is most probable that these charmers derive their power from some natural or female is always shy and silent. Even when fortunate, she scarcely breatbes artificial emanation. The most singular power of fascination is perhaps that it to hersell; but when otherwise, she buries it in the recesses of her bosom, exhibited by the jugglers of Egypt, who, by merely pressing the serpent called and there lels it cower and brood among the ruins of her peace. With her, the haje on the neck, stiffen the reptile to such a degree, that they can ware it like desire of the heart has failed. The great charm of existence is at an end. Sbe a rod.-Curiosities of Medical Experience.
neglects all the cheerful exercises which gladden the spirits, quicken the
pulses, and send the tide of life, in healthful currents, through the veins. THE KIT-CAT CLUB.
Her rest is broken ; the sweet refreshment of sleep is broken by melancholy The Kit-Cat Club, which consisted of the most distinguished wits and states- dreams; “dry sorrow drinks her blood," until her enfeebled frame sirks men among the Whigs, was remarkable for the strictest zeal towards the House under the slightest external injury. Look for her, after a little while, and you of Hanorer. They met at a house in Shire-lane, and took their title from the find friendship weeping over her untimely grave, and wondering that one, who rame of Christopher Cal, a pastry-cook, who excelled iu making mutton-pics, but lately glowed with all the radiance of health and beauty, should so speedily which were regularly part of the entertainment
be brought down to darkness and the worm. - Washington Irving. “ Immortal made, as Kit-cat by his pies." The founder of this Club was Tonson, the celebrated bookseller, who, when he
DESPATCHING NEWSPAPERS FROM THE GENERAL POST-OFFICE. had acquired an independence, purchased a villa at Barn-Elms, in Surrey, The number of persons employed in the sorting and despatching of newswhich he adorned with portraits of the Kit-Cat Club, painted by Kneller, on papers is very great The stated number is about 290 ; but on particular occa. canvas somewhat less than a three-quarters, and larger than a half-length; sions, when there is anything of an exciting interest in the public journals, a size which has crer since been denominated a Kit-Cat from this circumstance. the number is increased to 300. The operation to be gone through in forward. The canras for a Kit-Cat is 36 inches long, and 28 side. A splendid volume iug newspapers, is much more simple than that which must be observed in the under the title of the “ Kit-Cat Club" from the original paintings of Sir God- case of letters. The first thing to be done is to put all the newspapers one way; frey Kocller, containing 43 portraits, was published in 1735.
so that their respectire addresses may be at once perceived. This done, they
are carried to the sorting table, where they are sorted or arranged for all the IN PLACE AND OUT OF PLACE.
great lines of road for the different mails. The number of divisions into which The difference between “out of place" and "in place" is amusingly illus- they are classed is twenty. They are then collected into other parcels and Lrated by Walpole :
carried to the mails by which the respective parcels so arranged or sorted are “ I laughed at myself prodigiously the other day for a piece of absence. 1 to be forwarded to their sereral places of destination. But though the process was writing ou the king's birth-day, and being disturbed with the mob in the of sorting newspapers for the mails be less complicated than that gone through street I rang for the porter, and, with an air of grandeur, as if I was still in in the case of letters, nearly the same time is required to sort a thousand, or any Downing Street, cried, · Pray send away those marrow-bones and cleavers!' other given number of newspapers, that is required to sort the same number The puor fellow, with the most mortified air in the world, replied, “Sir, they of letters. The difficulty of handling newspapers, in consequence of their bulky are not at our door, but over the way at my Lord Carteret's.' Oh,' said I, appearance, is so great, that as much time is lost in the process of handling as then let them alone, may be he does not dislike the noise.'
I pity the poor is required to examine, tax, and stamp letters. It is stated by the clerks in the porter who sees all his old customers going over the way too."- Walpole's pist-office, that where a man would take one bandful of letters he must take Letters to Sir Horace Mann, vol. i. p. 225.
lwenty handsful of newspapers.- Travels in Town, by the Author of " Ran.
dom Recollections." BURNING OF HERETICS.
MORAL HONESTY. Heretics were first burned in England in the reign of Henry IV. the usurper,
They that cry down moral honesty cry down that which is a great part of in order to please the bishops, who assisted him in deposing Richard II.- Wal
religior--my duty towards God and my duty towards man. What care I to poliana, rol. i. p. 78.
see a man run after a sermon, if he cozen and cheat as soon as he comes home! MUTILATING BOOKS.
On the other side, morality must not be without religion, for if so it may change Ewift, in a letter to Stella, Jan. 16, 1711, says, “I went to Bateman's the as I see convenience. Religion must gorern it. He that has not religion to bookseller, and laid out eight-and-forty shillings for books. I bought three gorern his morality, is not a drachm better than my mastiff dog ; so long as little volumes of Lucian in French for our Stella." This Bateman would never you stroke him and please him, and do not pinch him, he will play with you as suffer any person whatever to look into one book in his shop; and when asked Anely as may be, he is a very good moral mastiff; but if you hurt him, be the reason for it, would say, “ I suppose you may be a physician, or an author, will dy in your face and tear out your throat.-SeldenTable Talk. and want some recipe or quotation; and if you buy it, I will engage it to be perfect before you leave me, but not after; as I have suffered by leaves being London : WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER torn out, and the books returned-to my very great loss and prejudice.". AND Co. Dublin : CURRY & ('0.--Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars
The First Lord of the Admiralty, in whose immediate patron. THE BRITISH NAVY.
age all appointments to commands exists, selects from a list of FIRST ARTICLE.-PUTTING A SHIP IN COMMISSION.
names, furnished by the senior sea Lord, a captain to command "Our ships in ordinary will spring from inaction into a display of their
her. He then directs his private secretary to communicate this might-ruffle their swelling plumage-collect their scattered elements of
intention to the officer, who is at liberty to accept or decline strength-and awaken their dormant thunder!"-Speech of MR. CANNING
the offer of appointment. Any and everything relating to the British Navy, never fails to It will seem strange to the reader that any doubt should exist excite an interest in the public mind, but there is no subject upon this point, or that a captain on half-pay would decline respecting which the generality of persons are so ignorant or so active service, and the command of a ship; when he is informed, ill-informed. Whilst every one perceives and acknowledges the however, that a tour of three years in such command-that necessity for maintaining this right arm of our strength, this safe being the usual time that ships are kept employed in time of guard of our national prosperity, in pristine vigour and efficiency, peace—must involve him in several hundred pounds' expense, comparatively few are acquainted with the admirable arrange- over and above the pay he will receive ;-that many officers have ments which regulate its discipline, control its economy, and large families, no private fortunes, and cannot therefore afford render every department connected with the “mighty whole" this sacrifice; that moreover, no dishonour is incurred by declininstantly available, so as to realise, in an incredibly short space of ing employment under such circumstances in time of peace, his time, the appropriate metaphor with which we have headed these surprise will cease. remarks.
We shall take another opportunity to explain the incongruity The exploits of the British Navy—the brilliant victories it has of an officer's pay being inadequate to support the proper dignity achieved—the results of those achievements in the supremacy of his rank and station, when we come to describe the captain's obtained, securing to this favoured country old, and opening new duties particularly; for the present we will suppose him to have channels of unbounded extent for its increasing trade and manu- accepted the proffered appointment, or that having declined it, factures ; sweeping the seas of its enemies, and rendering the the command has been accepted by another. "highway of commerce ” safe for its merchant vessels to traverse, The selection of the lieutenants is in the second sea Lord at -all these things are familiarly known, and duly recorded in the the Board, who keeps a list of all such as he considers eligible annals of history. But, except in some few elementary books of for active employment, with a register of their qualities, as relittle value to any but the profession—there is scarce any inform-ported by the commanders they have served under. This memation to be obtained regarding this interesting subject : and we are ber of the Board also nominates some others of the officers. The not aware that a popular description has ever been published, to nomination of his second, however, is, by long established custom, which the reader might refer for information, in the expectation permitted to the captain, and he has the option of choosing of finding his curiosity gratified.
either a commander or lieutenant; if the latter, he is called the Under this impression, and supposing that some general “first lieutenant," and every officer of that rank, subsequently account of the various matters connected with our “wooden appointed, must be junior to him in seniority upon the list of walls,” will be agreeable to our readers, we purpose introducing lieutenants. the subject occasionally in successive numbers, until we have
This regulation has been adopted and continued on the plea explained every point connected with the routine of a British of the necessity for the captain's having confidence in the officer ship-of-war, the mode of performing the duties on board-the to whom devolves the duty of carrying his orders into effect,portions of duty which devolve upon the different classes, or indeed the principal duties of the ship; but it materially limits ratings, as they are technically called--the wages and victualling the power of the Admiralty in the range of appointments : for it of the crew,—in fact, everything that can be supposed to interest is probable, nay almost certain, that the captain will select for the reader, from the first equipment of a ship-of-war, until we his first lieutenant some active young officer, who has been conplace her alongside of an enemy, and finally return her into port stantly and recently employed afloat, and therefore well prac. with her prize in tow, and leave her crew in the enjoyment of tised in his duty, iu preference to one who has been long on their well-earned rewards.
half pay, and unacquainted with the improvements that are conSailors invariably adopt the expletive “ she,” when speaking tinually occurring; this is the reason why so many old lieutenants of a ship, and as this mode of description is also familiar to the are unemployed. When the captain makes his election for a generality of persons, we shall adhere to it. Whenever nautical commander, it affords the opportunity to appoint lieutenants of phrases occur we will explain their meaning by a note. long standing, still however, depending upon the seniority of the Selecting for our purpose a seventy-four-gun ship, which class first lieutenant. But the truth is, that old officers, unless they
as "third-rate,” we will suppose that the Lords can obtain commands, are not very desirous of employment of the Admiralty have decided upon equipping a vessel of this
force afloat, as lieutenants of ships, for reasons we shall state here. for sea. This is technically called "putting her in commission,” after. that is, removing the vessel from ordinary,” in which state she We will suppose these preliminaries settled, the nomination of remains when dismantled.
the captain approved, and the appointments decided on, the
(Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whi'efriaru)
commissions are ordered to be made out, and an official letter * Ship the Nonsuch Willing and requiring you forthwith to go is written to each officer, apprising him thereof. He may either
on board and take upon you the charge and command of Lieu. “ take up,” as it is called, that is, receive his commission at the all the officers and company belonging to the said ship. subor
tenant in her accordingly Strictly charging and commanding Admiralty, in London, or at the admiral's office, at the sea-port dinate to you to behave themselves jointly and severally in their where the ship is stationed. The captain, or one of his lieu- respective employments with all due respect and obedience unto tenants, proceeds without delay to make the arrangements for you their said Lieutenant And you likewise to observe and putting the ship in commission, which is accomplished by and Directions you shall from time to time receive from your
execute as well the General Printed Instructions as what Orders hoisting the pendant, and reading his warrant to the officers Captain or any other your superior Officers for Her Majesty's already appointed; the forms and observances appertaining to service Hereof nor you nor any of you may fail as you shall which ceremony are as follow :
answer the contrary at your peril And for so doing this shall
be your Warrant Given under our hands and the Seal of the On arriving at the sea-port wherein his ship is stationed, the Office of Admiralty this First day of January 1839 in the captain, or one of his lieutenants, to whom he has delegated the second year of Her Majesty's Reign duty of putting the vessel in commission, repairs to the office By command of their Lordships
C. Wood of the Port Admiral, and reports his arrival to the secretary.
DALMENY Thence he proceeds to the superintendant residing in the dock
Seniority 10th July 1836 yard, who orders the master-attendant, (one of his officers), first adoption. It will be seen that, as in old statutes, no
The above quaint form has been unaltered probably from its to make the necessary arrangements, and also furnishes a pendant. marks of punctuation occur ; and although called a commission,
The pendant is a long narrow strip of bunting, of the colour it is strictly speaking, a warrant. It is lithographed on parch. of the admiral's flag, having a St. George's cross at the top; ment, bears a stamp of five shillings, and the officer pays a fee of and when hoisted at the head of the main (middle) mast,
one pound one shilling and sixpence on receiving it. signifies that the ship belongs to Her Majesty's fleet, and is in commission. Every person on board, or, as it is called, under
THE LATE T. A. KNIGHT, ESQ. the pendant, is amenable to naval discipline, the laws regulating Thomas Andrew Knight, of Downton Castle, Hereford. which are strictly defined by the Act 22 of George II., cap. 23, the shire, the President of the Horticultural Society of London, to
the establishment and success of which he so greatly contributed, articles of war, and also the naval instructions, a code of rules
was born in the year 1758. He was educated at Ludlow school, promulgated by the Lords of the Admiralty, under the authority and afterwards became a member of Baliol College, Oxford. of an order in council, and amended occasionally to suit the From his earliest years he appears to have shown a predominant exigencies of circumstances.
taste for experimental researches in gardening and vegetable The pendant, being emblematic of a ship of war commanded physiology, which the immediate and uncontrolled possession of
an ample fortune gave him every opportunity of indulging; proby an officer of the royal navy, is not allowed to be worn by any posing to himself, in fact, as one of the great objects of his life, other class of vessels whatever. It is said to have been origi- to effect improvements in the productions of the vegetable kingnally adopted in defiance of the Dutch, who exhibited a broom dom, by new modes of culture, by the impregnation of different
varieties of the same species, and various other expedients, comat the mast-head, and boasted that they could sweep the seas of mensurate with those which had already been effected by agri. their enemies; on which a British admiral ordered his captains to culturists and others in the animal kingdom by a careful selection hoist this representation of a whip, with the design of whipping of parents, by judicious crossing, and by the avoidance of too the Dutch out of the British Channel. Whatever might have close an alliance of breeds. In the year 1795 he contributed to
our Transactions his first, and perhaps his most important, been the first intention, the symbol is, undoubtedly, a very paper, on the transmission of the diseases of decay and old age ancient one, and has long since been adopted by all nations to of the parent tree to all its descendants propagated by grafting distinguish their ships of war.
or layers, being the result of experiments which had already
been long continued and very extensively varied, and which A ship, when brought forward (that is, prepared) for com
developed views of the greatest importance and novelty in the missioning, is generally placed in the basin, a large pond within economy of practical gardening, and likewise of very great in. the dock-yard, capable of holding several vessels. This is done terest in vegetable physiology. This paper was succeeded by for the greater convenience of equipping her, and hoisting on
more than twenty others, chiefly written between the years 1799 board her masts and water-tanks, by means of the sheers or
and 1812, containing the details of his most ingenious and
original experimental researches on the ascent and descent of cranes, placed on the edge of the basin. The officer, having the sap in trees; on the origin and offices of the alburnum and stepped on board, calls around him any others who have been bark ; on the phenomena of germination; on the functions of already appointed, and having hoisted the pendant, either upon leaves ; on the influence of light, and upon many other subjects, a mast or a flag-staff, he reads his commission, of which the fol constituting a series of facts and of deductions from them, which
have exercised the most marked influence upon the progress of lowing is a copy :
our knowledge of this most important department of the laws of Admiralty By the Commissioners for executing the office vegetable organization and life. Seal.
of Lord High Admiral of the United King- Mr. Knight succeeded Sir Joseph Banks in the Presidency of dom of Great Britain and Ireland &c.
the Horticultural Society, and contributed no fewer than 114 To HENRY HAULAWAY hereby appointed Lieutenant of Her papers to the different volumes of its Transactions ; these conMajesty's Ship the Nonsuch
tributions embrace almost every variety of subjects connected
with horticulture; such as the production of new and improved By virtue of the Power and Authority to us given, We do varieties of fruits and vegetables; the adoption of new modes of hereby constitute and appoint you Lieutenant of Her Majesty's grafting, planting, and training fruit-trees; the construction of * The following is the form of the official letter :
forcing-frames and hot-houses; the economy of bees, and many “ Admiralty Office, January 1, 1839.
other questions of practical gardening, presenting the most ima "My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have appointed portant results of his very numerous and well-devised experiments. you Lieutenant of Her Majesty's Ship, Nonsuch, at Portsmouth; it is Mr. Knight was a person of very great activity of body and their Lordships' direction that you repair immediately to this Office for mind, and of singular perseverance and energy in the pursuit of your appointment, and that you report to ine the day on which you shall his favourite science; he was a very lucid and agreeable writer, have joined the ship. “ I am, Sir, your very humble Servant,
and it would be difficult to name any other contemporary author
“ John Barrow. in this or other countries who has made such important addi"P.S.-It is desired that you acknowledge the receipt of this letter. tions to our knowledge of horticulture and the economy of " To Lieutenant Henry Haulaway."
vegetation.-Farewell Address of the Duke of Sussex.
ISABELLA OF CASTILE.
your government, if you maintain our rights and liberties, but ILLUSTRIOUS FEMALES.
not otherwise." It was a fundamental article in the constitution, (We propose to give a series of biographies of ILLUSTRIOUS FEMALES
that if the king should violate their privileges, the people might Wlustrious from their character and influence, as well as rank; and thus legally disclaim him as their sovereign, and elect another in his to exhibit Woman in all ages, and in all circumstances. We commence place *. with Isabella of Castile, not because she occupied high station, but because Under the administration of laws, based on constitutional her remarkable character made that station an instrument for working liberty, the Castilians prospered and amassed great wealth ; out great and important ends.]
commerce and manufactures flourished, beyond that of any nation in christendom. As early as 1227, a Navigation Act was
passed, and extended to Arragon in 1454, preceding by some “ Under Isabella's glorious rule,” says her latest historian, in centuries the celebrated ordinance to which England owes so
much of her commercial grandeur. In relation to the manu. his concluding chapter, "we have beheld Spain emerging from chaos into a new existence ; unfolding, under the influence of factures of that age, an interesting fact may be mentioned ; that institutions adapted to her genius, energies of which she was
is, that the breed of sheep for which Spain has been so long before unconscious ; enlarging her resources from all the springs celebrated, owes its improvement to Catherine of Lancaster, who, of domestic industry and commercial enterprise ; and insensibly in the year 1394, took with her to Spain, as part of her dowry, a losing the ferocious habits of a feudal age, in the refinements of flock of English merinos, distinguished, above all others at that an intellectual and moral culture. In the fulness of time, when time, for the beauty and delicacy of their fleece. her divided powers had been concentrated under one head, and
Castile, notwithstanding, had been long in a turbulent and the system of internal economy completed, we have seen her unsettled state, caused by the wickedness and imbecility of its descend into the arena with the other nations of Europe, and in rulers. In this condition was the kingdom when Isabella was a very few years achieve the most important acquisitions of born, which happened at Madrigal, April 22, 145). She was territory, both in that quarter, and in Africa ; and finally the daughter of John II., King of Castile and Leon, who, after crowning the whole by the discovery and occupation of a bound
a factious and protracted reign, died four years after her birth, less empire beyond the waters *.” In her reign, also, events leaving by his first wife (Maria of Arragon) a son, Don Henry, transpired producing a new era in the annals of the world. The who succeeded him ; and by his second wife (Isabella of Portudestinies of empires and kingdoms were affected in her person. sal) two children in their infancy, Alphonso and Isabella. Under her auspices and patronage, the Spanish language and Although great hopes were indulged of Henry IV., in conseliterature first assumed a polished and regular form ; the newly- quence of the weak and imbecile reign of his predecessor, yet he invented art of printing was introduced into her dominions, and
soon became reckless and extravagant, lost the support of his the first printing-press set up in Burgos.
nobles, by which the country was plunged in anarchy, the laws
were set at nought, banditti were uncontrolled, and oppression For several centuries after the Saracenic invasion of Spain, in reigned. At length the Archbishop of Toledo, and others of the the eighth century, the country was divided into a number of nobility, confederated against him, which ended in the farcical small but independent states, divided in their interests, and often trial of him in effigy on the outskirts of Avila, when he was in deadly hostility with each other. The population, too, consisted of different races, totally unlike in their origin, religion, being thereby deposed, his brother, Alphonso, was proclaimed
stripped of his crown, and all the royal insignia, by the nobles ; and government.
in his stead. Henry, however, raised a large army, and for some Castile, the inheritance of Isabella, occupied the middle of the years a furious civil war was the consequence. To further his peninsula, running north and south ; on the right, or easterly ends, Henry attempted to force his sister, Isabella, into a hateside, was the kingdom of Arragon, the domain of Ferdinand, ful marriage with a brother of the Marquis of Villena, who was which comprehended the provinces of Catalonia and Valencia ; the principal abettor this unnatural warfare. Isabella was and south was the kingdom of Granada, occupied by the Moors. then fifteen years of age, and had been from the time of her Another state was the little kingdom of Navarre, within the father's death living in seclusion with her mother at the little Pyrenees. When the different states were consolidated, the
town of Arevalo, where “ far from the voice of flattery and false. capital of Castile became the capital of the empire.
hood, she had been permitted to unfold the natural graces of The political institutions of Castile and Arragon were nearly mind and person which might have been blighted in the pesti
and though the form of government in both was monar- lent atmosphere of a court. Here, under the maternal eye, she chical, the spirit and principles were almost republican. The was carefully instructed in those lessons of practical piety, and sovereign was merely the chief of his nobility; his power was in the deep reverence for religion, which distinguished her circumscribed by that of the cortes, or parliament, composed of maturer years." In stature, she was then somewhat above the four distinct orders ; the nobles of the first class, or grandees; middle size; her complexion was fair ; her hair of a bright the nobles of the second class ; the representatives of towns and chesnut colour, inclining to red; and her mild blue
beamed cities; and the deputies of the clergy. By the law the cortes with intelligence and sensibility. She was exceedingly beautiful ; was to be convoked once in two years; and, once assembled, " the handsomest lady," says one of her household, “ whom I could not be dissolved by the king, without its own consent; all ever beheld, and the most gracious in her manners." questions of peace and war, the collection of the revenues, the The face of affairs was now altered by the death of Alphonso; enacting and repealing of laws, and the redressing of all griev- the opponents of Henry offered Isabella the throne, which she ances in the state, depended on this assembly. When they declined during her brother's lifetime. He, at this time, conpronounced the oath of allegiance to a new king, it was in these cluded a treaty by which he declared his daughter Joanna striking terms: “We, who are each of us as good as you, and illegitimate, and acknowledged Isabella to be his heiress. Mean. · are altogether more powerful than you, promise obedience to while the latter remained in retirement, unconsciously pre* Prescott's Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella.
* Mrs. Jamieson's Female Sovereigns,