« AnteriorContinuar »
empire ; but all this is done with extrem surrounded with a cordon of Prussian cusquietness and civility, and if two zwanzi. tom-houses, so near as to render it imposgers are accidentally found to have insinu- sible for the citizens to go backward and ated themselves within the folds of the forward to their country-houses, without passport, you hear nothing of searching, being exposed to the brutal insolence of We have always admired the simplicity functionaries whose whole office and existand directness with which Mr. Murray's ence was new and hateful to them. Ladies “hand-book” fixes the price of the virtue and children were forced to stand, in rain of a K. K. custom house officer. The wri. and storm, while every corner of their carter evidently knew his men. The good riages were searched. Even their persons Austrians are the last people to take this were not respected, and the women of the amiss. Hypocrisy is not one of their lower classes were exposed to the grossest faults; for that you must seek further insults. The rage of the citizens, which a north.
consciousness of their own impotence had Should we enter on the chapter of chang- heightened into almost frantic desperation, es in all that relates to travelling, we gradually subsided into profound and supshould never have done. England, in this pressed hate of Prussia, and every thing respect, took the lead of all other countries, Prussian. and for many years was immeasurably Such were the scenes in the midst of ahead. Her superiority is still very great; which Madame Schopenhauer grew up. but the demand and the money of her own We need not wonder that the spirited rewandering sons have forced the countries ply of a young Danziger to a Prussian through which they pass in swarms, into general, which won the hearts of all his some approach to her own condition. The fellow.citizens, made a deep impression Zollverein has put an end to half the vexa. upon hers. tions of travellers. Fifteen years ago, the
“A Prussian general was quartered in the custom-house officers of M. de Nassau and country-house of one of the most eminent merM. de Bade (as M. Victor Hugo, in his work chants of Danzig. He offered to the son of his on the Rhine, thinks fit to call them) were host to permit the forage for his horses to enter troublesome and inquisitive-exactly in an the city duty free. inverse ratio of the magnitude of their obliging ofler, but my stables are for the present sovereign's territory. Now, having shown exhausted I shall order my horse to be shot, your passport on the frontiers of Prussia, was the brief and decisive answer. It was soon where you rarely find either incivility or known through the town, and the more admired, exaction, you may go from Aix-la-Chapelle because the young man's passion for his beautito Bohemia without a question.
ful horses was notorious. "Nobody delighted in We have seen that among Madame Scho- it more than 1, though I knew my republican penhauer's earliest recollections, was the countryman only by sight.” sudden blow given to the franchises and the This was Heinreich Floris Schopenhauer, commerce of her native city. Her whole to whom soon after, at the age of nineteen, youth was passed in witnessing its convul- she was united. Not long after, this patrisive struggles and long agony; and when oric citizen went to Berlin and requested we read her description of the barbarous an interview with the great Frederic. It and destructive form under which monar. was immediately granted, and Frederic, chical power first presented itself to her, struck by his rank, upright character, and we cease to wonder, or even to smile, at his knowledge of commercial affairs, pressher stiff-necked republicanism. It is im. ed him to settle in his dominions, and of. possible to see without indignation, a free, fered him every possible privilege and propeaceful, industrious population, whose tection. M. Schopenhauer was beginning prosperity was their own work, and whose to feel the resistless influence which Fredinstitutions were sanctified by time, hand- eric exercised on all around him, when the ed over without appeal to the brutality of a King, pointing to a heap of papers in a foreign soldiery, and the blunders of igno- corner, said, Voilà, les calamités de la ville rant and arbitrary legislation, without al. de Danzig. These few words broke the lowing for all the prejudices of the suffer- spell for ever; and though Frederic after. ers.
wards repeated his offers, the sturdy patriot Danzig stood conditionally under the never would accept the smallest obligation protection of Poland, and its ruin was one from him. At length, seeing that all hope of the many evils attendant on the parti- of the deliverance of his native city from a tion of that kingdom. By a sort of irony, foreign yoke was at an end, he determined the city itself was not occupied, but it was to quit it for ever, and to seek a freer home. In this determination his young tendency is apoplectic, to wear wigs, shoes, wife fully concurred, and they set out on a and silk stockings. tour of observation through the Nether- The facts which Mr. Jeffreys urges in lands, France, and England. Here we must support of his theories are not new; and leave them-not without expressing our perhaps something like his views may partregret that she did not live to fill up the ly be found in other writers. They are, outline she had marked out.
however, presented by him in so complete and systematic a form, that they seem entitled to the praise of originality; especially the first and last sections—for the second part, on the generation of heat, is neither
very intelligibly nor convincingly treated, MR. JEFFREYS' STATICS OF THE HU- though the conclusion may be sound MAN CHEST.
enough. Of his three prelections, howev. From the Spectator.
er, the first, on the Statics of the Chest, Views of the Statics of the Human Chest, is the most curious and important; and if
Animal Heat, and Determinations of Blood the practical conclusions to which the theo to the Head. By Julius Jeffreys, F. R. S., ry tends are not so readily put in practice formerly of the Medical Staff in India, they affect a much greater number of per
as the directions to elderly gentlemen, &c. London: Highley.
sons, inasmuch as cor
consumption is more Tais volume consists of three parts: the common than apoplexy. first treating of the quantity and condition Every one knows that without breath we of the air in the lungs, and the probable cannot live ; and now-a-days most readers mode of its purifying the blood; the se- know that by the act of respiration the cond investigates the generation of animal venous blood is changed into arterial, the heat, with a view to show that the vital dark blood giving out carbon, and receivpowers exercise an influence over this pro-ing oxygen. The popular and even the cess, according to the character of the professional notion as to this process, if climate, or at least that in a hot climate the the bulk of persons have any definite idea production of heat is much less than under upon such subjects, is, that the atmospher. intense cold, even should the consumption ic air drawn into the lungs immediately of food be similar ; the third part incul- comes into direct contact with the vessels cates rather a new rule to English notions and air-cells. This is the conclusion
- keep the head warm and the feet cool.” which Mr. Jeffreys denies; and he substiThe principle of the recommendation is tutes a view which we will endeavor to this: 'if a part of a heated body be exposed explain, as succinctly as we can. to the air, the heat will pass off more ra- There are, or may be, in the chest of pidly in the uncovered than the covered every one in tolerable health, four distinct parts; in the human body, generating a portions of air, which our author classes supply of heat, these parts will, by long as follows, with the average contents of habit, cause an increased circulation of each part as deduced by himself from a blood to themselves to keep up the requi- comparison of his own observations with site degree of animal warmth; full exam- the elaborate experiments of other writers. ples of which may be seen in the red arms of milk-maids, and the red faces of guards,
in cubic iuches. coachmen, &c. The practical conclusion 1. Residual air; which, owing to muswhich Mr. Jeffreys deduces from this prin- cular formation, cannot be expelled ciple is, that apoplexy in England is stimu- from the chest by any act of expiralaied rather than diminished by generally
tion, and which remains in the body
120 keeping the head cool, and by the baldness
2. Supplementary air ; which is generof elderly gentlemen. The hint which set
ally resident, but can be expelled by him to work upon the subject was derived
a strong effort, and whose departure from the care with which the hot-climed with life is the act of expiring 130 Hindoos swaddle up the head, leaving the 3. The breath; or air continually inlegs and feel uncovered; and among them spired and expired. ;
26 determinations of blood to the brain are
4. Complementary air; ordinarily ab
sent, but which can be inspired by a very rare. And the practice he recom
100 mends, with requisite care and under proper conditions, is for persons of a certain From these facts it follows, that instead age, whose hair is getting thin, and whose of fresh air being constantly drawn into
the lungs, and stale or carbonized air ex-l of oxydating the blood appears to be carried on haled, there is always permanently in the in the cells, we are not to suppose that the extenchest nearly five times as much air as
we lengthened and infinitely numerous tubes leading
sive surface of membrane expanded over the breathe in, and generally nearly ten times to the cells is unemployed. Such a view does not as much. However opposed to the popu- accord with the economy of means everywhere lar notion of the modus operandi of respi- discernible in the body; and it is opposed to the ration this may be, says Mr. Jeffreys, it is observed development of the blood-vessels, so, and there is an end of the matter.- which travel along with the tubes, and spread But he also puts forward a series of argu
their minute branches over them, in the same ments to show the probability that it should way as, at the extremity of their course, they do
over the cells. be so, without regard to the fact of its be
“ There can be no doubt, that in tubes where ing so, and the objects which Nature has the pulmonary membrane grows thin enough, had in view in making it so, as well as an there the air begins to penetrate through it, and exposition of the manner in which the to act on the blood circulating over such tubes. fresh atmospheric air, after gradual dilu. Let us suppose the action proceeds with due tion, eventually reaches the air-cells of the activity at some given distance in the lungs,
where the pulmonary membrane has a certain lungs. The arguments on this last point, thickness, and the air in the tubes a certain perhowever, are rather conjectural than expe- centage, say eighteen. If such a proportion of rimental, and have no very general interest. oxygen acts with due activity through a memThe reasoning on the two first points rests brane of such a given thickness, could we refuse more upon facts and observations, and is assent to the probability, (were it not a fact abalso of a more attractive kind, as showing solute,) that, as the membrane grew more and the careful provision of Nature. Here are found in the air, until in the cells the proportion
more delicate, less and less oxygen should be some anatomical facts, whence Mr. Jeffreys of oxygen should be reduced so far as to guard deduces a strong à priori probability that against injurious activity in the process, where the pure atınospheric air was never intend- an infinitely delicate membrane only was intered io come into immediate contact with posed between the air and the minute bloodthe more delicate parts of the lungs. vessels ? Assuredly, if, where the membrane
was much thicker, the process went on with due “But some will say, by such an arrangement activity, its activity would become far above the air-cells would never be visited by air of what was due, when the membrane became of the freshness requisite for duly oxydating the extreme tenuity, unless the quantity of oxygen blood. The reply to this is, that, whatever may in the air fell in proportion, unless the air became be our preconceived notions respecting the pre
as it were diluted in proportion.” sence of fresh air in the cells, the statics of the The reader who is interested enough in case render it impossible it should ever be there this question to wish to pursue it, may reunder ordinary circumstances. They assure us, fer to the volume ; but there is a further beyond the possibility of a doubt, that it is resi- view advanced by Mr. Jeffreys, which has cells in the action of the chest. It is this resident a practical purpose, though the individuals air which performs all the duty of oxydating the most requiring its benefit may find some blood, and which receives from the blood its eli- difficulty in reducing it to practice. By a minated carbonic acid and watery vapor. The glance at the little table already given, ihe air of respiration performs no direct duty in reader will perceive, that whilst the capaconnexion with the blood. In its fresh state it city of the chest is fourteen times as much does not come even near to the cells; its duty
the mere “ breath” requires, upwards of is altogether indirect; its action is to ventilate
one-fourth of this capacity is seldom occu. the chest gradually, from above downwards, and to receive the impurities gradually brought pied, and that this vacant space is nearly up from below, exchanged for an equal bulk four times the capacity of that demanded of more recent air, conveyed, in the manner by the air necessary to the act of breath. described, from above.
ing. Mr. Jeffreys also states that he has “Such being the fact, we may discern in it around the quantity of supplementary air to beautiful provision, offering an answer to the differ considerably in different people; and other portion of the question, why should such he infers that it differs in the same indiimpure air be always resident in the lungs ?
"Is the following not a very satisfactory reply? vidual at different times. From these facts As we proceed from the larger air-tubes onwards he proceeds to deduce some important through their numerous ramifications, till we are conclusions; all, however, resting upon the lost in searching out the delicate cells, do we not principle that high breathing is good breathfind the pulmonary membrane lining the way, ing—that the more supplementary air a percommencing comparatively thick and tough, and getting finer and finer, until at last it becomes son can retain in his chest, and the more too delicate to be clearly discovered, a mere film, he can employ the space devoted to the overspread by equally delicate blood vessels ? complementary air, the more vigorous his Again, though the greater part of the business breathing and his lungs become. Individu
als with a full chest and of active occupa. | but not so strenuous efforts are made, as in carrytions have this naturally; and persons ing a more moderate weight for some distance, whose pursuits are favorable to its devel. and even in active walking without any load, a opment acquire it; but Mr. Jeffreys contended; holding the air in for a time exceeding
man still keeps his chest more than usually dissiders its attainment, to some extent, to be the period of an ordinary breath, and then leiin the power of any one who has, we may ting it out to take in a fresh stock of complesay, the time and the will to strive for it. mentary air, (to use the term adopted,) to give We take some passages bearing upon this stiffness to his chest. important point, rather with a view to call
Now this action being frequently repeated, attention to the principle, than to recom- must and does have the effect of establishing a mend its injudicious pursuit ; which might fact, the rendering a person “broad-chested;"
It is, in
permanently fuller state of the chest. do more harm than good.
the connexion of which with vigor is too strikRATIONALE OF RUNNING.
ing to be overlooked even by the uninformed,
who do not fail to see the fuller condition of the During exercise, and especially during con- chest, though without an acquaintance with the siderable exertion, we know that the hurried cir- manner in which it is brought about, or in which culation of blood through the lungs calls for a it is advantageous. more copious supply ofair. To command a range In such vigorous persons, then, the supplemenfor a deeper respiration, we must either breathe tary air becomes larger, a portion of the compleout soine of the resident air, and add the room mentary space being added to it, and then ordithus gained to the previous range of the respira- nary respiration takes place on the top of this intion, -or, retaining in our chests the same quan- creased supplementary quantity. That this is tity of resident air, we must increase the res- true, we may satisfy ourselves by measuring piratory range by intruding upon the comple- the quantity of air such a person can breathe mental space.
out, and comparing it with that breathed out by This is no trifling distinction... What is vul- a person of sedentary habits. We shall find garly termed "being in breath," and its oppo: that the volume of the air durably resident in site « not breath," appears mainly to depend the chest is much larger in the former, the vpon these different modes of increasing our comparison being made between two persons of respiration. An unpractised runner, for instance, the same bulk. tries to relieve himself by the former method; but he soon feels the consequence of letting out
ERRORS OF SEDENTARY BREATHING. too much of his resident air, and drawing in 100 On the other hand, they whose misfortune it deeply atmospheric air, fully oxygenous, and is to lead a sedentary life, and to lean over their perhaps also cold. He gets out of breath; that work, habituate themselves, by the constant is, when he wants more air than usual, he cannot doubling together of the trunk, to do with a take in so much; a kind of asthmatic spasm smaller quantity of resident air in their chests prevents him from getting air enough down, than is natural or proper. In them, then, the although the chest is not really much more than air of respiration is at once introduced to a half full. On the other hand, by practice he deeper region of the lungs than it ought. instinctively learns to keep adding air to that Though it is impossible, in any case, to exist already present, and to breathe nearer to the top with so little resident air in the chest as that the of his chest. He can then respire deeply with air of the breath should flow unmixed into the out drawing in the fresh air too suddenly and air-cells themselves,-for the residual air which too far into the lungs. Also, by increasing the cannot be expelled is bulky enough to dilute it quantity of resident air, his cells are more fully considerably, -yet, when the quantity of resiexpanded, there is more surface of action, and dent air is materially reduced, it is plain the air the blood-vessels are rendered less tortuous still, of the breath goes in too far, and proves excitby which they admit, with less distress, of the ing to tubes 100 delicate to receive it, on acquickened circulation through them.
count of its full quantity of oxygen, and also, MEANS OF BECOMING BROAD-CHESTED.
no doubt, of its temperament and other quali
ties. Muscular exertion tends greatly to establish a The distress which the presence of pure air permanently fuller state of the chest. The ex- produces in tubes intended to receive only mixtent to which the chief muscles of the trunk of ed air, leads such persons to accustom themthe body are inserted into, or have their origin selves to do with less breath than is natural. !! from the walls of the chest, is one cause of this. is quite an error to think that their chests, at In order that such muscles should act with power the time, will not contain more breath on acwe have to draw in a larger quantity of air than count of the position; for if they were to breathe usual; and when we want to make a considera- out still more of the resident air, they might ble effort. as in listing a heavy weight, we have leave more room fur breath than the volume of to close the windpipe and detain all this air in the the breath ever requires, and yet keep their chest. The walls of the chest, the ribs, &c., chests within the confined limits they had been then are stily supported by this bed of air, like reduced to. The truth of this may be noticed a distended bladder, or air-cushion. In this way, whenever a medical man or friend remonstrates the chest can support a great pressure, and forms with a girl on account of her tight lacing. One a firm basis for the vigorous action of the whose folly has nearly reduced her figure to muscles attached to it. When longer continued that of an insect, and whose countenance be
trays the state of her lungs, will yet be able to which, till persons have got the knack of
more harm than good. Many a friend is deceived, as well as the selfdestroyer, by this demonstration. All it proves is, thai there is yet some supplementary air in the lungs, which, breathed out at the moment of
SENSATIONS IN A TRANCE.—The sensations of a the demonstration, leaves quite enough room seemingly dead person, while confined in the coffin, for a respiration of full amount to be carried on are mentioned in the following case of trance: for the time, and even for the stays all the while “A young lady, an attendani on the Princess to be made to appear loose about the chest. after liaving been confined to her bed for a great
length of time with a violent nervous disorder, was HINTS TO ORATORS.
at last, to all appearance, deprived of life. Her lips The collateral but very important duty of the were quite pale, her face resembled the countenance chest in speaking, especially in oratory, requires of a dead person, and the body grew cold. She was the command of both the supplementary and removed from the room in which she died, was laid complementary spaces. The duration of an day arrived, and, according to the custom of the
in a coffin, and the day of her funeral fixed on. The act of expiration is greatly increased in giving country, funeral songs and hymns were sung before expression to a long sentence. The chest has the door. Just as the people were about to nail down o be nearly filled with air: the air, occupying the lid of ihe coffin, a kind of perspiration was obalmost the whole of the complementary space, served to appear on the surface of her body. It grew is first spoken forth, then that of the region of greater every moment, and at last a kind of convalthe breath; and in a long sentence, forcibly ut- sive motion was observed in the hands and feet of tered, a large demand is also made upon the the corpse. A few minutes after, during which time supplementary air. But for this long range opened her eyes, and uttered a most pitiable shriek.
fresh signs of returning life appeared, she at once there could be no powerful eloquence. same time, a loud voice and long sentences of a few days she was considerably restored, and is
Physicians were quickly procured, and in the course make so frequent and large demands on the sup- probably alive at this day. The description which plementary stock, as to subject delicate portions she gave of her situation is extremely remarkable, of the pulmonary membrane to the frequent and forms a curious and authentic addition to psypresence of undiluted air, against which the sup-chology. She said it seemed to her that she was plementary air was especially provided as their really dead; yet she was perfectly conscious of all natural protection.
Hence these efforts either that happened around her in this dreadtul stale. by degrees inure such delicate parts as are vis. She distinctly heard her friends speaking and laited by the inhaled air to its action-or, as too menting her death at the side of her coffin. She felt frequently happens, the air gains the better of This feeling produced a mental anxiety which is them; irritation is excited; and, if the efforts are indescribable. She tried to cry, but her soul was persevered in, disease is established. By em- without power, and could not act in her body. She ploying very short sentences, and by habituat- had the contradictory feeling as if she were in the
the chest to receive a full complementary body, and yet not in it, at one and the same time. quantity of air, that quantity, together with the It was equally impossible for her to stretch out her ordinary region of breath, will be found to suf-arın, or to open her eyes, or to cry, although she fice; so that the resident air need not ever be continually endeavored to do so. The internal anintruded upon. It is of great importance in guish, of her mind was, however, at its utmost such cases, ihat this resident stock should be also sung, and when the lid of the coffin was about to of full quantity; occupying steadily its protect-be nailed down. The thought that she was to be ive position; there receiving all the impulses of buried alive was the one that gave activity to her quickly-inhaled breath; duly modifying the por- mind, and caused it to operate on her corporeal tion of it retained; and gradually incorporating frame.”—Binns on Sleep. it into itself as resident air before conveying it down into the cells. It is probable, that many a preacher might continue in his vocation by carefully attending to this simple rule. Indeed Miles COVERDALE.— Within the last few days, a many, no doubt, practise it instinctively as a tablet has been erected in the church of St. Magnus matter of experience, without inquiring into the the Martyr, London-bridge, executed by Samuel physiological reason.
Nixon, sculptor, with the following inscription :
Near this Tablet, in a vault made There are other curious passages on this for that purpose, are deposited the bones of subject, especially one relating to the use
MILES COVERDALE, or injury of wind-instruments ; but we formerly Bishop of Exeter,and Rector of the Parish of
St. Magnus the Martyr, have already trespassed somewhat upon our
in the year of our Lord'1567. space, and must again refer the curious to His remains were interred, in the first instance, the volume. To any one inclined to prac
in the Chancel of the tise for a broad chest, we should, however, but
, on the occasion of that church being taken'down,
Church of St. Bartholomew, Exchange; recommend the simple exercises of walk.
they were brought here on the ing, gentle running, and careful reading
41h of October, 1810, aloud, with a very cautious attempt at lift in compliance with the wishes and at the request of,
The Rector, the Rev. T. Leigh, A. M., ing weights fully within the muscular pow.
and Parishioners of St. Magnas the Mariyr. er, than any more artificial experiments;