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ture he desires to introduce was long ago make the Deity so merely a chip in por. deliberately rejected* on the ground, that ridge, as to consider pleasure, happiness, practically it was more dangerous to virtue, or expediency, word it how you will, the than theoretically valuable for science. ultimate end and aim of man's actions and Socrates was well acquainted with all the desires. He saw indeed that human hap. leading facts on which such theories and piness (thoroughly, not partially undernomenclature have been founded by the stood,) affords the true measure of God's utilitarian schools of Aristippus, Epicurus will to his rational creatures; yet per hoc, and Aristotle ; but whilst he states or ad- non propter hoc, was his fixed estimate of mits his knowledge of these facts to Aris-utility, or in other words, that usefulness tippus and to others, he insists upon a is the rule or measure of action, but not pomenclature which shall more clearly dis- the end or motive of action. Let me, he tinguish virtuous happiness from vicious argued, be only sure that I have discovered pleasure. And he was right, right as a what promotes human happiness, and I am practical moralist, to insist upon reforming sure that I have discovered what is God's the phraseology of a corrupt and sophis-will; but then, he contended, it immeditical generation, as the first step towards ately becomes our duty,* and not merely teaching them sound principles and a vir- our interest, to do that will. Duty to God, tuous practice. Aristippus had neither the man's reasonable service, has also this suprudence of Aristotle nor the sentiment of periority, that it carries his moral capa. Epicurus, and so could not fight the battle bilities to their highest point, giving him of utilitarianism, as they could and did ; the consciousness of God's approval. Sobut such armor, however forged and crates did not begin by assuming, whether wielded, could not resist the divine temper from prejudice or fanaticism, that a certain of the weapons of Socrates. He contended mode of conduct had the divine sanction, that there must be a consciousness of duty and then infer that such condcut must proto God in order that there may be man's mote human happiness; but he first ascerreasonable service and appropriate virtue ; tained what will promote human happiness, for that no prudent choice of the more and then inferred that this conduct has the pleasurable pleasure in preference to the sanction of God's approval. That this is a less pleasurable pleasure can constitute the fair estimate of the usefulness, the temper: service which the Deity requires from man, ance and the religion of Socrates, has al. the service which a rational and consci- ready been proved by numerous quotations, entious, yet passion-tempted creature owes and might be proved by many more. In a to an Intelligent Creator. A virtue useful word, the great principles of conduct, as to nobody was no virtue at all in the opin- set forth by his philosophy, are-piety as ion of Socrates; but he did not therefore the motive, usefulness as the measure, and infer that the utile quidlibet (not even the self-command as the means. The order eternal utility of Paley) is the ultimate end and connection of these principles, as they of man. If we might borrow for an instant are exhibited in the "Memorabilia" of the bold humor of Rowland Hill, in a Xenophon, might be likened to the parts matter which calls for his strong good- of a Doric column, and so presented to the sense, we would say that Socrates did not sight. The base of the pedestal should be
reverence for God. The die, or body of he enjoyed less of the pleasures of life than the vo: the pedestal, squared to a line, should be lupiuous man, who employed all his thoughts in the pursuit of them."- Memorabilia, book i. chap. 3. self-command. On this pedestal the shaft
“If I am observed to be not over-delicate in my of the column should be usefulness to mous delights which others indulge in, assign no the capital, of perfect Doric Simplicity, diet, if I sleep little, nor once taste of those infa- man, in all the relations of human Jise; and themselves far more eligible, which delight not should be moral beauty. alone for the moment in which they are enjoyed, In the visible metaphor by which we but gladden with the hope of yielding perpetual satisfaction."- Memorabilia, book i. chap. 6.
Dr. Bowring tells us that " it is in fact very "Nor do my votaries (Virtue is supposed to be idle to talk about dulies; the word itself bas in it speaking) fail to find pleasure in their repasts, something disagreeable and repulsive ; and talk about though small cost is wanted to furnish out their it as we may, the word will not become a rule of table; for hunger, not art, prepares it for them; conduct.” But will the more agreeable word pleawhile their sleep, which follows the labors of the sure become a rule of conduct ? Can we cheat men day, is far more sweet ihan whatever expense can into a discharging of their duties, by telling them procure for idleness; yet, sweet as it is, they quit it they are pleasures? In the first place it is not posunreluctant when called by their duty, whether to sible; in the second place it is not desirable. Sothe gods or men."- Memorabilia, book ii. chap. 1.- crates took other means to prepare his pupils for the See all the quotations about the religion of So- steep ascent; yet he told them also of ihe pleasures crates.
of a noble energy.
have illustrated the philosophy of Socrates, was a philosophy, not of flowers only, nor beauty, it will be observed, is made the even of flowers and fruits, but it was a phi. capital. As we shall have a much better losophy of seeds and plants, of buds, of opportunity of treating this most sound, as flowers and of fruits; yea, of future harit is most Grecian, principle, when we vests. come to speak of the Socrates of Plato as We are sure that the reviewer of Bacon compared with the Socrates of Xenophon, will not take an unfair advantage over us we will only add a picture of moral beauty, by replying that the philosophy of Socrates which must command admiration, respect blossomed and fruited indeed in his own and love for the character and philosophy principles and conduct, and in the wisdom of Socrates, from every man that studies and goodness of many of his friends and them intelligently and fairly, to the end of followers, but that it has had little practical time; requiring that irreverent hands be effect on the world at large, and so may be withdrawn from that divine head, on which called a philosophy of flowers. Such an Xenophon has placed this simple and grace- assertion may be made by thousands with ful wreath of a well-earned praise.
perfect sincerity, but assuredly not by any "As to myself, knowing him of a truth to be sound scholar; and by whomsoever it is such a man as I have described; so pious towards made, and with whatever degree of sincerithe gods, as never to undertake any thing with-ty, it certainly is not true. Socrates did out first consulting them ; so just towards men, not live in vain, neither did he die in vain, as never to do an injury, even the very slightest, in so far as the world's principles and practo any one, whilst many, and great were the tices are concerned. That his philosophy benefits he conferred on all with whom he had did not bear and has not borne all the fruit any dealings ; so temperate and chaste, as not to that might have been expected from the indulge any appetite or inclination at the expense of whatever was modest and becoming;
blossoms, are faults or defects for which 80 prudent, as never to err in judging of good neither he nor his philosophy is answerable. and evil, nor wanting the assistance of others to Is it urged that these lessons were not. discriminate rightly concerning them ; so able to found sufficient for the world? Of course discourse upon, and define with the greatest ac- they were not sufficient, if they were not curacy, not only those points of which we have sufficiently applied. If the statesmen and been speaking, but likewise every other, and, the priests of Greece would not do what. looking as it were, into the minds of men, discover the very moment for reprehending vice,
was necessary to bring the lessons of Soor stimulating to the love of virtue: experien- crates and his school home to the minds of cing, as I have done, all these excellencies in the people, of course the teaching of So. Socrates, I can never cease considering him as crates was insufficient,-insufficient, that the most virtuous and the most happy of all is, to arrest religious, moral and political mankind. But if there is any one who is dis- anarchy,-insufficient, that is, to establish posed to think otherwise, let him go and compare in men's minds the religious, the moral and Socrates with any other, and afterwards let him determine."--Memorabilia, book iv. chap. 7.
the political obligations, which alone could
have saved Greece. If the statesman and There is something revolting to our sense the priest did not apply the remedy, of of moral beauty, in turning from this pic course the disease was not cured. It was ture of the philosopher of ancient times to contended by Aristophanes, and doubtless. the picture of the man of science, with by Melitus, that the established religion which the reviewer of Bacon ends his and the established discipline were suffiwork. We do not wish to dwell upon the cient to correct the evils of the times, or, at contrast. That Bacon was a man of science, least, if they were insufficient, it was only not, we think, the man of science, Socrates because they had been relaxed, and all that would have been the last person to dispute ; was required was to urge them on the pubpay, he would have been the first to yield lic mind more intensely. So Aristophanes him a title to which he had the fullest claim. and Melitus contended, when they accused Why then did Bacon condescend to deny, Socrates of impiety, innovation and anor even to dispute, Socrates' claim to the archy. But the true question was, (and the title of philosopher? May we not say that answer is plain in the present time,) wheSocrates is the philosopher, not of antiquity ther the religion of Greece could continue only, but of all time? As a moral philoso- to be a sufficient foundation for principles pher, estimated by the difficulties he had to l'and conduct, under any olber mode of reencounter, the means he possessed and the ception than that which Socrates has sugeffects he produced, we do not consider gested in his explanation of the myths of ourselves presumptuous in claiming the Homer, and of which he has given so beau highest place for him. For his pbilosophy tiful an example in his version of the
*Choice of Hercules.' His views tend in some great statesman to arise who may be deed to the reformation of all religions; aware that all our powers for good are but it is by a method very different from wanted to resist evil. We Protestants centhat of the iconoclast. The reformation sure the Church of Rome for silencing, or he proposed would break down nothing attemping to silence Galileo, being our. with which piety and obligation are asso. selves convinced that all pbysical truth ciated. All he requires is to give a sounder ought 'o be known. Is moral iruth then so interpretation to the letter, and not to persist unimportant, that Protestants may silence too long, and till it is too late, in giving a the testimony of Socrates, hide the facts of real sense to that which ought to be re- his life, and neglect his convincing reasonceived as mystic. We leave to phrenolo-ings ?-nay, may misrepresent thein at gists to explain the action of the brain, their pleasure? Does the history of the but we believe that it becomes physically world so abound in unquestionable and irre. impossible at advanced periods to believesistible evidence and testimony of the great what at earlier periods is perfectly credible. truths which are demonstrated and testiStatesmen may keep men's heads as cool fied, both in his life and by his death, that as they can by fetters for the body and dog. we may neglect his testimony? mas for the mind; but the progress of Bacon may be a good witness of physievents, accelerating intellectual develop- cal usefulness, and Bentham a still beiter ment with a velocity at once fearful and witness of political usefulness; we would hopeful, must convince the real statesman (O neither dispute their claim, nor derogate that he would arise!) that one mode of con- from its value; but we ask, where shall we duct is alone safe, as it alone is reasonable find such a witness as Socrates of moral and conscientious, at least in a man of including religious principle ? Has the sound knowledge; in a man, for example, world's history three such connected witwho knows all that may be known and will nesses, such a body of evidence, as Sobe known of the religion and philosophy of crates, Plato and Aristotle supply? Why Greece. That philosophy, the philosophy are they hidden, or made known to comof Socrates, we further contend, has not paratively a few; and even that with no been in vain, in so far as the world at large deeper sincerity, no larger truth, than some has received it in various forms; though, of the criticisms of our fatherland supply? alas! it was not allowed by her priests and If Dr. Arnold thought rightly, that the his. statesmen to save Greece.
tory of Thucydides is of the deepest im. Shall we be told that now at least the portance and closest applicability to our own philosophy of Socrates has done all its al- times and interests and circumstances, is lotted work, and therefore is cast aside by there no sound parallelism in the reasoning scholars and universities, religionists, phi- which would prove that the philosophy of losophers and statesmen ? Shall we be told Socrates comes home to our business and this in an age which still echoes the fearful bosoms? words“Mortels ! cessez de trembler de. 'The claim of Socrates to our admiration, vant les foudress impuissans d'un Dieu respect and love forms a great body of evicréé par vos terreurs,* _in an age which dence in itself, and is perfectly compatible has seen the certain commentary on such with other evidence, in whatever form it be a text, “Ce ne sont pas seulement les received; but certainly is most compatible sciences, les arts consolateurs, les arts utils with the acceptance of other evidence in qui vont périr ; ce sont les premiers liens the form in which it is most true, and in de la société, les plus saintes affections qui which ultimately it can be received with sont rompus avec fureur. L'imagination most sincerity. Here is something sounder ne peut concevoir une plus affreuse pensée in principle, feeling and conduct, than that qu'un tel peuple exercant ses fureurs au cry of weakness and despair—"La nation centres de l'Europe?"
reconnait l'existence de l'Etre Suprême et In an age which re-echoes those fearful l'immortalité de l'âme"—that cry which words, and which has its own debt, deficit came too late.* and droits de Seigneur, even if it had no We turn to the philosophy of Bacon, as other resemblance to the age of reason, are set forth by his reviewer, and we ask whethwe to be told that the philosophy of So- er the fruits of Bacon's physical science, crates has done its work? We look for
* On what view of Christianity taken by the * See Lacretelle's History of the Revolution. But French church can such a system of Education, see, above all, Carlyle's masterly History. We Piety and Policy be founded, as may be a guarantee speak not of its style, which is noi to our laste, but for the peace of Europe and the world against the of its large grasp of ihe subject !
passions of that most excitable people?
which we would in no wise deny or under.
LADY SALE'S JOURNAL. value, are fitted to be the moral and the spir- A Journal of the Disasters in Affghanistan, itual food of man? Man does not live by bread alone. We admit, or rather we con.
1841–2. By Lady Sale. Murray. tend, that the Creator of man wills that he
Froin the Court Journal. be fed better physically than he has been or The excitement which has been caused now is: and towards this end Bacon did by the announcement of this book, has been much, and Bentham did more, though not very great. The certainty felt by all who all; for, we repeat, man does not live by know any thing of the character of the wribread alone. He not only has higher and ter, that she would speak out, has occasionnobler desires, but these higher and nobler ed a singular sensation. The heroine, for desires must be gratified, before he can eat such Lady Sale (despite her disclaimer of his daily bread in peace and safety, -ay, the title) has proved herself to be, has spokbefore be can have a full and assured supply en out, and the demand for this volume of daily bread to eat. For what is more will be proportioned to the freedom of her obvious than that the moral principles on revelations and comments. The courtesy which Bacon acted would, if they prevailed, of Mr. Murray has put us in possession of the render of no effect the physical principles journal at a period, late indeed for perusal, he desired to establish ?
--and too late for remark, were it desirable Not so with Socrates. In his life, and -but early enough to enable us to lay be. by his death, he exemplified the principles fore our readers a series of extracts which which he taught; principles which make will stimulate rather than satiate their cuindividuals, families and states most happy; riosity. principles not to be taken upon trust, but Lady Sale writes (we speak er cathedra, requiring God's rational creatures to exam. for we have read the volume from begin. ine them, whether they are useful, pure and ning to end) with simplicity and spirit. holy; and when this has been ascertained, Had sound vigorous sense like hers been requiring God's moral creatures to practise found in other heads, this journal would them, conscientiously, sincerely, truly. For never have been written. She details the Socrates points out distinctly that know fight, the watch, the storm, the skirmish, ledge without practice is not knowledge*; the massacre, and the march, without a and that the philosopher is, not he who word of affectation, and, indeed, without a knows, but be who knows and does. word to shw that she thinks she is telling
any thing out of the common way. She narrates the energetic executions, and the
melancholy fate of her gallant son-in-law, BE KIND TO EACH OTHER. Captain Sturt, in a tone of admiring affec
tion, but without a word of undue praise. BY CHARLES SWAIN.
The horrors of the dreadful retreat, told in
Lady Sale's straightforward, unaffected
style, exceed all ideas which have been Perchance may be gone !
formed from other recitals. But it is to the Then 'midst our dejection,
melancholy vacillation, the disgraceful ig. How sweet to have earned The blest recollection
norance, which led to all these scenes, that or kindness-returned!
the attention of the English public--of Eng. When day hath deparled,
lish statesmen, will be drawn.
We will not, by further remark, detain
the reader from our extracts, Lady Sale
states, in the “introduction" to her Joure Let falsehood assail not,
** I have not only daily noted dawn Against those ye love!
events as they occurred, but often have done so Nor change with to-morrow,
hourly. I have also given the reports of the Should fortune take wing,
day, the only information we possessed; also But the deeper the sorrow,
such news as was telegraphed" from the Bala The closer still cling! Oh, be kind to each other,
Hissar, or sent in by the King or by Capt. CoThe night's coming on,
nolly to the Envoy; and many other reports When friend and when brother
brought by Affghan gentlemen of Capt. Sturt's Perchance may be gone!
acquaintance, and by others of lower degree, North of England Magazine. who having had dealings with him in the engi
neer department and public works, and having • See Memorabilia, book iv. chap. 6.
received kindness from him, gave him such inVOL. II. No. II. 15
telligence and warning as was in their power : cult part to play, without sufficient moral couall of which he communicated to his superior rage to stem the current singly. About two officers] at different times ; but the warnings months since, Sir William wrote to Lord Auckwere not attended to; and as when he gave his land, explaining to him the present state of Affadvice it was seldom adhered to, he became dis-ghanistan, and requesting that five additional gusted, and contented himself with zealously regiments should be sent to this country, two of performing his duties and making himself gene-them to be European. To these statements a rally useful, acting the part of an artillery officer written war succeeded between the Envoy and as well as that of an engineer. Had poor Sturt's the Supreme Government of Bengal. Letler life been spared, it was bis intention to have after letter came, calling for retrenchment. Sir worked up my Rough Notes, and to have added William had been appointed from home Govermuch valuable information; he was too much nor of Bombay, and was particularly chosen for overworked to afford leisure to give me assis- the office from his being a moderator, and a man tance at the time. His plans, drawings, &c., unlikely to push any violent measures. He hoped with his public and private papers, were lost, ex affairs might take a turn for the better, and was cept a note or two that were, just a few days be evidently anxious to leave Cabul, and assume fore we left Cabul, put with my Journal. I be- his new appointment. In an evil hour, lie aclieve several people kept an account of these ceded to the entreaties of Sir Alexander Burnes, proceedings, but all except myself lost all they (who appears to have been blinded on the subhad written; and had recourse to memory after- ject,) and wrote to Lord Auckland to nullify his wards. I lost every thing except the clothes I former request for additional troops, and to say wore; and therefore it may appear strange that that part of those now in the country might be I should have saved these papers. The myste- withdrawn. The 1st brigade, under Sale, was ry is, however, easily solved. After every thing accordingly ordered to be in readiness to move was packed on the night before we lest Cabul, 1 down; and it was generally understood that all sat up to add a few lines to the events of the would be withdrawn as soon as the Shah had day, and the next morning, I put them in a small raised five more regiments of his own. The letbag and tied them round my waist.
ter of recall, as we may term Sir William's, was This is her account of the commence-the Zoormut affair.
sent off only two days before the breaking out of ment of the revolt:-In former times, under the feudal system,
Againwhen the sovereign of Cabul required iroops, The state of supineness and fancied security each bold chieftain came forward with his re of those in power in cantonments is the result tainers; but these vassals had been taken from of deference to the opinions of Lord Auckland, them, and were embodied in corps commanded whose sovereign will and pleasure it is that tranby British officers, to whom they owed no affec- quillity do reign in Affghanistan; in fact, it is retion, and only paid a forced obedience, whilst ported at Government House, Calcutta, that the their hearts were with their national religion ; lawless Affghans are as peaceable as London their chief's power was now greatly limited, and citizens; and this being decided by the powers the chouk guaranteed to them was withheld on that be, why should we be on the alert? the plea that the Company had commanded re- Most dutifully do we appear to shut our eyes trenchments. But the saving required by Gov- on our probable fate. The Shah is, however, to ernment was a curtailment of those expenses be protected, whatever may be the fate of the which were defrayed by its own rupees, whereas English in the city; and Brig. Shelton is sent the 40,000 rupees now the subject of dispute with the Shah's 6th, some of the 44th Queen's, were, in fact, no saving at all to us, as that mo- and three horse artillery guns, under Capt. ney was never paid by the Company, but was Nicholl, to the Bala Hissar. The King, as he the chouk or money excused to the chiefs out of well may be, is in great consternation, the revenue or dues owing to the King, on con
More to the same effect:dition of their enforcing the submission of the petty chiefs, and the payment of their rents. No military steps have been taken to supThis sum, whether paid to Shah Shoojah or not, press the insurrection, nor even to protect our would never have replenished the Hon. Compa- only means of subsistence (the Godowns), in the ny's coffers; and by upholding the Shah in such event of a siege. The King, Envoy, and Genean act of aggression we compromised our faith, ral, appear perfectly paralyzed by this sudden and cauged pretty general insurrection, said to outbreak: the former is deserted by all his courbe headed by Meer Musjude.
tiers, and by even his most confidential servants,
except the Wuzeer, who is strongly suspected The Envoy is thus spoken of :
of having instigated the conspiracy; and suspiwhen Sir Willoughby Cotton com- cion attaches to his majesty again. It is here manded, and during the disturbances in the Ko- necessary to observe, that several months ago histan, every despatch from Sale, who command- letters calling on all true Mussulmans to rise ed the troops there, was promulgated in orders, against the Kaffirs (English unbelievers) were and the present system of keeping information widely disseminated: they bore the King's sig. close is disgusting; there can be no secrets re- nature; but Sir William Macnaghten always garding what passes in action in the field. The insisted that they were forgeries of a very pegeneral impression is that the Envoy is trying culiar description, that papers bearing the vera. to deceive himself into an assurance that the cious signature had had their contents washed country is in a quiescent state. He has a diffi-| out, and these seditious writings inserted. The