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of the King, and reflection upon the max. 1 He remained in Loo ten years, during ims they contain." "How am I to begin which time, besides his ordinary pursuits the acquisition of wisdom ?” asked the and occupations, including music, of which minister ; "tell me something which may he was passionately fond, * he joined a parbe easily retained and readily practised.” |ty of professional huntsmen. The chase “With reference to your high post,” re- was in early times inculcated as a duty and joined the philosopher, “I advise you to enforced by law. This is the view taken bear in mind this axiom : steel, be it ever so of it by Confucius, who, when his disciples hard, may be broken-so that what appears objected to this step, on the ground that most firm may often be most easily de- the pursuit of wild animals was an employstroyed."

ment derogatory to a sage, observed that On his visit to the Ming-tang, or Temple nothing is beneath the attention of a wise of Light, observing that the portraits of man; that hunting was one of the earliest the emperors, good and bad indiscriminate occupations of mankind ; that the most illy, were placed together, he remarked to lustrious monarchs of antiquity bad prachis disciples, that it might at first excite tised it, and that thereby, not only was the surprise to see the likenesses of such men country cleared of wild beasts, but the peoas Këě and Chow-sin, who bad insulted the ple were innred to the fatigues of war. Teen, and outraged humanity, arranged The sanction of religion was superadded to beside those of Yaou and Shun; but, in the obligation of law; for, as the philosofact, the juxtaposition invited a contrast pher remarked, the offerings to ancestors of their characters, and tended, by exciting made by the emperors consisted of venison salutary recollections, to inspire both a killed in the chase with their own hands. love of virtue and an abhorrence of vice. The object which Confucius had in view,

After a residence of some months at the according to Mång-tsze, in this as in other imperial court, during which time he had instances, was to recall the nation to a reinspected its written records and all the gard for ancient customs, by re-converting relics of antiquity, visited Laou-tsze, at into a rite which was degenerating into a Seih-tae—with whose doctrines, which had mere recreation. already a good number of followers, he It was at this period (B. c. 510) that Conmade himself acquainted,--and diffused fucius applied himself, more particularly, the principles of his own system, he left to a careful revision of the King : he works. it (B. c. 516), with sentiments of sorrow at ed night and day, and it is said that he its degeneracy, and returned to the court wore out, by frequent use, no less than of Tse. He was mortified to find that his three sets of bamboo bundles of these efforts at amelioration here had produced works, which was then the form of Chinese so little effect. He was received, indeed, volumes. He reduced the She-king from with open arms by the king and people, and three thousand poems to three hundred and had his object been renown alone, it would eleven; he gave an edition of the Shoo. have been amply gratified. His end, how-king, wherein he retrenched whatever he ever, was utility; and finding this disap- thought useless for the reformation of gov. pointed, he returned to Loo.

ernment and manners, reducing the numThe king, Chaou-kung, rejoiced at his ber of chapters from one hundred to fifty. return; but his ministers had good reason He employed his disciples in comparing the to dread the presence of one whose discharacters, arranging the subjects under cernment would detect their malversations; the proper heads or chapters, ascertaining who was too honest to conceal them, and the authenticity of the text, and writing the who had too much influence over their reasons for his changes and abridgements, sovereign to fear their intrigues. They which he dictated. These celebrated adopted, however, a stratagem which books now appear in the state in which he would have succeeded with none but Con left them. But the chief object of his fucius. They nominated him (B. c. 511) to editorial labors was the Yih-king, consista subordinate office, in expectancy, which ing of the Kæa of Fúh-he, with the comkept him apart from the prince. His fol. mentaries of Wăng-wang and Chow-kung, lowers, indignant at this insult, advised him which, though the most esteemed of the to reject the appointment. Confucius mild

* He declared that music was not to him a mere ly replied, that his refusal of such an hum assemblage of agreeable sounds, which gratified ble post would be attributed to pride ; and the ear, and left no trace upon the mind. On the “what good effect would my instructions contrary, it produced distinct images and ideas, have,” he asked, “if I were supposed to be the only instrument of Confucius was the rude kin, classics, and considered as the first book | be constrained to pay him a visit of thanks, given to mankind, in which they might read which he was most anxious to avoid. He, at all that it behoved them to know and prac. length, decided to accept the present, and, tise here below, had been so strangely ne- with a species of artifice somewhat at variglected, as to be almost unintelligible. To ance with his customary candor, to pay his his comments on this work the philosopher visit of thanks when he knew the minister dedicated almost the whole of his life. was from home. Accident, however, deConversations with his disciples, music, feated the latter scheme; he met Yang-hoo walking, formed the relaxations of his se without the city, and the latter, addressing vere toils: his official functions imposed a the philosopher graciously, invited him to small tax upon his time.

which remained after the sounds had ceased. Yet actuated by such a passion ?"

or lute,

his house, observing, in an insinuating tone, On the death of Chaou-kung (B. c. 509) that, if his own occupations permitted, he and the accession of Ting-kung to the would be the most zealous of his disciples. throne of Loo, a minister, named Ke-sha, “Ought a man like you," he continued, gained an entire ascendency over the new " who is in possession of the most invalusovereign, and, removing all the grandees able treasure, namely, wisdom, to bury it?" from court, secured free scope to his ambi- Confucius modestly replied, “the man who, tion. He was, however, supplanted by one indeed, possesses such a treasure, does of his own creatures, who pursued the same wrong to bury it: he ought to let all parpolicy. It was at this time (B. c. 508) that take of it who can.” “And he who holds Confucius threw up his petiy magistrate the torch of science," continued Yang-hoo, ship. His disciples, deeming his conduct “ should he suffer it to expire in his hands { inconsistent, inquired the reason. “ When Ought he not to employ it in illuminating I was offered,” he replied, “an inferior those who are in the gloom of ignorance?" post, I was bound, for the sake of example, " An enlightened man,” Confucius gravely not to refuse it. Those who offered it, answered, “ should try to enlighten others." moreover, were the legitimate depositaries “Nay, then," resumed the minister, "you of the sovereign's authority, and it is the are self-condemned. You are stored with duty of a subject to serve his king in what. wisdom, and able to instruct those who ever post he is chosen to fill, provided he direct the belin of government, yet you be not required to do what is manifestly deny them your aid. Is this the conduct wrong. But the case is now different ; of a man who has the good of the people those who administer the sovereign's pow. at heart ?" “Every one who loves ihe er, and dispense dignities and offices, are public weal,” rejoined Confucius, “ought odious usurpers, and to exercise any func- io show it by his conduct.” By these and tion under them, is, in some measure, to other ambiguous answers, the philosopher, sanction their usurpation. Thus, for the with calm dignity and perfect courtesy, sake of example, as well as out of a regard parried the crafty questions of a bad man, to duty, I am now bound to reject with who, he knew, was studying his ruin: it is disdain what I once accepted with grati- by such ingenious policy that individuals tude. Is there any contradiction in this ?" in public stations in China endeavor to ex.

The conduct of Confucius being report. tricate themselves from similar embarrassed to Yang-hoo, the usurping minister, ment. the latter devised a subtle scheme for Whilst the followers of the Confucian entrapping him and subjecting him to tenets increased in number, their author punishment. He prepared a sumptuous continued his studies with little intermis. sacrifice in honor of ancestors; and it sion, except to advise those who sought being the custom to distribute the offer his instruction in the sciences and liberal ings, after the ceremony, amongst the arts, as well as in the “doctrines of the most devoted and most favored grandees, ancients.” For this purpose, his house was • who could not refuse a gist which was es- always open, and a gallery, or an anteteemed sacred, Confucius was included in chamber, was appropriated to visitors, who the list. The philosopher, desirous of hold waited there till the "master," as he, like ing no intercourse with the man, yet equal. Pythagoras, was called, came forth. ly scrupulous in what concerned ceremo. In B. c. 507, with a view of ascertaining nies and the rules of good manners, was a the number of his followers in other states, little embarrassed. If he declined the pre- and of confirming them in his doctrines, he sent, he offered an affront to the sender, resolved to travel once more. He proceedand violated the ritual; if he accepted it, ed first to Chen, a little state on the conbe not only allowed himself to be consider- fines of Ho-nan, where he met with an ined one of the usurper's partisans, but would different reception: the great were devoted

to luxury, the people plunged in misery, mankind different from what they are and and consequently discontented. From this must be. He is an impracticable theorist, melancholy scene, our sage determined to and your subjects habituated to customs direct his steps to Tse, the affairs of which which he is about to alter, will be incited were not in much better condition. King- to insurrection. Your ease will be invaded kung, the sovereign, was, however, on a by the toils he will impose upon you, as visit to Loo. The prince had excellent as well as by the murmurs of your people ; qualities, but not those which fitted him and you will find too late that the votaries for government. Though he boasted of his of wisdom and virtue do not always regafamiliarity with the political maxims of the late their own conduct by the rules they three wang and the five te, he left all the profess. Let this philosopher, if he will, details of state policy to his ministers, who give instructions to those who voluntarily abused his confidence. He treated Confu- seek information respecting history, music, cius, on his return to Loo, with particular rites, and the classics; but do not counterespect, as one whose disciple he was; he nance his dangerous changes, and arm him commanded him to sit during their inter- with power to enforce them, by appointing view, and began the conversation by in him your minister." quiring how it was that Muh-kung, the These arguments, which might have celebrated king of Tsin, was able, in a few moved wiser princes, induced King-kung years, to transform his state, which was of to revoke the appointment of Confucius; small extent with a barren soil, into one of and, by the artifice of the minister, contra. formidable power and rich in natural pro- ry to the king's express command, this was ductions. Confucius replied, that Muh. done in a manner calculated to disgust the wang was a wise prince, of enlarged views, philosopher. The latter, however, ascribed who studied the good of his subjects. The the act to its true cause; but he nevertheking asked, how he could accomplish the less quitted Tse, and returned to his native same end? The philosopher replied, "by country. selecting a good minister;" adding, that Amopgst the anecdotes related respecting Muh-kung had been indebted to Po-le-se (a Confucius, at this period, there is one which man unjustly despised both in Tsin and evinces his desire to disclaim supernatural Chow) for the execution of the plans he had knowledge. In one of their walks, he adformed, and consequently for the improve. vised his disciples to provide themselves ments in his state. The king felt this to be a with umbrellas, since, although the sky was severe satire on his own conduct, and pro- perfectly fair, there would soon be raio. mised to imitate Muh-kung; but, on his The event, contrary to their expectation, return to Tse, he wanted either virtue or corresponded with his prediction, and one courage to act. Confucius, feeling an in. of them inquired what spirit had revealed terest in the character of King-kung, re. to him this secret? “ There is no spirit in solved to help his infirmity of purpose, and the matter," said Confucius ingenuously; set out for Ise, accompanied by two or “a verse in the She-king says that when three disciples. The king, in regal pomp, the moon rises in the constellation pe, great surrounded with his guards, received the rain may be expected.' Last night, I saw philosopher as a superior, and desired him the moon in that constellation. This is the to take precedence. Confucius, with char- whole secret.” acteristic humility, declined, observing that Another incident related in this part of the king degraded himself by thus exalting his history illustrates the character and one who was not of royal rank. King-kung views of Confucius. Amongst the few anreplied: “A sage is superior to a king." cient ceremonies still observed, was that of He could not, however, overcome the re- offering sacrifices on mountains. With this pugnance of the philosopher to lending the intention, he ascended Nung-shan, attended sanction of his example to the inversion of by three disciples, Tsze-loo, Tsze-kung, established order.

and Yan-hwuy. After he had finished the The king created Confucius one of his ceremony, he cast his eyes around from ministers, and, for a short time, there was the summit of the hill, sighed deeply, and a prospect that the golden age of “high descended in silence, and with an aspect of antiquity” would be renewed in the state grief. His companions inquired the reason of Tse. But the prime minister succeeded of this sorrow; Confucius replied, that he in alarming the apprehensions of his mas- could not forbear thinking of the condition ter. “This foreigner," said he," is intro of the surrounding nations, and deploring ducing innovations which will infallibly their disordered state and mutual animosioverturn your throne. He wishes to make ties. “This it is," he added, “which has afflicted me. Can neither of you conceive faculties. What can be more simple and a remedy for the present, and how to pre natural than the principles of that moral vent future ills ?" Tsze-loo, who had re- code, the maxims of which I inculcate ? ceived a military education, replied that, All I tell you, our ancient sages have pracin his opinion, the disorders might be cured tised before us, in the remotest times, if a strong army was placed under his com- namely, the observance of the three fundamand, with which he would attack evil- mental laws of relation, between sovereign doers without mercy, cut off the heads of and subject, father and child, husband and the most guilty, and expose them as an ex. wife ; and the five capital virtues; namely, ample to the rest ; after this victory, he universal charity, impartial justice, conwould employ his two colleagues in enforc. formity to ceremonies and established ing order, the observance of the laws, and usages, rectitude of heart and mind, and the restoration of ancient usages. “ You pure sincerity.”. This is a concise sumare a brave man,” said Confucius. Tsze- mary of the whole moral system of Confukung said he would proceed in another cius. manner. At the critical moment, when the The enlarged and liberal notions upon armies of two kingdoms were about to en- which the political doctrines of Confucius gage, he would rush between them, clad in were built, are demonstrated by an occur. a mourning habit, and, in a pathetic appeal rence which took place at this epoch. to them, set forth the horrors of war, the Tëen-chan, one of the ministers of the Tse blessings of peace, the delights of the do- state, not content with the plenitude of mestic circle, the obligations due to socie- sovereign power, was ambitious of the ty, and the woes entailed upon it by ambi- name of king. He was withheld from detion, licentiousness, and indulgence of the throning his master by fear of hostility passions; “touched by this address," said from Loo, and resolved, therefore, in the he, “they would drop their arms, and re- first place, to attack this state. Confucius, turn in harmony to their respective homes; aware that the storm was about to burst when I would employ Tsze-loo in regulat- upon his country, was lamenting to his dising military, and Yan-hwuy civil concerns; ciples that no one had talents and courage the one would restore order, the other to divert the blow; when Tsze-kung ofmaintain it.” “You are an eloquent man, ,"fered to essay this arduous service. The observed the philosopher. Yan-hwuy was philosopher desired him to lose no time. silent, nor, until the master had insisted Tsze-kung promptly visited in secret the upon hearing his opinion, did he modestly grandees and dependents of the Tse state, say, that he wished for nothing more than whom he incited against the treacherous humbly to co-operate with a virtuous and minister by representing that it was as enlightened monarch, in banishing vice and much their interest as their duty to sucflattery, encouraging sincerity and virtue, cor their king, since they would in the end instructing the people, and ameliorating become the victims of Teen-chan's amtheir condition. '“When all fulfilled their bition. These suggestions had due weight; duties," he observed, “there would be no the nobles of Tse leagued together against need of warriors to compel, nor rhetori- the minister; the kin dom was racked cians to persuade, men to virtue; so that with internal dissentions, which invited the valor of Tsze-loo and the eloquence of attacks from without; Tëen-chan's project Tsze-kung would be equally superfluous.” was effectually crushed, and Tsze-kung re“You are a wise man,” said Confucius. turned to his master with the exultation of “But which is the preferable scheme?" ask. one who thought he had deserved well of ed the impatient Tsze-loo. “If what has been his country. Confucius, conformably to suggested by Yan-hwuy," replied the phi- his babit, said nothing which directly aplosopher coolly, “could be accomplished, proved or condemned his measures ; he mankind would retrieve and perpetuate simply observed : “ The troubles which their happiness, without loss of blood, ex- now agitate Tse are the salvation of Loo. penditure of property, or waste of time in In like ınanner, if an emissary from Tsin elaborate discourses.'

were to stir up disorders in Woo, the kingIt was his practice, in this manner, to dom of Yuě would reap the advantage. make his disciples and pupils think for Your eloquence has succeeded, but beyond themselves, and discover the truth by their my views. I looked only to the safety of own efforts, rather than lean upon his au. my own country. To say and to do too thority. "I teach you nothing," he often much, proves often a source of unforeseen repeated, “but what you might learn your- and irremediable calamity. Ponder upon selves, if you made a proper use of your this."

VOL. II. No. IV. 33

Ting-kung, king of Loo, could not con- My character and habits concur with the tinue blind to the advantage he sacrificed object I have in view, in impelling me to by losing the benefit of Confucius's services act as I do; for I am resolved to purge tbe in the state. He accordingly offered him palace of the lazy and licentious crew that (B. c. 505) the post of " governor of the infest it.

All eyes are fixed upon me; people” (chief municipal magistrate) in the every action of mine is criticised; and it capital, which the philosopher accepted. is essential that I should set an exomple of His first object in this high office was to unlimited respect to the sovereign, which gain the confidence of his inferiors by kind others may not scruple to follow.” ness and courtesy. He conversed with The king of Loo, convinced of the solid them often, treated them as his equals, and services, and of the splendid talenis, of appeared even to consult their opinions. Confucius, summoned him into his preThe fruit of this policy was, that all his sence, and offered him the post of Szeedicts were heartily carried into execution. kaou, which placed him at the head of the It is said that, in three months, the change magistracy, civil and criminal, throughout in public morals was so visible, that the the kingdom, with authority inferior only kinr could not suppress his astonishment. to that of the king himself. Confucius Confucius extended his solicitude to the hesitated for a moment, then accepted the peasantry, and by introducing a system of charge, on one condition ;-he frankly told classifying soils, he was enabled not only the king, that one of his chief ministers* to adjust the imposts upon a fairer basis, (ta-foo), by his rapine, corruption, and but to give a more profitable direction to vices, was the main cause of the evils the labor of the cultivators of the land. which afflicted the kingdom; and that he Abuses he corrected without tumult or must commence his new office by bringing violence, so that he met with little or no this man to punishment, as a penalty due to opposition in any of his reforms, which in- his crimes and an example 10 utbers. The variably bore the unobjectionable character king warned the philosopher that this inof a return to ancient rules and customs dividual had many friends, who might em. His own example exhibited a model of barrass the government; but Confucius loyalty to the sovereign, and obedience to shrewdly observed, that such a person the laws. When he paid his respects to might have adherents, who would, how. the king, his countenance and deportment ever, readily desert him, but could have no denoted modesty, humility, and even ven- friends. In short, within seven days after eration. It is recorded that, before he en- he had entered upon bis functions, the tered the audience-chamber, he moulded minister was tried, convicted, and conhis features into an expression of gravity, demned by Confucius himself to be be. arranged his dress with care, bent his body headed with the sword deposited in the a little, fixed his eyes upon the ground, and, Hall of Ancestors. All men, good and bad, with his hands upon his breast, walked even the philosopher's followers, were slowly to the place assigned him.

struck with amazement at this prompt and This studied carriage some of his disci- terrible act of severity. One of bis disci. ples naturally thought savored of affec- ples taxed him with precipitation, remarking tation ; and they remarked to him that, that some method might have been derised though he laid much stress upon decency to save a man of the minister's rank froin of mien and exterior, yet he had also cau. so ignominious a fare, and to preserve to tioned them against affectation; “And is the country the benefit of bis great talents not your behavior," said they, “when you and experience. Confucius acknowledged approach the palace, tinctured with that the splendid qualities of the minister; but very quality you condemn? You tell us, observed that there were five classes of too, ihat we must not exceed the just mean, crimes which did not deserve pardon. The even in what is good.” “I acknowledge,” first were those meditated in secret, and replied the philosopher, “that a wise man perpetrated under the mask of virtue. The should despise affectation, and in all things second consisted of incorrigibility, proved hold the just mean ; but I deny that, in the in grave matters, which involved ihe gen. matter in question, I am guilty of affectation or excess. We are bound above all

* Ta-foo was the title of the iwo chief ministers in

the pelly kingdoms under the Chuw dynasty, namely, things to honor and reverence heaven; and Shang-ia-foo, and Hea-la-100, or higher and lwes there can be no excess in the measure of ta-fuo. This title must be distinguished from that respect we pay to those who are repre San-kung, or three chief ministers of the mperial

of tae-foo, "great instructor," ihe second of the sentatives of heaven. The mode of testify court, to whom reference is afterwards made by ing respect differs in different individuals. I Confucius.

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