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Legislative Departnient Sec, 1. The legislative authority of this State shall be vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, which shall be designated the General Assembly of the State of Iowa, and the style of their laws shall commence in the following manner: “ Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Iowa."
2. The sessions of the General Assembly shall be biennial, and shall commence on the first Monday of December next ensuing the election of its members; unless the Governor of the State shall, in the interim, convene the General Assembly by proclamation.
3. The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen every second year, by the qualified electors of their respective districts, on the first Monday in August, whose term of office shall continue two years from the day of the general election.
4. No person shall be a member of the House of Representatives who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years; be a free white male citizen of the United States, and have been an inhabitant of this State or territory one year next preceding his election; and at the time of his election, have an actual residence of thirty days in the county or district he may be chosen to represent.
5. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four years, at the same time and place as representatives; they shall be twenty-five years of age, and possess the qualifications of representatives as to residence and citizenship.
6. The number of senators shall not be less than one-third nor more than one-half the representative body, and at the first session of the General Assembly after this Constitution takes effect, the senators shall be divided by lot, as equally as may be, into two classes; the seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, so that one-half shall be chosen every two years.
7. When the number of senators is increased, they shall be annexed by lot to one of the two classes, so as to keep them as nearly equal in number as practicable.
8. Each house shall choose its own officers and judge of the qualification, election, and return of its own members. A contested election shall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law.
9. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.
10. Each house shall sit upon its own adjournments, keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same; determine its rules of proceedings, punish members for disorderly behavior, and with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same offence, and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the General Assembly of a free and independent State.
11. Every member of the General Assembly shall have the liberty to dissent from or protest against any act or resolution which he may think injurious to the public or an individual, and have the reasons for his dissent entered on the journals; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be entered on the journals.
12. Senators and representatives in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, shall be privileged from arrest during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same.
13. When vacancies occur in either house, the Governor or the person exercising the functions of the Governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies,
14. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy.
26. Every law shall embrace but one object, which shall be expressed in this title.
27. No law of the General Assembly, of a public nature, shall take effect until the same shall be published and circulated in the several counties of this State, by authority. If the General Assembly shall deem any law of immediate importance, they may provide that the same shall take effect by publication in newspapers in the State.
28. No divorce shall be granted by the General Assembly.
29. No lottery shall be authorized by this State, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed.
30. Members of the General Assembly shall, before they enter upon the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: I do solemnly swear or affirm (as the case may be), that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of Iowa, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of senator (or representative as the case may be), according to the best of my ability. And members of the General Assembly are hereby empowered to administer to each other the said oath or affirmation,
31. Within one year after the ratification of this Constitution, and within every subsequent term of two years, for the term of eight years, an enumeration of all the white inhabitants of this State shall be made, in such manner as shall be directed by law. The number of senators and representatives shall, at their first regular session of the General Assembly after such enumeration, be fixed by law, and apportioned among the several counties according to the number of white inhabitants in each; and shall also, at every subsequent regular session, apportion the House of Representatives, and every other regular session the Senate, for eight years; and the House of Reprepentatives shall never be less than twenty-six, nor greater than thirty-nine, until the number of white inhabitants shall be one hundred and seventy-five thousand; and after that event, at such ratio that the whole number of representatives shall never be less than thirty-nine nor exceeding seventy-two.
32. When a congressional, senatorial, or representative district shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be entirely separated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be divided in forming a congressional, senatorial, or representative district,
33. In all elections by the General Assembly, the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journal.
34. For the first ten years after the organization of the government, the annual salary of the Governor shall not exceed one thousand dollars; Secretary of State, five hundred dollars; treasurer, four hundred dollars; auditor, six hundred dollars; judges of the Supreme and district courts, each one thousand dollars.
ARTICLE V.-Executive Department. Sec. 1. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of Iowa.
2. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the time and place of voting for members of the General Assembly, and shall hold his office four years from the time of his installation, and until his successor shall be qualified.
3. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor, who has not been a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the State two years next preceding the election, and attained the age of thirty years at the time of said election.
4. The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in presence of both houses of the General Assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be Governor; but in case any two or more have an equal and the highest number of votes, the General Assembly shall, by joint ballot, choose one of said persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes, for Governor.
5. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, the army, and navy of this State.
6. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of government, civil and military, and may require information in writing from the officers of the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.
7. He shall see that the laws are faithfully executed.
8. When any office shall from any cause become vacant, and no mode is provided by the Constitution and laws for filling such vacancy, the Governor shall have power to fill such vacancy, by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the next session of the General Assembly, or at the next election by the people.
9. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Assembly by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the purpose for which they shall have been convened.
10. He shall communicate by message to the General Assembly, at every session, the condition of the State, and recommend such matters as he shall deem expedient.
11. In case of disagreement between the two houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, the Governor shall have power to adjourn the General Assembly to such time as he may think proper, provided it be not beyond the time fixed for the meeting of the next General Assembly
12. No person shall, while holding any other office under the United States, or this State, execute the office of Governor, except as hereinafter expressly provided.
13. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and commute punishments after conviction, except in cases of impeachment.
14. The Governor shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the time for which he shall have been elected.
15. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of Iowa.
16. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the people of the State of Iowa, sealed with the great seal of this State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.
17. A Secretary of State, auditor of public accounts, and treasurer, shall be elected by the qualified electors, who shall continue in office two years. The Secretary of State shall keep a fair register of all the official acts of the Governor, and shall, when required, lay the same, together with all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before either branch of the General Assembly, and shall perform such other duties as shall be assigned him by law.
18. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his removal from office, death, resignation, or absence from the State, the powers and duties of the of fice shall devolve upon the Secretary of State, until such disability shall cease, or the vacancy be filled.
19. If, during the vacancy of the office of Governor, the Secretary of State shall be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or be absent from the State, the powers and duties of the office of Governor shall devolve upon the President of the Senate; and should a vacancy occur by impeachment, death, resignation, or absence from the State, of the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall act as Governor till the vacancy be filled.
ARTICLE VI.-Judicial Department. Sec. 1. The judicial power shall be vested in a Supreme Court, district courts, and such inferior courts as the General Assembly may from time to time establish.
2. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and two associates, two of whom shall be a quorum to hold Court.
3. The judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected by joint vote of both branches of the General Assembly, and shall hold their courts at such time and place as the General Assembly may direct, and hold their offices for six years, and until their successors are elected and qualified; and shall be ineligible to any other office during the term for which they may be elected. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only in all cases in chancery, and shall constitute a Court for the correction of errors at law, under such restrictions as the General Assembly may by law prescribe. The Supreme Court shall have power to issue all writs and processes necessary to do justice to parties, and exercise a supervisory control over all inferior judicial tribunals, and the judges of the Supreme Court shall be conservators of the peace throughout the State.
4. The district court shall consist of a judge, who shall be elected by the qualified voters of the district in which he resides, at the township election, and hold his office for the term of five years, and until his successor is duly elected and qualified, and shall be ineligibie to any other office during the term for which he may be elected. The district court shall be a court of law and equity, and have jurisdiction in all civil and criminal matters arising in their respective districts, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. The judges of the district courts shall be conservators of the peace in their respective districts. The first session of the General Assembly shall divide the State into four. districts, which may be increased as the exigencies require.
5. The qualified voters of each county shall, at the general election, elect one prosecuting attorney and one clerk of the district court, who shall be residents therein, and who shall hold their several offices for the term of two years, and until their successors are elected and qualified.
6. The style of all processes shall be, “the State of Iowa,” and all prosecutions shall be conducted in the name and by the authority of the same.
ARTICLE VII.-Militia. Sec. 1. The militia of this State shall be composed of all able-bodied white male citizens between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, except such as are or may hereafter be exempt by the laws of the United States or of this State, and shall be armed, equipped, and trained, as the General Assembly may provide by law.
2. No person or persons conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms, shall be compelled to do militia duty in time of peace: Provided, that such person or persons shall pay an equivalent for such exemption, in the same manner as other citizens.
3. All commissioned officers of the militia (staff-officers excepted) shall be elected by the persons liable to perform military duty, and shall be commissioned by the Governor.
ARTICLE VIII.--State Debts. The General Assembly shall not in any manner create any debt or debts, liability or liabilities, which shall singly or in the aggregate, with any previous debts or liabilities, exceed the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, except in case of war, to repel invasion, or suppress insurrection, unless the same shall be authorized by some law for some single object, or work to be distinctly specified therein, which law shall provide ways and means, exclusive of loans, for the payment of the interest of such debt or liability as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt or liability within twenty years from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable until the principal and interest thereon shall be paid and discharged; but no such law shall take effect until at a general election it shall have been submitted to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such election, and all money raised by authority of such law, shall be applied only to the specific object therein stated, or to the payment of the debt thereby