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man some assurance, and makes him easy | No. 68.] Friday, May 18, 1711. in all companies. For want of this, I have

Nos duo turba sumus- Ovid, Met. i. 355. seen a professor of a liberal science at a

We two are a multitude. loss to salute a lady; and a most excellent mathematician not able to determine

One would think that the larger the whether he should stand or sit while my company is in which we are engaged, the lord drank to him.

greater variety of thoughts and subjects It is the proper business of a dancing would be started in discourse; but instead master to regulate these matters; though I

of this, we find that conversation is never take it to be a just observation, that unless so much straitened and confined as in nuyou add something of your own to what

merous assemblies. When a multitude meet these fine gentlemen teach you, and which together on any subject of discourse, their they are wholly ignorant of themselves, you

debates are taken up chiefly with forms will much sooner get the character of an

and general positions; nay, if we come into affected fop, than of a well-bred man.

a more contracted assembly of men and As for country dancing, it must indeed women, the talk generally runs upon the be confessed that the great familiarities be- weather, fashions, news, and the like pubtween the two sexes on this occasion may lic topics. In proportion as conversation sometimes produce very dangerous conségets into clubs and knots of friends, it dequences; and I have often thought that few scends into particulars, and grows more ladies' hearts are so obdurate as not to be free and communicative; but the most open, melted by the charms of music, the force instructive, and unreserved discourse, is that of motion, and a handsome young fellow which passes between two persons who are who is continually playing before their

familiar and intimate friends. On these oceyes, and convincing them that he has the casions a man gives a loose to every passion perfect use of all his limbs.

and every thought that is uppermost, dis But as this kind of dance is the particular

covers his most retired opinions of persons invention of our own country, and as every and things, tries the beauty and strength of one is more or less a proficient in it, I would his sentiments, and exposes his whole sou not discountenance it: but rather suppose

to the examination of his friend. it may be practised innocently by others,

Tully was the first who observed, that as well as myself, who am often partner to

friendship improves happiness and abates my landlady's eldest daughter.

misery, by the doubling of our joy, and di

viding of our grief; a thought in which he POSTSCRIPT.

hath been followed by all the essayers upon

friendship, that have written since his time. Having heard a good character of the collection of pictures which is to be exposed

Sir Francis Bacon has finely described

other advantages, or, as he calls them, to sale on Friday next; and concluding from

m the following letter, that the person who

fruits of friendship; and, indeed, there is

imits of fun collected them is a man of no uneleganttern

10 no subject of morality which has been bettaste, I will be so much his friend as to

gant ter handled and more exhausted than this. publish it, provided the reader will only me

| Among the several fine things which have

nly been spoken of it, I shall beg leave to quote look upon it as filling up the place of an

some out of a very ancient author, whose advertisement:

book would be regarded by our modern * From the Three Chairs, in the Piazzas,

wits as one of the most shining tracts of moCovent Garden.

rality that is extant, if it appeared under

May 16, 1711. the name of a Confucius, or of any celebrated "SIR, -As you are a Spectator, I think

| Grecian philosopher : I mean the little we who make it our business to exhibit any apocryphal treatise, entitled The Wisdom thing to public view, ought to apply our- of the Son of Sirach. How finely has he deselves to you for your approbation. I have

scribed the art of making friends, by an travelled Europe to furnish out a show for

obliging and affable behaviour! and laid you, and have brought with me what has

down that precept which a late excellent been admired in every country through author has delivered as his own, That we which I passed. You have declared in should have many well-wishers, but few many papers, that your greatest delights friends. 'Sweet languagc will multiply are those of the eye, which I do not doubt, friends, and a fair speaking tongue will inbut I shall gratify with as beautiful objects crease kind greetings. Be in peace with as yours ever beheld. If castles, forests, many, nevertheless, have but one counselruins, fine women, and graceful men, can lor of a thousand.'* With what prudence please you, I dare promise you much satis-does he caution us in the choice of our faction, if you will appear at my auction friends! And with what strokes of nature on Friday next. A sight is, I suppose, as (I could almost say

(I could almost say of humour) has he degrateful to a Spectator as a treat to another scribed the behaviour of a treacherous and person, and therefore I hope you will par

self interested friend ! •If thou wouldest don this invitation from, sir,

get a friend, prove him first, and be not •Your most obedient humble servant, X. J. GRAHAM.'|

* Ecclus. vi. 5, 6.

hasty to credit him: for some man is al loseth his credit, and shall never find a friend for his own occasion, and will not friend to his mind. Love thy friend, and abide in the day of thy trouble. And there be faithful unto him; but if thou bewrayeth is a friend who being turned to enmity and his secrets, follow no more after him; for as strife, will discover thy reproach.' Again, a man hath destroyed his enemy, so hast *Some friend is a companion at the table, thou lost the love of thy friend; as one that and will not continue in the day of thy af- letteth a bird go out of his hand, so hast fiiction: but in thy prosperity he will be as thou let thy friend go, and shall not get him thyself, and will be bold over thy servants. again: follow after him no more, for he is If thou be brought low he will be against too far off; he is as a roe escaped out of the thee, and hide himself from thy face. "* snare. As for a wound it may be bound up, What can be more strong and pointed than and after reviling there may be a reconthe following verse? Separate thyself ciliation; but he that bewrayeth secrets, is from thine enemies, and take heed of thy without hope.'ll friends.' In the next words he particular- Among the several qualifications of a izes one of those fruits of friendship which good friend, this wise man has very justly is described at length by the two famous singled out constancy and faithfulness as authors above-mentioned, and falls into a the principal: to these, others have added general eulogium of friendship, which is virtue, knowledge, discretion, equality in very just as well as very sublime. “A faith-age and fortune, and as Cicero calls it, Moful friend is a strong defence; and he that rum comitas, “a pleasantness of temper.' hath found such a one hath found a trea- If I were to give my opinion upon such an sure. Nothing doth countervail a faithful exhausted subject, I should join to these friend, and his excellency is invaluable. A other qualifications, a certain equability or faithful friend is the medicine of life; and evenness of behaviour. A man often conthey that fear the Lord shall find him. tracts a friendship with one whom perhaps Whoso feareth the Lord shall direct his he does not find out till after a year's confriendship aright; for as he is, so shall his versation; when on a sudden some latent neighbour (that is, his friend) be also.'t I ill-humour breaks out upon him, which he do not remember to have met with any never discovered or suspected at his first saying that has pleased me more than that entering into an intimacy with him. There of a friend's being the medicine of life, to are several persons who in some certain express the efficacy of friendship in heal- periods of their lives are inexpressibly ing the pains and anguish which naturally agreeable, and in others as odious and decleave to our existence in this world; and testable. Martial has given us a very am wonderfully pleased with the turn in pretty picture of one of this species in the the last sentence, that a virtuous man shall following epigram: as a blessing meet with a friend who is as Difficilis, facilis, jucundus, acerbus es idem, virtuous as himself. There is another saying Nec lecum possum vivere, nec sine te.--Epig. xii. 47. in the same author, which would have been In all thy humours, whether grave or mellow, very much admired in a heathen writer: Thou'rt such a touchy, testy, pleasant fellow; Forsake not an old friend, for the new is

Hast so much wit, and mirth, and spleen about thee,

There is no living with thee, nor without thee. pot comparable to him: a new friend is as new wine; when it is old thou shalt drink

It is very unlucky for a man to be entanit with pleasure.'I With what strength of 5

Igled in a friendship with one, who, by these allusion, and force of thought has he de

de changes and vicissitudes of humour, is somescribed the breaches and violations of

of times amiable, and sometimes odious; and friendship?-'Whoso casteth a stone at

of as most men are at sometimes in an admithe birds frayeth them away; and he that

rable frame and disposition of mind, it should upbraideth his friend, breaketh friendship.

be one of the greatest tasks of wisdom to Though thou drawest a sword at a friend,

keep ourselves well when we are so, and yet despair not, for there may be a return

never to go out of that which is the agreeing to favour. If thou hast opened thy

able part of our character. mouth against thy friend, fear not, for there may be a reconciliation; except for upbraiding, or pride, or disclosing of secrets, No. 69.] Saturday, May 19, 1711. or a treacherous wound; for, for these

Hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvæ; things every friend will depart.'s We may

Arborei foetus alibi, atque injussa virescunt observe in this and several other precepts Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores, in this author, those little familiar instances

India mittit ebur, molles sua thura Sabai?

At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus and illustrations which are so much ad

Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epirus equarun ? mired in the moral writings of Horace and Continuo has leges, æternaque fædera certis Epictetus. There are very beautiful in Imposuit natura locis

Virg. Georg. i. 54. stances of this nature in the following pas

This ground with Bacchus, that with Ceres suits;

The other loads the trees with happy fruits; sages, which are likewise written upon the

A fourth with grass, unbidden, decks the ground; same subject: "Whoso discovereth secrets Thus Tmolus is with yellow saffron crownd:

India black ebon and white iv'ry bears;

And soft Idume weeps her od'rous tears: • Ecclus. vi. 7. et seqq. Ibid. vi. 15-18. Ibid. u. 10. Ibid. xii. 20, 21, 22.

| Ecclus. xxvii. 16. et seqq.

Thus Pontus sends her beaver stones from far;
And naked Spaniards temper steel for war.
Epirus for th Elean chariot breeds

care to disseminate her blessings among the (In hopes of palms) a race of running steeds.

different regions of the world, with an eye This is th' original contract; these the laws

to this mutual intercourse and traffic among Impos'd by nature, and by nature's cause.-Dryden.

mankind, that the natives of the several THERE is no place in the town which I parts of the globe might have a kind of deso much love to frequent as the Royal Ex-pendence upon one another, and be united change. It gives me a secret satisfaction, together by their common interest. Almost and in some measure gratifies my vanity, as every degree produces something peculiar I am an Englishman, to see so rich an as- to it. The food often grows in one country, sembly of countrymen and foreigners, con- and the sauce in another. The fruits of sulting together upon the private business Portugal are corrected by the products of of mankind, and making this metropolis a Barbadoes, and the infusion of a China kind of emporium for the whole earth. I plant is sweetened with the pith of an Inmust confess I look upon high Change to be dian cane. The Philippine islands give a a great council, in which all considerable flavour to the European bowls. The single nations have their representatives. Factors dress of a woman of quality is often the proin the trading world are what ambassadors ducts of a hundred climates. The muff and are in the politic world; they negotiate af- the fan come together from the different fairs, conclude treaties, and maintain a good ends of the earth. The scarf is sent from correspondence between those wealthy so- the torrid zone, and the tippet from beneath cieties of men that are divided from one the pole. The brocade petticoat rises out another by seas and oceans, or live on the of the mines of Peru, and the diamond neckdifferent extremities of a continent. I have lace out of the bowels of Indostan. often been pleased to hear disputes adjusted If we consider our own country in its nabetween an inhabitant of Japan and an al- tural prospect, without any of the benefits derman of London, or to see a subject of the and advantages of commerce, what a barGreat Mogul entering into a league with ren uncomfortable spot of earth falls to our one of the Czar of Muscovy. I am infinitely share! Natural historians tell us, that no delighted in mixing with these several mi- fruit grows originally among us, besides nisters of commerce, as they are distin- hips and haws, acorns and pig-nuts, with guished by their different walks and differ- other delicacies of the like nature; that our ent languages. Sometimes I am jostled climate of itself, and without the assistance among a body of Armenians; sometimes I of art, can make no farther advances toam lost in a crowd of Jews; and sometimes wards a plum, than to a sloe, and carries make one in a group of Dutchmen. I am an apple to no greater perfection than a a Dane, Swede, or Frenchman, at different crab; that our melons, our peaches, our times; or rather fancy myself like the old figs, our apricots, and cherries, are stranphilosopher, who upon being asked what gers among us, imported in different ages, countryman he was, replied, that he was a and naturalized in our English gardens; and citizen of the world.

that they would all degenerate and fall away Though I very frequently visit this busy into the trash of our own country, if they multitude of people, I am known to nobody were wholly neglected by the planter, and there but my friend Sir Andrew, who often left to the mercy of our sun and soil. Nor smiles upon me as he sees me bustling in has traffic more enriched our vegetable the crowd, but at the same time connives world, than it has improved the whole face at my presence without taking further no- of nature among us. Our ships are laden tice of me. There is indeed a merchant of with the harvest of every climate. Our Egypt, who just knows me by sight, having tables are stored with spices, and oils, and formerly remitted me some money to Grand wines. Our rooms are filled with pyramids Cairo: but as I am not versed in the modern of China, and adorned with the workmanCoptic, our conferences go no further than ship of Japan. Our morning's draught a bow and a grimace.

comes to us from the remotest corners of This grand scene of business gives me an the earth. We repair our bodies by the infinite variety of solid and substantial en- drugs of America, and repose ourselves untertainments. As I am a great lover of der Indian canopies. My friend Sir Anmankind, my heart naturally overflows with drew, calls the vineyards of France our pleasure at the sight of a prosperous and gardens; the spice-islands, our hot-beds; happy multitude, insomuch that at many the Persians, our silk-weavers, and the public solemnities I cannot forbear express- Chinese, our potters. Nature indeed furing my joy with tears that have stolen down nishes us with the bare necessaries of life, my cheeks. For this reason I am wonder- but traffic gives us a great variety of what fully delighted to see such a body of men is useful, and at the same time supplies us thriving in their own private fortunes, and with every thing that is convenient and orat the same time promoting the public namental. Nor is it the least part of this stock; or, in other words, raising estates our happiness, that whilst we enjoy the refor their own families, by bringing into motest products of the north and south, we their country whatever is wanting, and are free from those extremities of weather carrying out of it whatever is superfluous. I which give them birth; that our eyes are refreshed with the green fields of Britain, plicity of thought, above that which I call at the same time that our palates are feasted the Gothic manner of writing, than thiswith fruits that rise between the tropics. that the first pleases all kinds of palates,

For these reasons there are not more use- and the latter only such as have formed to ful members in a commonwealth than mer-themselves a wrong artificial taste upon litchants. They knit mankind together in a tle fanciful authors and writers of epigrams. mutual intercourse of good offices, distri- Homer, Virgil, or Milton, so far as the lanbute the gifts of nature, find work for the guage of their poems is understood, wili poor, add wealth to the rich, and magni- please a reader of plain common sense, who ficence to the great. Our English mer- would neither relish nor compreliend an chant converts the tin of his own country epigram of Martial, or a poem of Cowley; into gold, and exchanges its wool for rubies. so, on the contrary, an ordinary song or The Mahometans are clothed in our Bri ballad, that is the delight of the common tish manufacture, and the inhabitants of the people, cannot fail to please all such reafrozen zone warmed with the fleeces of our ders as are not unqualified for the entertainsheep.

ment by their affectation or ignorance; and When I have been upon the Change, I the reason is plain, because the same painthave often fancied one of our old kingsings of nature, which recommend it to the standing in person, where is represented in most ordinary reader, will appear beautieffigy, and looking down upon the wealthy ful to the most refined. concourse of people with which that place. The old song of Chevy-Chase is the fais every day filled. In this case, how would vourite ballad of the common people of he be surprised to hear all the languages of England, and Ben Jonson used to say, he Europe spoken in this little spot of his former had rather have been the author of it than dominions, and to see so many private men, of all his works. Sir Philip Sidney, in his who in bis time would have been the vas- discourse of poetry, speaks of it in the folsals of some powerful baron, negotiating lowing words: I never heard the old song like princes for greater sums of money than of Percy and Douglas, that I found not my were formerly to be met with in the royal heart more moved than with a trumpet; treasury! Trade, without enlarging the and yet it is sung by some blind crowder British' territories, has given us a kind of with no rougher voice than rude style, additional empire. It has multiplied the which being so evil apparelled in the dust number of the rich, made our landed estates and cobweb of that uncivil age, what would infinitely more valuable than they were for- it work trimmed in the gorgeous eloquence meriy, and added to them an accession of of Pindar?' For my own part, I am so proother estates as valuable as the lands them- fessed an admirer of this antiquated song, selves.

that I shall give my reader a critique upon it, without any further apology for se

doing. * No. 70.] Monday, May 21, 1711.

The greatest modern critics have laid it

down as a rule, that an heroic poem should Interdum vulgus rectum videt

Hor. Lib. ii. Ep. i. 63.

be founded upon some important precept

of morality, adapted to the constitution of Sometimes the vulgar see and judge aright.

the country in which the poet writes. When I travelled, I took a particular Homer and 'Virgil have formed their plans delight in hearing the songs and fables that in this view. As Greece was a collection are come from father to son, and are most of many governments, who suffered very in vogue among the common people of the much among themselves, and gave the countries through which I passed; for it is Persian emperor, who was their common impossible that any thing should be univer- enemy, many advantages over them by sally tasted and approved by a multitude, their mutual jealousies and animosities, though they are only the rabble of a nation, Homer, in order to establish among them which hath not in it some peculiar aptness a union which was so necessary for their to please and gratify the mind of man. safety, grounds his poem upon the discords Human nature is the same in all reasona- of the several Grecian princes who were ble creatures; and whatever falls in with engaged in a confederacy against an Asiatic it, will meet with admirers amongst rea- prince, and the several advantages which ders of all qualities and conditions. Mo- the enemy gained by such discords. At the liere, as we are told by Monsieur Boileau, time the poem we are now treating of was used to read all his comedies to an old wo- written, the dissensions of the barons, man who was his house-keeper, as she sat who were then so many petty princes, ran with him at her work by the chimney-cor- very high, whether they quarrelled among ner; and could foretel the success of his themselves, or with their neighbours, and play in the theatre, from the reception it | met with at his fire-side: for he tells us the

* Mr. Addison was not aware that the old song so much admired by Sir Philip Sidney and Ben Jonson, was not the same as that which he here so elegantly criticises, and which, in Dr. Percy's opinion, cannot be older than the time of Elizabeth; and was probably

written after the eulogium of Sir Pbilip Sidney, or in essential and inherent perfection of sim-l consequence of it.

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produced unspeakable calamities to the Earl Douglas on a milk-white steed,

Most like a baron bold, country. The poet, to deter men from such

Rode foremost of the company, unnatural contentions, describes a bloody

Whose armour shone like gold. battle and dreadful scene of death, occa-| His sentiments and actions are every way sioned by the mutual feuds which reigned

suitable to an hero. One of us two, says in the families of an English and Scotch

he, must die. I am an earl as well as nobleman. That.he designed this for the

yourself, so that you can have no pretence instruction of his poem, we may learn for refusing the combat: however says he. from his four last lines, in which, after the

it is pity, and indeed would be a sin, that example of the modern tragedians, he

so many innocent men should perish for our draws from it a precept for the benefit of

sakes; rather let you and I end our quarrel his readers:

in single fight: God save the king, and bless the land

• Ere thus I will out-braved be
In plenty, joy, and peace;

One of us two shall die
And grant henceforth that foul debate

I know thee well, an earl thou art,
"Twixt noblemen may cease.'

Lord Percy, so am I. The next point observed by the greatest

• But trust me, Percy, pity it were, heroic poets, hath been to celebrate per

And great offence, to kill sons and actions which do honour to their

Any of these our harmless men,

For they have done no ill. country: thus Virgil's hero was the founder of Rome, Homer's a prince of Greece; and|

• Let thou and I the battle try,

And set our men aside; for this reason Valerius Flaccus and Sta

Accursed be he, Lord Percy said, tius, who were both Romans, might be By whom it is deny'd.' justly derided for having chosen the expe When these brave men had distinguishEdition of the Golden Fleece, and the wars' ed themselves in the battle, and in single of Thebes, for the subjects of their epic combat with each other, in the midst of a writings.

generous parley, full of heroic sentiments, The poet before us has not only found the Scotch earl 'falls; and with his dying out an hero in his own country, but raises | words encourages his men to revenge his the reputation of it by several beautiful in- I death, representing to them, as the most cidents. The English are the first who | bitter circumstance of it, that his rival saw take the field, and the last who quit it. I him fall: The English bring only fifteen hundred to

. With that there came an arrow keen the battle, the Scotch two thousand. The

Out of an English bow,
English keep the field with fifty-three; the Which struck Earl Douglas to the heart
Scotch retire with fifty-five: all the rest on

A deep and deadly blow. each side being slain in battle. But the "Who never spoke more words than these, most remarkable circumstance of this kind

Fight on my merry-men all,

For why, my life is at an end, is the different manner in which the Scotch

Lord Percy sees my fall.' and English kings receive the news of this

Merry-men in the language of those times, fight, and of the great men's deaths who

is no more than a cheerful word for comcommanded in it:

panions and fellow-soldiers. A passage in *This news was brought to Edinburgh,

the eleventh book of Virgil's q£neid is very Where Scotland's king did reign, That brave Earl Douglas suddenly,

much to be admired, where Camilla, in Was with an arrow slain.

her last agonies, instead of weeping over .O heavy news, king James did say,

the wound she had received, as one might Scotland can witness be,

have expected from a warrior of her sex, I have not any captain more

considers only (like the hero of whom we Of such account as he.

are now speaking) how the battle should * Like tidings to King Henry came

be continued after her death:
Within as short a space,
That Percy of Northumberland

Tum sic expirans Accam ex æqualibus unam
Was slain at Chevy-Chase.

Alloquitur; fida ante alias quæ sola Cammillæ.

Quicum partiri curas; atque hæc ita fatur: • Now God be with him, said our king,

Hactenus, Acca soror, potui: nunc vulnus acerbum Sith 'twill no better be,

Conficit, et tenebris nigrescunt omnia circum: I trust I have within my realm

Effuge, et hæc Turno mandata novissima perfer; Five hundred good as he.

Succedat pugnæ; Trojanosque arceat urbe: • Yet shall not Scot nor Scotland say,

Jamque vale.

En. xi. 820.
But I will vengeance take,

A gathering mist o'erclouds her cheerful eyes:
And be revenged on them all

And from her cheeks the rosy colour flies,
For brave Lord Percy's sake.

Then turns to her, whom of her female train,
This vow full well the king perform'd

She trusted most, and thus she speaks with pain:
After on Humble-down,

Acca, 'tis past! he swims before my sight,
In one day fifty knights were slain,

Inexorable death; and claims his right.
With lords of great renown.

Bear my last words to Turnus ; fly with speed,

And bid him timely to my charge succeed, *And of the rest of small account

Repel the Trojans, and the town relieve :
Did many thousands die,' &c.

Farewell.

Dryden. At the same time that our poet shows a Turnus did not die in so heroic a manlaudable partiality to his countrymen, hener ; though our poet seems to have had represents the Scots after a manner not un- his eye upon Turnus's speech in the last becoming so bold and brave a people, | verse:

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