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breeding, if nothing were to pass amongst | were suddenly called from these inanimate us for agreeable which was the least trans- objects by a little party of horsemen I saw gression against the rule of life called de- passing the road. The greater part of them corum, or a regard to decency. This would escaped my particular observation, by reacommand the respect of mankind, because son that my whole attention was fixed on a it carries in it deference to their good opi- very fair youth who rode in the midst of nion, as humility lodged in a worthy mind them, and seemed to have been dressed by is always attended with a certain homage, some description in a romance. His feawhich no haughty soul, with all the arts tures, complexion, and habit, had a reimaginable, will ever be able to purchase. markable effeminacy, and a certain lanTully says, Virtue and decency are so nearly guishing vanity appeared in his air. His related, that it is difficult to separate them hair, well curled and powdered, hung to a from each other but in our imagination. considerable length on his shoulders, and As the beauty of the body always accom- was wantonly tied, as if by the hands of his panies the health of it, so certainly is de- mistress, in a scarlet riband, which played cency concomitant to virtue. As beauty of like a streamer behind him; he had a coat body, with an agreeable carriage, pleases and waistcoat of blue camblet, trimmed the eye, and that pleasure consists in that and embroidered with silver; a cravat of we observe all the parts with a certain ele- the finest lace; and wore, in a smart cock, gance are proportioned to each other; so a little beaver hat edged with silver, and does decency of behaviour which appears made more sprightly by a feather. His in our lives obtain the approbation of all horse, too, which was a pacer, was adorned with whom we converse, from the order, after the same airy manner, and seemed to consistency, and moderation of our words share in the vanity of the rider. As I was and actions. This flows from the reverence pitying the luxury of this young person, we bear towards every good man, and to who appeared to me to have been educated the world in general; for to be negligent of only as an object of sight, I perceived on what any one thinks of you, does not only my nearer approach, and as I turned my show you arrogant but abandoned. In all eyes downward, a part of the equipage I these considerations we are to distinguish had not observed before, which was a pethow one virtue differs from another. As itticoat of the same with the coat and waistis the part of justice never to do violence, it coat. After this discovery, I looked again is of modesty never to commit offence. In on the face of the fair Amazon who had this last particular lies the whole force of thus deceived me, and thought those feawhat is called decency; to this purpose that tures which had before offended me by excellent moralist above-mentioned talks their softness, were now strengthened into of decency; but this quality is more easily as improper a boldness; and though her comprehended by an ordinary capacity, eyes, nose, and mouth seemed to be formed than expressed with all his eloquence. This with perfect symmetry, I am not certain decency of behaviour is generally trans- whether she, who in appearance was a gressed among all orders of men; nay, the very handsome youth, may not be in reality very women, though themselves created as a very indifferent woman. it were for an ornament, are often very • There is an objection which naturally much mistaken in this ornamental part of presents itself against these occasional perlife. It would methinks be a short rule for plexities and mixtures of dress, which is behaviour, if every young lady, in her dress, that they seem to break in upon that prowords, and actions, were only to recom- priety and distinction of appearance in mend herself as a sister, daughter, or wife, which the beauty of different characters is and make herself the more esteemed in preserved; and if they should be more freone of those characters. The care of them- quent than they are at present, would look selves, with regard to the families in which like turning our public assemblies into a women are born, is the best motive for general masquerade. The model of this their being courted to come into the alli- | Amazonian hunting-habit for ladies, was, ance of other houses. Nothing can pro- as I take it, first imported from France, mote this end more than a strict preserva- and well enough expresses the gayety of a tion of decency. I should be glad if a certain people who are taught to do any thing, so it equestrian order of ladies, some of whom be with an assurance: but I cannot help one meets in an evening at every outlet of thinking it sits awkwardly yet on our Enthe town, would take this subject into their glish modesty. The petticoat is a kind of serious consideration. In order thereunto, / incumbrance upon it, and if the Amazons the following letter may not be wholly un- should think fit to go on in this plunder of worthy their perusal.

our sex's ornaments, they ought to add to

their spoils, and complete their triumph Mr. SPECTATOR, -Going lately to take over us, by wearing the breeches. * the air in one of the most beautiful evenings this season has produced; as I was admiring | * On this passage Mr. Drake observes, 'At a period

when the riding habit has become as familiar as any of

other mode of female dress, my fair readers will proba

bly smile at the reproof and apprehensions of the Sprc. scape every where around me, my eyes tator; time has ascertained its utility as a travelling

the

If it be natural to contrac: insensibly the and regards all other kinds of science as the manners of those we imitate, the ladies who accomplishments of one whom he calls a are pleased with assuming our dresses will scholar, a bookish-man, or a philosopher. do us more honour than we deserve, but for these reasons Will shines in mixed they will do it at their own expence. Why company, where he has the discretion not should the lovely Camilla deceive us in to go out of his depth, and has often a cermore shapes than her own, and affect to be tain way of making his real ignorance ape represented in her picture with a gun and a pear a seeming one. Our club however has spaniel; while her elder brother, the heir frequently caught him tripping, at which of a worthy family, is drawn in silks like times they never spare him. For as Will his sister? The dress and air of a man are often insults us with his knowledge of the not well to be divided; and those who would town, we sometimes take our revenge upon not be content with the latter ought never him by our knowledge of books. to think of assuming the former. There is He was last week producing two or three so large a portion of natural agreeableness letters which he writ in his youth to a among the fair sex of our island, that they coquette lady. The raillery of them was seem betrayed into these romantic habits natural, and well enough for a mere man without having the same occasion for them of the town; but, very unluckily, several of with their inventors: all that needs to be the words were wrong spelt. Will laughed desired of them is, that they would be this off at first as well as he could; but findthemselves, that is, what nature designed ing himself pushed on all sides, and espethem. And to see their mistake when they cially by the Templar, he told us with a depart from this, let them look upon a man little passion, that he never liked pedantry who affects the softness and effeminacy of a in spelling, and that he spelt like a gentlewoman, to learn how their sex must appear man, and not like a scholar: upon this Will to us, when approaching to the resemblance had recourse to his old topic of showing the of a man. I am, sir, your most humble narrow-spiritedness, the pride and ignorservant.'

T. ance of pedants; which he carried so far,

that upon my retiring to my lodgings, I

could not forbear throwing together such No. 105.] Saturday, June 30, 1711. reflections as occurred to me upon that

subject. - Id arbitror Adprime in vita esse utile, ne quid nimis.

A man who has been brought up among Ter. Andr. Act 1. Sc. 1. books, and is able to talk of nothing else, is I take it to be a principal rule of life, not to be too a very indifferent companion, and what we meh addicted to any one thing.

call a pedant. But, methinks, we should Too much of any thing is good for nothing.

enlarge the title, and give it to every one

Eng. Proc. that does not know how to think out of his My friend Wiu Honeycomb values him- profession and particular way of life. self very much upon what he calls the What is a greater pedant than a mere knowledge of mankind, which has cost him man of the town? Bar him the play-houses, many disasters in his youth: for Will rec a catalogue of the reigning beauties, and an kons every misfortune that he has met with account of a few fashionable distempers among the women, and every rencounter that have befallen him, and you strike him among the men, as parts of his education; dumb. How many a pretty gentleman's and fancies he should never have been the knowledge lies all within the verge of the man he is, had he not broke windows, court! He will tell you the names of the knocked down constables, disturbed honest principal favourites, repeat the shrewd saypeople with his midnight serenades, and sings of a man of quality, whisper an intrigue beat up a lewd woman's quarters, when he that is not yet blown upon by common fame: was a young fellow. The engaging in ad- or, if the sphere of his observations is a Ventures of this nature Will calls the study. | little larger than ordinary, will perhaps ing of mankind; and terms this knowledge enter into all the incidents, turns and revoof the town, the knowledge of the world. | lutions in a game of ombre.

|lutions in a game of ombre. When he has Will ingenuously confesses that for half his gone thus far he has shown you the whole lite his head ached every morning with circle of his accomplishments, his parts are reading of men overnight; and at present drained, and he is disabled from any farther comforts himself under certain pains which conversation. What are these but rank he endures from time to time, that without pedants? and yet these are the men who them he could not have been acquainted

value themselves most on their exemption with the gallantries of the age. This will from the pedantry of colleges. looks upon as the learning of a gentleman,

I might here mention the military pedant

who always talks in a camp, and is stormdress, and, I believe, neither the chastity nor the mo

ing towns, making lodgments, and fighting Orsty of the sex has suffered by the experiment. Could ar amiable moralist revisit the light of day, he would other. Every thing he speaks smells of bave in initely more reason to be shocked at the present

to be shocked at the present gunpowder; if you take away his artillery Gallie fashion of going nearly naked, than at the warm avering of broadcloth usurped by the beauties of his

Drake's Essays, vol. iii. p. 42. himself, I might likewise mention the law

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pedant, that is perpetually putting cases, / who is very well acquainted with my hurepeating the transactions of Westminster- mour, lets me rise and go to bed when I hall, wrangling with you upon the most in- please, dine at his own table or in my different circumstances of life, and not to be chamber, as I think fit, sit still and say noconvinced of the distance of a place, or of thing without bidding me be merry. When the most trivial point in conversation, but the gentlemen of the country come to see by dint of argument. The state pedant is him, he only shows me at a distance. As I wrapt up in news, and lost in politics. If have been walking in his fields, I have obyou mention either of the kings of Spain or served them stealing a sight of me over a Poland, he talks very notably; but if you hedge, and have heard the knight desiring go out of the Gazette, you drop him. In them not to let me see them, for that I short, a mere courtier, a mere soldier, a hated to be stared at. mere scholar, a mere any thing, is an in- I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's sipid pedantic character, and equally ridi- family, because it consists of sober and staid culous.

persons; for as the knight is the best masOf all the species of pedants, which I ter in the world, he seldom changes his serhave mentioned, the book-pedant is much vants; and as he is beloved by all about the most supportable; he has at least an him, his servants never care for leaving exercised understanding, and a head which him: by this means his domestics are all in is full though confused, so that a man who years, and grown old with their master. converses with him may often receive from You would take his valet de chambre for him hints of things that are worth knowing, his brother, his butler is gray-headed, his and what he may possibly turn to his own groom is one of the gravest men that I have advantage, though they are of little use to ever seen, and his coachman has the looks the owner. The worst kind of pedants of a privy counsellor. You see the goodamong learned men, are such as are natu- ness of the master even in the old houserally endued with a very small share of dog, and in a gray pad that is kept in the common sense, and have read a great num- stable with great care and tenderness out of ber of books without taste or distinction. regard to his past services, though he has

The truth of it is, learning, like travel- been useless for several years. ling, and all other methods of improvement, I could not but observe with a great deal as it finishes good sense, so it makes a silly of pleasure the joy that appeared in the man ten thousand times more insufferable, countenances of these ancient domestics by supplying variety of matter to his im- upon my friend's arrival at his country-seat. pertinence, and giving him an opportunity Some of them could not refrain from tears of abounding in absurdities.

at the sight of their old master; every one Shallow pedants cry up one another much of them pressed forward to do something more than men of solid and useful learning. for him, and seemed discouraged if they To read the titles they give an editor, or were not employed. At the same time the collector of a manuscript, you would take good old knight, with a mixture of the fahim for the glory of the commonwealth of ther and the master of the family, tempered letters, and the wonder of his age, when the inquiries after his own affairs with seveperhaps upon examination you find that he ral kind questions relating to themselves, has only rectified a Greek particle, or laid This humanity and good-nature engages out a whole sentence in proper commas. every body to him, so that when he is plea

They are obliged indeed to be thus lavish sant upon any of them, all his family are in of their praises, that they may keep one good humour, and none so much as the peranother in countenance; and it is no wonder son whom he diverts himself with: on the if a great deal of knowledge, which is not contrary, if he coughs, or betrays any incapable of making a man wise, has a natu- firmity of old age, it is easy for a stander-by ral tendency to make him vain and arro- to observe a secret concern in the looks of

L. | all his servants.

My worthy friend has put me under the

particular care of his butler, who is a very No. 106.] Monday, July 2, 1711. prudent man, and, as well as the rest of

his fellow-servants, wonderfully desirous of -Hinc tibi copia Manabit ad plenum, benigno

pleasing me, because they have often heard Ruris honorum opulenta cornu.

their master talk of me as of his particular
Hor. Lib. 1. Od. xvii. 14. friend.
Here plenty's liberal horn shall pour

My chief companion, when Sir Roger is
Of fruits for thee a copious show'r,
Rich honours of the quiet plain.

diverting himself in the woods or the fields,

is a very venerable man who is ever with Having often received an invitation from Sir Roger, and has lived at his house in the my friend Sir Roger de Coverley to pass nature of a chaplain above thirty years, away a month with him in the country, I This gentleman is a person of good sense last week accompanied him thither, and and some learning, of a very regular life am settled with him for some time at his and obliging conversation: he heartily loves country-house, where I intend to form seve- Sir Roger, and knows that he is very much ral of my ensuing speculations. Sir Roger, in the old knight's esteem, so that he lives

gant.

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in the family rather as a relation than a Calamy, with several living authors who dependent.

have published discourses of practical diI have observed in several of my papers vinity. I no sooner saw this venerable man that my friend Sir Roger, amidst all his in the pulpit, but I very much approved of good qualities, is something of a humorist; my friend's insisting upon the qualifications and that his virtues, as well as imperfec- of a good aspect and a clear voice; for I was tions, are as it were tinged by a certain ex- so charmed with the gracefulness of his travagance, which makes them particularly figure and delivery, as well as with the dishis, and distinguishes them from those of courses he pronounced, that I think I never other men. This cast of mind, as it is gene- passed any time more to my satisfaction. rally very innocent in itself, so it renders À sermon repeated after this manner, is his conversation highly agreeable, and more like the composition of a poet in the mouth delightful than the same degree of sense of a graceful actor. and virtue would appear in their common I could heartily wish that more of our and ordinary colours. As I was walking country clergy would follow this example; with him last night, he asked me how I and instead of wasting their spirits in laboliked the good man whom I have just now rious compositions of their own, would enmentioned? and without staying for my an- deavour after a handsome elocution, and swer told me, that he was afraid of being all those other talents that are proper to insulted with Latin and Greek at his own enforce what has been penned by greater table; for which reason he desired a par- masters. This would not only be more easy ticular friend of his at the university to find to themselves, but more edifying to the him out a clergyman rather of plain sense people. than much learning, of a good aspect, a clear voice, a sociable temper, and, if possible, a man that understood a little of back-No. 107.1 Tuesday, July 3, 1711, gammon. My friend,' says Sir Roger, found me out this gentleman, who, besides

Æsopo ingentem statuam posuere Attici,

Servumque collocarunt æterna in basi, the endowments required of him, is, they

Patere honoris scirent ut cunctis viam. tell me, a good scholar, though he does not

Phædr. Ep. I. 2. show it. I have given him the parsonage of The Athenians erected a large statue to Æsop, and the parish; and because I know his value, placed him, though a slave, on a lasting pedestal; to have settled upon him a good annuity for

show, that the way to honour lies open indifferently

to all. life. If he outlives me, he shall find that he was higher in my esteem than perhaps he The reception, manner of attendance, thinks he is. He has now been with me undisturbed freedom and quiet, which I thirty years; and though he does not know meet with here in the country, has conI have taken notice of it, has never in all firmed me in the opinion I always had, that that time asked any thing of me for him- | the general corruption of manners in serself, though he is every day soliciting me vants is owing to the conduct of masters. for something in behalf of one or other of The aspect of every one in the family carmy tenants his parishioners. There has not ries so much satisfaction, that it appears he been a law-suit in the parish since he has knows the happy lot which has befallen lived among them; if any dispute arises him in being a member of it. There is one they apply themselves to him for the deci- particular which I have seldom seen but at sion; if they do not acquiesce in his judg- Sir Roger's; it is usual in all other places, ment, which I think never happened above that servants fly from the parts of the house once or twice at most, they appeal to me. through which their master is passing; on At his first settling with me, I made him a the contrary, here they industriously place present of all the good sermons which have themselves in his way; and it is on both been printed in English, and only begged sides, as it were, understood as a visit, of him that every Sunday he would pro- when the servants appear without calling. nounce one of them in the pulpit. Accord This proceeds from the humane and equal ingly he has digested them into such a temper of the man of the house, who also series, that they follow one another natu- perfectly well knows how to enjoy a great rally, and make a continued system of prac-estate with such economy as ever to be tical divinity.'

1 much beforehand. This makes his own As Sir Roger was going on in his story, mind untroubled, and consequently unapt the gentleman we were talking of came up to vent peevish expressions, or give pasto us; and upon the knight's asking him sionate or inconsistent orders to those about who preached to-morrow (for it was Satur- him. Thus respect and love go together; day night,) told us the bishop of St. Asaph* | and a certain cheerfulness in performance in the morning, and Dr. South in the after- of their duty is the particular distinction of noon. He then showed us his list of preach- the lower part of this family. When a serers for the whole year, where I saw with a vant is called before his master, he does great deal of pleasure, archbishop Tillot- not come with an expectation to hear himson, bishop Saunderson, Dr. Barrow, Dr. self rated for some trivial fault, threatened

to be stripped, or used with any other un• Dr. Fleetwood.

I becoming language, which mean masters often give to worthy servants; but it is oftenment will make his successor be as diligent, to know, what road he took, that he came as humble, and as ready as he was. There so readily back according to order; whe- is something wonderful in the narrowness of ther he passed by such a ground; if the old those minds, which can be pleased, and be man who rents it is in good health; or whe- barren of bounty to those who please them. ther he gave Sir Roger's love to him, or One might, on this occasion, recount the the like.

sense that great persons in all ages have A man who preserves a respect founded had of the merit of their dependents, and on his benevolence to his dependents, lives the heroic services which men have done rather like a prince than a master in his their masters in the extremity of their forfamily; his orders are received as favours tunes, and shown to their undone patrons, rather than duties; and the distinction of that fortune was all the difference between approaching him is part of the reward for them; but as I design this my speculation executing what is commanded by him only as a gentle admonition to thankless

There is another circumstance in which masters, I shall not go out of the occurmy friend excels in his management, which rences of common life, but assert it as a is, the manner of rewarding his servants, general observation, that I never saw, but He has ever been of opinion, that giving in Sir Roger's family, and one or two more, his cast clothes to be worn by valets has a good servants treated as they ought to be. very ill effect upon little minds, and creates Sir Roger's kindness extends to their chila silly sense of equality between the par- dren's children, and this very morning he ties, in persons affected only with outward sent his coachman's grandson to prentice. things. I have heard him often pleasant on I shall conclude this paper with an account this occasion, and describe a young gentle- of a picture in his gallery, where there are man abusing his man in that coat, which a many which will deserve my future obmonth or two before was the most pleasing servation, distinction he was conscious of in himself. At the very upper end of this handsome He would turn his discourse still more plea- structure I saw the portraiture of two young santly upon the bounties of the ladies of this men standing in a river, the one naked, the kind; and I have heard him say he knew a other in livery. The person supported fine woman, who distributed rewards and seemed half dead, but still so much alive as punishments in giving becoming or unbe to show in his face exquisite joy and love coming dresses to her maids.

towards the other, I thought the fainting But my good friend is above these little figure resembled my friend Sir Roger: and instances of good-will, in bestowing only looking at the butler who stood by me, for trifles on his servants; a good servant to an account of it, he informed me that the him is sure of having it in his choice very person in the livery was a servant of Sir soon of being no servant at all. As I before Roger's, who stood on the shore while his observed, he is so good a husband, and master was swimming, and observing him knows so thoroughly that the skill of the taken with some sudden illness, and sink purse is the cardinal virtue of this life; I under water, jumped in and saved him. say, he knows so well that frugality is the He told me Sir Roger took off the dress he support of generosity, that he can often was in as soon as he came home, and by a spare a large fine when a tenement falls, great bounty at that time, followed by his and give that settlement to a good servant favour ever since, had made him master of who has a mind to go into the world, or that pretty seat which we saw at a distance make a stranger pay the fine to that ser- as we came to this house, I remembered vant, for his more comfortable maintenance, indeed Sir Roger said, there lived a very if he stays in his service.

worthy gentleman, to whom he was highly A man of honour and generosity considers obliged, without mentioning any thing furit would be miserable to himself to have no ther. Upon my looking a little dissatisfied will but that of another, though it were of at some part of the picture, my attendant the best person breathing, and for that rea- informed me that it was against Sir Roger's son goes on as fast as he is able to put his will, and at the earnest request of the genservants into independent livelihoods. The tleman himself, that he was drawn in the greatest part of Sir Roger's estate is ten- habit in which he had saved his master. . anted by persons who have served himself | R. or his ancestors. It was to me extremely pleasant to observe the visitants from several parts to welcome his arrival into the No. 108.) Wednesday, July 4, 1711. country: and all the difference that I could

Gratis anhelans, multa agendo nihil agens. take notice of between the late servants

Phædr. Fab. v. I. 2. who came to see him, and those who staid Que of breath to no purpose and very busy about nothing. in the family, was that these latter were

As I was yesterday morning walking looked upon as finer gentlemen and better

with Sir Roger before his house, a countrycourtiers.

fellow brought him a huge fish, which, he This manumission and placing them in a

| told him, Mr. William Wimble* had caught way of livelihood, I look upon as only what is due to a good servant; which encourage-| * Mr. Thomas Morecraft, a Yorkshire gentleman.

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