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above a tenth part of them had been filled in the world to fame, to be too anxious with money.

about it) that upon the whole I resolved for The rest, that took up the same space, the future to go on in my ordinary way; and and made the same figure, as the bags that without too much fear or hope about the were really filled with money, had been business of reputation, to be very careful of blown up with air, and called into my me- the design of my actions, but very neglimory the bags full of wind, which Homer gent of the consequences of them. tells us his hero received as a present It is an endless and frivolous pursuit to act from Æolus. The great heaps of gold on by any other rule, than the care of satisfyeither side of the throne, now appeared to ing our own minds in what we do. One be only heaps of paper, or little piles of would think a silent man, who concerned notched sticks, bound up together in bun- himself with no one breathing, should be dles, like Bath faggots.

very little liable to misrepresentations; and Whilst I was lamenting this sudden deso- yet I remember I was once taken up for a lation that had been made before me, the jesuit, for no other reason but my profound whole scene vanished. In the room of the taciturnity. It is from this misfortune, that frightful spectres, there now entered a se- to be out of harm's way, I have ever since cond dance of apparitions, very agreeably affected crowds. He who comes into asmatched together, and made up of very semblies only to gratify his curiosity, and amiable phantoms. The first pair was Li- not to make a figure, enjoys the pleasures berty with Monarchy at her right hand; the of retirement in a more exquisite degree, second was Moderation, leading in Reli- than he possibly could in his closet; the gion; and the third a person whom I had lover, the ambitious, and the miser, are never seen,* with the Genius of Great followed thither by a worse crowd than any Britain. At the first entrance the lady re- they can withdraw from. To be exempt vived, the bags swelled to their former from the passions with which others are bulk, the pile of faggots and heaps of paper tormented, is the only pleasing solitude. I changed into pyramids of guineas: and for can very justly say with the ancient sage, my own part I was so transported with 'I am never less alone than when alone.' joy, that I awaked, though I must confess I As I am insignificant to the company in fain would have fallen asleep again to have public places, and as it is visible I do not closed my vision, if I could have done it. come thither as most do, to show myself, I

gratify the vanity of all who pretend to make an appearance, and have often as

kind looks from well-dressed gentlemen No. 4.] Monday, March 5, 1710-11.

and ladies, as a poet would bestow upon -Egregii mortalem altique silenti?

one of his audience. There are so many Hor. L. 2. Sat. vi. 58. gratifications attend this public sort of obOne of uncommon silence and reserve.

scurity, that some little distastes I daily

receive have lost their anguish; and I did An author, when he first appears in the the other day, without the least displeaworld, is very apt to believe it has nothing sure, overhear one say of me, 'that strange to think of but his performances. With a fellow!' and another answer, 'I have known good share of this vanity in my heart, I the fellow's face these twelve years, and so made it my business these three days to must you; but I believe you are the first listen after my own fame; and as I have ever asked who he was.' There are, I sometimes met with circumstances which must confess, many to whom my person is did not displease me, I have been encoun- as well known as that of their nearest relatered by others, which gave me much mor- tions, who give themselves no farther troutification. It is incredible to think how ble about calling me by my name or quality, empty I have in this time observed some but speak of me very currently by the appart of the species to be, what mere blanks pellation of Mr. What-d'ye-call-him. they are when they first come abroad in To make up for these trivial disadvanthe morning, how utterly they are at a tages, I have the highest satisfaction of stand, until they are set a-going by some beholding all nature with an unprejudiced paragraph in a newspaper.

eye; and having nothing to do with men's Such persons are very acceptable to a passions or interests, I can, with the greater young author, for they desire no more in sagacity, consider their talents, manners, any thing but to be new, to be agreeable. | failings, and merits. If 'I found consolation among such, I was It is remarkable, that those who want as much disquieted by the incapacity of any one sense, possess the others with others. These are mortals who have a greater force and vivacity. Thus my want certain curiosity without power of reflec- of, or rather resignation of speech, gives tion, and perused my papers like specta- me all the advantages of a dumb man. I tors rather than readers. But there is so have, methinks, a more than ordinary pelittle pleasure in inquiries that so nearly netration in seeing; and flatter myself that concern ourselves, (it being the worst way I have looked into the highest and lowest

of mankind, and made shrewd guesses, • The Elector of Hanover afterwards George I. without being admitted to their conversa

tion, at the inmost thoughts and reflections perhaps raised in me uncommon reflecof all whom I behold. It is from hence tions; but this effect I cannot communicate that good or ill fortune has no manner of but by my writings. As my pleasures are force towards affecting my judgment. I almost wholly confined to those of the sight, see men flourishing in courts and languish-|I take it for a peculiar happiness that Í ing in jails, without being prejudiced, from have always had an easy and familiar adtheir circumstances, to their favour or dis- mittance to the fair sex, 'If I never praised advantage; but from their inward manner or flattered, I never belied or contradicted of bearing their condition, often pity the them. As these compose half the world, prosperous, and admire the unhappy. and are, by the just complacence and gal

Those who converse with the dumb, lantry of our nation, the more powerful know from the turn of their eyes, and the part of our people, I shall dedicate a conchanges of their countenance, their senti- siderable share of these my speculations to ments of the objects before them. I have their service, and shall lead the young indulged my silence to such an extrava- through all the becoming duties of virgigance, that the few who are intimate with nity, marriage, and widowhood. When it me, answer my smiles with concurrent sen- / is a woman's day, in my works, I shall entences, and argue to the very point I shaked deavour at a style and air suitable to their my head at, without my speaking. Will understanding. When I say this, I must Honeycomb was very entertaining the other be understood to mean, that I shall not night at a play, to a gentleman who sat on lower, but exalt the subjects I treat upon. his right hand, while I was at his left. The Discourse for their entertainment is not to gentleman believed Will was talking to be debased but refined. A man may aphimself, when upon my looking with great pear learned without talking sentences, as approbation at a young thing in a box be- in his ordinary gesture he discovers he can fore us, he said, “I am quite of another dance, though he does not cut capers. In opinion. She has, I will allow, a very a word, I shall take it for the greatest glory pleasing aspect, but, methinks that sim- of my work, if among reasonable women plicity in her countenance is rather child-this paper may furnish tea-table talk. In ish than innocent.' When I observed her crder to it, I shall treat on matters which a second time, he said, 'I grant her dress relate to females, as they are concerned to is very becoming, but perhaps the merit of approach or fly from the other sex, or as that choice is owing to her mother; for they are tied to them by blood, interest or though,' continued he, 'I allow a beauty to affection. Upon this occasion I think it is be as much commended for the elegance but reasonable to declare, that whatever of her dress, as a wit for that of his lan- skill I may have in speculation, I shall guage; yet if she has stolen the colour of never betray what the eyes of lovers say to her ribands from another, or had advice each other in my presence. At the same about her trimmings, I shall not allow her time I shall not think myself obliged, by this the praise of dress, any more than I would promise, to conceal any false protestations call a plagiary an author.' When I threw which I observe made by glances in public my eye towards the next woman to her, assemblies; but endeavour to make both Will spoke what I looked, according to his sexes appear in their conduct what they romantic imagination, in the following man- are in their hearts. By this means, love, ner:

during the time of my speculations, shall • Behold, you who dare, that charming be carried on with the same sincerity as virgin; behold the beauty of her person any other affair of less consideration. As chastised by the innocence of her thoughts. this is the greatest concern, men shall be Chastity, good-nature, and affability, are from henceforth liable to the greatest rethe graces that play in her countenance;l proach for misbehaviour in it. Falsehood she knows she is handsome, but she knows in love shall hereafter bear a blacker asshe is good. Conscious beauty adorned with pect than infidelity in friendship, or villany conscious virtue! What a spirit is there in in business. For this great and gocd end, those eyes! What a bloom in that person! all breaches against that noble passion, the How is the whole woman expressed in her cement of society, shall be severely examappearance! Her air has the beauty of ined. But this, and other matters loosely motion, and her look the force of language.' hinted at now, and in my former papers,

It was prudence to turn away my eyes shall have their proper place in my followfrom this object, and therefore I turned ing discourses. The present writing is only them to the thoughtless creatures who to admonish the world, that they shall not make up the lump of that sex, and move a find me an idle but a busy Spectator. R. knowing eye no more than the portraiture of insignificant people by ordinary painters, w which are but pictures of pictures.

» No. 5.]
ho

Tuesday, March 6, 1710-11.
Thus the working of my own mind is the Spectatum admissi risum teneatis ?
general entertainment of my life; I never

Hor. Ars Poet. ver. 5. enter into the commerce of discourse with

Admitted to the sight, would you not laugh? any but my particular friends, and not in An opera ay be allowed to be extravapublic even with them. Such a habit has/ gantly lavish in its decorations, as its only

design is to gratify the senses, and keep up horse, and that there was actually a pro-
an indolent attention in the audience. Com-ject of bringing the New-river into the
mon sense, however, requires, that there house, to be employed in jetteaus and wa-
should be nothing in the scenes and ma- ter-works. f This project, as I have since
chines, which may appear childish and heard, is postponed till the summer season,
absurd. How would the wits of King when it is thought the coolness that pro-
Charles's time have laughed to have seen ceeds from fountains and cascades will be
Nicolini exposed to a tempest in robes of more acceptable and refreshing to the peo-
ermine, and sailing in an open boat upon ple of quality. In the mean time, to find
a sea of pasteboard? What a field of rail-out a more agreeable entertainment for the
lery would they have been let into, had winter season, the opera of Rinaldot is fill-
they been entertained with painted dra-ed with thunder and lightning, illumina-
gons spitting wildfire, enchanted chariots tions and fire-works; which the audience
drawn by Flanders' mares, and real cas- may look upon without catching cold,
cades in artificial landscapes? A little skill and indeed without much danger of being
in criticism would inform us, that shadows burnt; for there are several engines filled
and realities ought not to be mixed together with water, and ready to play at a minute's
in the same piece; and that the scenes warning, in case any such accident should
which are designed as the representations happen. However, as I have a very great
of nature, should be filled with resem-friendship for the owner of this theatre, I
blances, and not with the things them- hope that he has been wise encugh to in-
selves. If one would represent a wide sure his house before he would let this
champaign country filled with herds and opera be acted in it.
flocks, it would be ridiculous to draw the 'It is no wonder that those scenes should
country only upon the scenes, and to crowd be very surprising, which were contrived
several parts of the stage with sheep and by two poets of different nations, and
oxen. This is joining together inconsist- raised by two magicians of different sexes.
encies, and making the decoration partly | Armida (as we are told in the argument)
real, and partly imaginary. I would re- was an Amazonian enchantress, and poor
commend what I have said here to the di- Signior Cassani (as we learn from the per-
rectors, as well as to the admirers of our sons represented) a Christian conjuror
modern opera.

(Mago Christiano.) I must confess I am
As I was walking in the streets about a very much puzzled to find out how an
fortnight ago, I saw an ordinary fellow car- Amazon should be versed in the black art,
rying a cage full of little birds upon his or how a good Christian, for such is the
shoulder; and as I was wondering with part of the magician, should deal with the
myself what use he would put them to, he devil.
was met very luckily by an acquaintance To consider the poet after the conjurors.
who had the same curiosity. Upon his I shall give you a taste of the Italian from
asking what he had upon his shoulder, he the first lines of the preface: 'Eccoti, be-
told him that he had been buying sparrows nigno lettore, un parto di poche sere, che se
for the opera. "Sparrows for the opera,' ben nato di notte, non e pero aborto di te-
says his friend, licking his lips, what, are nebre, ma si fara conoscere figlio d'Apollo
they to be roasted ?"" No, no,' says the con qualche raggio di Parnasso.'---'Be-
other, 'they are to enter towards the end hold, gentle reader, the birth of a few
of the first act, and to fly about the stage.'evenings, which, though it be the offspring

This strange dialogne awakened my cu- of the night, is not the abortive of darkness, riosity so far, that I immerliately bought but will make itself known to be the son of the opera, by which means I perceived Apollo, with a certain ray of Parnassus.' that the sparrows were to act the part of He afterwards proceeds to call Mynheer singing birds in a delightful grove; though Handel the Orpheus of our age, and to acupon a nearer inquiry I found the sparrows quaint us, in the same sublimity of style, put the same trick upon the audience, that that he composed this opera in a fortnight. Sir Martin Mar-all* practised upon his Such are the wits to whose tastes we so mistress: for though they flew in sight, I ambitiously conform ourselves. The truth the music proceeded from a concert of fla- of it is, the finest writers among the mogelets and bird-calls, which were planted behind the scenes. At the same time I † At the time this paper was written, it could have made this discovery, I found by the dis- been little expected that what is here so happily ridi. course of the actors, that there were great

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culed, would ever really take place; but, in our en.

| lightened days, we have seen the Nero-rirer acting as designs on foot for the improvement of the no inconsiderable auxiliary, not only in a suburban

theatre, but in Covent-garden itself: and if the ma. down a part of the wall, and to surprise

nagers of our classical theatres' have not been able to bring an hundred horses on the stage, it certainly was not from a want of inclination, but because the stage would not hold them.

I Rinaldo, an opera, 1711. The plan was laid by • Sir Martin Mar-all, or The Feigned Innocence;' a Aaron Hill, his outline filled up with Italian words comedy, by Dryden, made up of pieces borrowed from by Sig. G. Rossi, and the music composed by Handel. Quinault's 'Amant Indiscret,' the Etourdi' of Mo- | The story is taken from Tasso, and the scene laid in and liere, and M. du Parc's ‘Francion.'

| near Jerusalem.

11

dera Italians express themselves in such a | No. 6.] Wednesday, March 7, 1710-11. forid form of words, and such tedious circumlocutions, as are used by none but pe

| Credebant hoc grande nefas, et morte piandum,

Si juvenis vetulo non assurrexeraldints in our own country; and at the same

Juv. Sat. xiii. 54. ame fill their writings with such poor ima- 'Twas impious then (so much was age rever'd) ginations and conceits, as our youths are for youth to keep their seals when an old man appcard. ashamed of before they have been two

I KNOW no evil under the sun so great as years at the university. Some may be apt then to think that it is the difference of genius there is no one vice more common. aps the abuse of the understanding, and yet

It has which produces the difference in the works di

S diffused itself through both sexes, and all of the two nations; but to show that there Is nothing in this, if we look into the writ- l that person to be found, who is not more

qualities of mankind; and there is hardly ings of the old Italians, such as Cicero and

concerned for the reputation of wit and Virgil, we shall find that the English

sense, than of honesty and virtue. But writers, in their way of thinking and ex

this unhappy affectaticn of being wise rapressing themselves, resemble those au

ther than honest, witty than good-natured, thors much more than the modern Italians lie

ns is the source of most of the ill habits of life. pretend to do. And as for the poet him

n. Such false impressions are owing to the self, from whom the dreams of this opera:

pera | abandoned writings of men of wit, and the are taken, I must entirely agree with Mon

awkward imitation of the rest of mankind. sieur Boileau, that one verse in Virgil is

For this reason Sir Roger was saying last worth all the clinquant or tinsel of Tasso, nich

night, that he was of opinion none but men But to return to the sparrows: there have

of fine parts deserve to be hanged. The been so many flights of them let loose in

reflections of such men are so delicate upon this opera, that it is feared the house will

all occurrences which they are concerned never get rid of them; and that in other

in, that they should be exposed to more plays they may make their entrance in

than ordinary infamy and punishment, for very wrong and improper scenes, so as to

offending against such quick admonitions as be seen flying in a lady's bed-chamber,

their own souls give them, and blunting the or perching upon a king's throne; besides finem

ides fine edge of their minds in such a manner, the inconveniences which the heads of the +1

that they are no more shocked at vice and audience may sometimes suffer from them. I foll

folly than men of slower capacities. There I am credibly informed, that there was

is no greater monster in being, than a very once a design of casting into an opera the

|ill man of great parts. He lives like a man

; story of Whittington and his cat, and that in order to it, there had been got together,

in a palsy, with one side of him dead. While

perhaps he enjoys the satisfaction of luxury, a great quantity of mice; but Mr. Rich, the

ne of wealth, of ambition, he has lost the taste Droprietor of the play-house, very pru- lof good-will. of friendship, of innocence. dentiy considered that it would be impos

os. Scarecrow, the beggar, in Lincoln's-innsible for the cat to kill them all, and that

fields, who disabled himself in his right leg, consequently the princes of the stage might

and asks alms all day to get himself a warm be as much infested with mice, as the

supper and a trull at night, is not half so prince of the island was before the cat's

despicable a wretch, as such a man of arrival upon it; for which reason he would

sense. The beggar has no relish above pot permit it to be acted in his house. And

sensations; he finds rest more agreeable indeed I cannot blame him; for, as he said

than motion; and while he has a warm fire very well upon that occasion, I do not hear and his doxy, never reflects that he dethat any of the performers in our opera pre

serves to be whipped. Every man who tend to equal the famous pied piper,* who

terminates his satisfactions and enjoyments made all the mice of a great town in Ger- within the supply of his own necessities and many follow his music, and by that means

passions, is, says Sir Roger, in my eye, as cleared the place of those little noxious animals.

| poor a rogue as Scarecrow. But,' con

tinued he, "for the loss of public and priBefore I dismiss this paper, I must in

vate virtue, we are beholden to your men form my reader, that I hear there is a

å of fine parts forsooth; it is with them no treaty on foot between London and Wiset

matter what is done, so it be done with an (who will be appointed gardeners of the

air. But to me, who am so whimsical play-house to furnish the opera of Rinaldo

in a corrupt age as to act according to naand Armida with an orange-grove: and

ture and reason, a selfish man, in the most that the next time it is acted, the singing

E shining circumstance and equipage, apbirds will be personated by tom-tits, the

pears in the same condition with the fellow undertakers being resolved to spare neither

above mentioned, but more contemptible pains nor money for the gratification of the in pro

le in proportion to what more he robs the audience.

C.

public of, and enjoys above him. I lay it • June 26, 1284, the rats and mice by which Hame down therefore for a rule, that the whole en was infested, were allured, it is said, by a piper, to man is to move together; that every action a contiguous river in which they were all drowned.

of any importance, is to have a prospect of t London and Wise were the Queen's gardeners at tis time.

public good: and that the general tendency

of our indifferent actions ought to be agree-/ any thing more common, than that we run able to the dictates of reason, of religion, in perfect contradiction to them? All which of good-breeding; without this, a man as I is supported by no other pretension, than have before hinted, is hopping instead of that it is done with what we call a good walking, he is not in his entire and proper grace. motion.'

Nothing ought to be held laudable or While the honest knight was thus bewil- becoming, but what nature itself should dering himself in good starts, I looked at-prompt us to think so. Respect to all kinds tentively upon him, which made him, I of superiors is founded, I think, upon inthought, collect his mind a little. “What stinct; and yet what is so ridiculous as age? I aim at,' says he, is to represent that II make this abrupt transition to the menam of opinion, to polish our understandings, tion of this vice, more than any other, in and neglect our manners, is of all things the order to introduce a little story, which I most inexcusable. Reason should govern think a pretty instance that the most polite passion, but instead of that, you see, it is age is in danger of being the most vicious. often subservient to it; and, as unaccountable It happened at Athens, during a public as one would think it, a wise man is not al-representation of some play exhibited in ways a good man.' This degeneracy is not honcur of the commonwealth, that an old only the guilt of particular persons, but also, I gentleman came too late for a place suitable at some times, of a whole people: and per- to his age and quality. Many of the young haps it may appear upon examination, that gentlemen, who observed the difficulty and the most polite ages are the least virtuous. confusion he was in, made signs to him that This may be attributed to the folly of ad- they would accommodate him if he came mitting wit and learning as merit in them- where they sat. The good man bustled selves, without considering the application through the crowd accordingly; but when of them. By this means it becomes a rule, he came to the seats to which he was innot so much to regard what we do, as how vited, the jest was to sit close and expose we do it. But this false beauty will not pass him, as he stood, out of countenance, to the upon men of honest minds and true taste. whole audience. The frolic went round Sir Richard Blackmore says, with as much the Athenian benches. But on those occagood sense as virtue, It is a mighty shame sions there were also particular places asand dishonour to employ excellent faculties signed for foreigners. When the good man and abundance of wit, to humour and please skulked towards the boxes appointed for men in their vices and follies. The great the Lacedæmonians, that honest people, enemy of mankind, notwithstanding his wit more virtuous than polite, rose up all to a and angelic faculties, is the most odious man, and with the greatest respect received being in the whole creation.' He goes on him among them. The Athenians being soon after to say, very generously, that he suddenly touched with a sense of the Sparundertook the writing of his poem 'to res- tan virtue and their own degeneracy, gave cue the Muses out of the hands of ravishers, a thunder of applause; and the old man to restore them to their sweet and chaste cried out, “The Athenians understand mansions, and to engage them in an em- what is good, but the Lacedæmonians pracployment suitable to their dignity.' 'This tise it.”

R. certainly ought to be the purpose of every man who appears in public, and whoever does not proceed upon that foundation, in- Inomy

| No. 7.] Thursday, March 8, 1710-11.

Theme jures his cruntry as fast as he succeeds in his studies. When modesty ceases to be the Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, chief ornament of one sex; and integrity of Nocturnos lemures, portentaque Thessala rides?

Hor. Lib. 2. Ep. ii. 208. the other, society is upon a wrong basis, and we shall be ever after without rules to guide Visions, and magic spells, can you despise, our judgment in what is really becoming

And laugh at witches, ghosts, and prodigies ? and ornamental. Nature and reason direct Going yesterday to dine with an old acone thing, passion and humour another. To quaintance, I had the misfortune to find the follow the dictates of these two latter, is whole family very much dejected. Upon going into a road that is both endless and asking him the occasion of it, he told me intricate; when we pursue the other, our that his wife had dreamt a strange dream passage is delightful, and what we aim at the night before, which they were afraid easily attainable.

portended some misfortune to themselves I do not doubt but England is at present or to their children. At her coming into as polite a nation as any in the world; but the room, I observed a settled melancholy any man who thinks, can easily see, that in her countenance, which I should have the affectation of being gay and'in fashion, been troubled for, had I not heard from has very near eaten up our good sense and whence it proceeded. We were no sooner our religion. Is there any thing so just as sat down, but after having looked upon me that mode and gallantry should be built a little while, My dear,' says she, turning upon exerting ourselves in what is pro- to her husband, you may now see the per and agreeable to the institutions of jus- stranger that was in the candle last night. tice and piety among us? And yet is there / Soon after this, as they began to talk of

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