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to their amusement, or the improvement | lieve any place more entertaining than Coof the mind. I lay one night last week at vent-garden; where I strolled from one Richmond; and being restless, not out of fruit-shop to another, with crowds of agreedissatisfaction, but a certain busy inclina- able young women around me, who were tion one sometimes has, I rose at four in purchasing fruit for their respective famithe morning, and took boat for London, lies. It was almost eight of the clock bewith a resolution to rove by boat and coach fore I could leave that variety of objects. I for the next four-and-twenty hours, till the took coach and followed a young lady, many different objects I must needs meet who tripped into another just before me, with should tire my imagination, and give attended by her maid. I saw immediately me an inclination to a repose more profound she was of the family of the Vain-loves, than I was at that time capable of. I beg There are a set of these, who of all things, people's pardon for an odd humour I am effect the play of Blindman's-bufi, and guilty of, and. was often that day, which is leading men into love for they know not saluting any person whom I like, whether whom, who are fled they know not where. I know him or not. This is a particularity This sort of woman is usually a janty slatwould be tolerated in me, if they considered tern; she hangs on her clothes, plays her that the greatest pleasure I know I receive head, varies her posture, and changes at my eyes, and that I am obliged to an place incessantly, and all with an appearagreeable person for coming a broad into ance of striving at the same time to hide my view, as another is for a visit of con- herself, and yet give you to understand she versation at their own houses.

is in humour to laugh at you. You must The hours of the day and night are taken have often seen the coachmen make signs up in the cities of London and Westmin- with their fingers, as they drive by each ster, by people as different from each other other, to intimate how much they have got as those who are born in different cen- that day. They can carry on that language turies. Men of six o'clock give way to to give intelligence where they are driving, those of nine, they of nine, to the genera-In an instant my coachman took the wink tion of twelve; and they of twelve disap- to pursue; and the lady's driver gave the pear, and make room for the fashionable hint that he was going through Long-acre world, who have made two o'clock the noon towards St. James's: while he whipped up of the day.

James-street, we drove for King-street, to When we first put off from shore, we save the pass at St. Martin's-lane. The soon fell in with a fleet of gardeners, bound coachman took care to meet, jostle, and for the several market-ports of London; threaten each other for way, and be entanand it was the most pleasing scene imagin- gled at the end of Newport-street and able to see the cheerfulness with which Long-acre. The fright, you must believe, those industrious people plyed their way brought down the lady's coach door, and to a certain sale of their goods. The banks obliged her. with her mask off, to inquire on each side are as well peopled, and beau-l into the bustle,-when she sees the man tified with as agreeable plantations as any she would avoid. The tackle of the coachspot on the earth; but the Thames itself, / window is so bad she cannot draw it up loaded with the product of each shore, again, and she drives on sometimes wholly added very much to the landscape. It was discovered and sometimes half escaped, very easy to observe by their sailing, and according to the accident of carriages in the countenances of the ruddy virgins, who her way. One of these ladies keeps her were supercargoes, the part of the town to seat in a hackney-coach, as well as the best which they were bound. Their was an air rider does on a managed horse. The laced in the purveyors for Covent-garden, who shoe on her left foot, with a careless gesfrequently converse with morning rakes, ture just appearing on the opposite cushion, very unlike the seeming sobriety of those held her both firm, and in proper attitude bound for Stocks-market.

to receive the next jolt. Nothing remarkable happened in our As she was an excellent coach-woman, voyage; but I landed with ten sail of apricot many were the glances at each other which boats, at Strand-bridge, after having put in we had for an hour and a half, in all parts at Nine-Elms, and taken in melons, con- of the town, by the skill of our drivers; till signed by Mr. Cuffee, of that place, to Sarah at last my lady was conveniently lost, with Sewell and company, at their stall in Co- notice from her coachman to ours to make vent-garden. We arrived at Strand-bridge off, and he should hear where she went. at six of the clock, and were unloading, | This chase was now at an end; and the when the hackney-coachmen of the fore- fellow who drove her came to us, and disgoing night took their leave of each other covered that he was ordered to come again at the Dark-House, to go to bed before the in an hour, for that she was a Silk-worm. day was too far spent. Chimney-sweepers I was surprised with this phrase, but found passed by us as we made up to the market, it was a cant among the hackney fraternity and some raillery happened between one for their best customers, women who ramof the fruit-wenches and those black men, ble twice or thrice a week from shop to about the Devil and Eve, with allusion to shop, to turn over all the goods in town their several professions. I could not be- without buying any thing. The silk-worms are, it seems, indulged by the tradesmen; , wiser thoughts, I had liked to have lost my for, though they never buy, they are ever place at the chop-house, where every man, talking of new silks, laces and ribands, and according to the natural bashfulness or serve the owners in getting them customers sullenness of our nation, eats in a public as their common dunners do in making room a mess of broth, or chop of meat, them pay,

in dumb silence, as if they had no pretence The day of people of fashion began now to speak to each other on the foot of being to break, and carts and hacks were min- men, except they were of each other's acgled with equipages of show and vanity; quaintance. when I resolved to walk it, out of cheap-T I went afterwards to Robin's, and saw ness; but my unhappy curiosity is such, people who had dined with me at the fivethat I find it always my interest to take penny ordinary just before, give bills for coach; for some odd adventure among beg- the value of large estates; and could not but gars, ballad singers, or the like, detains behold with great pleasure, property lodged and throws me into expense. It happened in, and transferred in a moment from, such so immediately; for at the corner of War- as would never be masters of half as much wick-street, as I was listening to a new as is seemingly in them, and given from ballad, a ragged rascal, a beggar who knew them, every day they live. But before five me, came up to me, and began to turn the in the afternoon I left the city, came to my eyes of the good company upon me, by tell- common scene of Covent-garden, and passed ing me he was extremely poor, and should the evening at Will's, in attending the disdie in the street for want of drink, except courses of several sets of people, who reI immediately would have the charity to lieved each other, within my hearing, on give him sixpence go into the next ale-house the subjects of cards, dice, love, learning, and save his life. He urged with a melan- and politics. The last subject kept me till choly face, that all his family had died of I heard the streets in the possession of the thirst. All the mob have humour, and two bell-man, who had now the world to himor three began to take the jest; by which self, and cried Past two o'clock.' This Mr. Sturdy carried his point, and let me roused me from my seat; and I went to my sneak off to a coach. As I drove along, it lodgings, led by a light, whom I put into was a pleasing reflection to see the world the discourse of his private economy, and so prettily checkered since I left Richmond, made him give me an account of the charge, and the scene still filling with children of a hazard, profit, and loss of a family that denew hour, This satisfaction increased as pended upon a link, with a design to end I moved towards the city; and gay signs, my trivial day with the generosity of sixwell-disposed streets, magnificent public pence, instead of a third part of that sum. structures, and wealthy shops, adorned When I came to my chambers, I writ down with contented faces, made the joy still these minutes: but was at a loss what inrising till we came into the centre of the struction I should propose to my reader city, and centre of the world of trade, the from the enumeration of so many insignifiExchange of London. As other men in the cant matters and occurrences: and I thought crowds about me were pleased with their it of great use, if they could learn with me hopes and bargains, I found my account in to keep their minds open to gratification, observing them, in attention to their seve- and ready to receive it from any thing it ral interests. I indeed, looked upon my-meets with. This one circumstance will self as the richest man that walked the Ex- make every face you see give you the satischange that day; for my benevolence made faction you now take in beholding that of a me share the gains of every bargain that friend; will make every object a pleasing was made. It was not the least of my satis- one; will make all the good which arrives faction in my survey, to go up stairs, and to any man, an increase of happiness to pass the shops of agreeable females; to ob- yourself, serve so many pretty hands busy in the folding of ribands, and the utmost eagerness of agreeable faces in the sale of patches, No. 455.] Tuesday, August 12, 1712. pins, and wires, on each side of the counters, was an amusement in which I could

-Ego apis matinæ

More modoque, longer have indulged myself, had not the

Grata carpentis thyma per laborem dear creatures called to me, to ask what I

Plurimum wanted, when I could not answer, only

Hor. Od. ii. Lib. 4.27 • To look at you.' I went to one of the

My timorous muse windows which opened to the area below,

Unambitious tracts pursues:

Does with weak unballast wings, where all the several voices lost their dis

About the mossy brooks and springs, tinction, and rose up in a confused hum Like the laborious bee, ming; which created in me a reflection that For little drops of honey fly,

And there with humble sweets contents her industry. could not come into the mind of any but one

Cowley. a little too studious; for I said to myself with a kind of pun in thought, "What non-1 The following letters have in them resense is all the hurry of this world to those flections which will seem of importance who are above it?' In these, or not much l both to the learned world and tu domestic

T.

life. There is in the first, an allegory soment, in a wonderful variety of figures, well carried on, that it cannot but be very colours, and scents; however, most of them pleasing to those who have a taste of good withered soon, or at best are but annuals. writing; and the other billets may have some professed florists make them their their use in common life.

constant study and employment, and de

spise all fruit; and now and then a few MR. SPECTATOR, -As I walked the fanciful people spend all their time in the other day in a fine garden, and observed cultivation of a single tulip, or a carnation. the great variety of improvements in plants But the most agreeable amusement seems and flowers, beyond what they otherwise to be the well-choosing, mixing, and bindwould have been, I was naturally led into ing together these flowers in pleasing nosea reflection upon the advantages of educa-gays, to present to ladies. The scent of tion, or modern culture: how many good Italian flowers is observed, like their other qualities in the mind are lost for want of perfumes, to be too strong, and to hurt the the like due care in nursing and skilfully brain; that of the French with glaring gaudy managing them; how many virtues are colours, yet faint and languid: German and choked by the multitude of weeds which northern flowers have little or no smell, or are suffered to grow among them; how ex- sometimes an unpleasant one. The ancients cellent parts are often starved and useless, had a secret to give a lasting beauty, coby being planted in a wrong soil; and how lour, and sweetness, to some of their choice very seldom do these moral seeds produce flowers, which flourish to this day, and the noble fruits which might be expected which few of the moderns can effect. from them, by a neglect of proper manur- These are becoming enough and agreeable ing, necessary pruning, and an artful ma- in their seasons, and do often handsomely nagement of our tender inclinations and first adorn an entertainment: but an over-fondspring of life. These obvious speculations ness of them seems to be a disease. It made me at length conclude, that there is rarely happens, to find a plant vigorous a sort of vegetable principle in the mind of enough to have (like an orange-tree,) at every man when he comes into the world. once beautiful and shining leaves, fragrant In infants, the seeds lie buried and undis- Aowers, and delicious, nourishing fruit. covered, till after a while they sprout forth Sir, yours, &c.' in a kind of rational leaves, which are words: and in due season the flowers begin

•August 6, 1712.

DEAR SPEC.-You have given us, in to appear in a variety of beautiful colours,

rs, your Spectator of Saturday last, a very exand all the gay pictures of youthful fancy? and imagination; at last the fruit knits and

cellent discourse upon the force of custom,

| and its wonderful efficacy in making every is formed, which is green perhaps at first, sour and unpleasant to the taste, and not fit

thing pleasant to us. I cannot deny but that to be gathered: till, ripened by due care

I received above two-pennyworth of in

struction from your paper, and in the geneand application, it discovers itself in all

ral was very well pleased with it; but I am, the noble productions of philosophy, ma

| without a compliment, sincerely troubled thematics, close reasoning, and handsome that I cannot exactly be of your opinion. argumentation. These fruits, when they I that it makes every thing pleasing to us. arrive at just maturity, and are of a good

In short, I have the honour to be yoked to kind, afford the most vigorous nourishment

a young lady, who is, in plain English, for to the minds of men. I reflected farther

her standing, a very eminent scold. She on the intellectual leaves before mentioned,

do began to break her mind very freely, both and found almost as great a variety among

to me and to her servants, about two months them as in the vegetable world. I could

after our nuptials; and, though I have been easily observe the smooth shining Italian

accustomed to this humour of hers these leaves, the nimble French aspen, always in

three years, yet I do not know what's the motion, the Greek and Latin evergreens,

matter with me, but I am no more delighted the Spanish myrtle, the English oak, the

with it than I was at the very first. I have Scotch thistle, the Irish shambrogue, the ladvised with her relations about her. and prickly German and Dutch holly, the Po

they all tell me that her mother and her Îish and Russian nettie, besides a vast num

grandmother before her were both taken ber of exotics imported from Asia, Africa,

much after the same manner; so that, since and America. I saw several barren plants,

it runs in the blood, I have but small hopes which bore only leaves, without any hopes

of her recovery. I should be glad to have of flower or fruit. The leaves of some were

a little of your advice in this matter. lit

I fragrant and well-shaped, and others ill

would not willingly trouble you to contrive scented and irregular. I wondered at a set

how it may be a pleasure to me; if you will of old whimsical botanists, who spent their whole lives in the contemplation of some line

but put me in a way that I may bear it with withered Egyptian, Coptic, Armenian, or

e indifference, I shall rest satisfied, Chinese leaves; while others made it their

Dear Spec, your very humble servant. business to collect, in voluminous herbals, P. S. I must do the poor girl the justice all the several leaves of some one tree. The to let you know, that this match was none flowers afford a most diverting entertain- of her own choosing, (or indeed of mine either;) in consideration of which I avoid | By the coarse hands of filthy dungeon villains, giving her the least provocation; and, in-| And thrown amongst the common lumber.' deed, we live better together than usually | Nothing indeed can be more unhappy folks do who hated one another when they than the condition of bankruptcy. The cawere first joined. To evade the sin against lamity which happens to us by ill-fortune, parents, or at least to extenuate it, my dear or by the injury of others, has in it some rails at my father and mother, and I curse consolation; but what arises from our own hers for making the match.'

misbehaviour, or error, is the state of the •August 8, 1712.

most exquisite sorrow. When a man conMR. SPECTATOR,- I like the theme

siders not only an ample fortune, but even you lately gave out extremely, and should |

the very necessaries of life, his pretence to be as glad to handle it as any man living:

food itself, at the mercy of his creditors, he but I find myself no better qualified to write

cannot but look upon himself in the state about money than about my wife; for, to

of the dead, with his case thus much tell you a secret, which I desire may go no

worse, that the last office is performed by farther, I am master of neither of those

his adversaries instead of his friends. From subjects. Yours, PILL GARLICK.'

this hour the cruel world does not only

take possession of his whole fortune, but •Mr. SPECTATOR,—I desire you will even of every thing else which had no reprint this in italic, so as it may be gene lation to it. All his indifferent actions have rally taken notice of. It is designed only to new interpretations put upon them; and admonish all persons, who speak either at those whom he has favoured in his former the bar, pulpit, or any public assembly life, discharge themselves of their obligawhatsoever, how they discover their igno- tions to him, by joining in the reproaches rance in the use of similies. There are, in of his enemies. It is almost incredible that the pulpit itself, as well as in other places, it should be so; but it is too often seen that such gross abuses in this kind, that I give there is a pride mixed with the impatience this warning to all I know, I shall bring of the creditor; and there are who would them for the future before your spectatorial rather recover their own by the downfal authority. On Sunday last, one, who shall of a prosperous man, than be discharged be nameless, reproving several of his con- to the common satisfaction of themselves gregation for standing at prayers, was and their creditors. The wretched man, pleased to say, “One would think, like the who was lately master of abundance, is elephant, you had no knees.” Now I my- now under the direction of others; and the self saw an elephant, in Bartholomew fair, wisdom, economy, good sense, and skill in kneel down to take on his back the in- human life before, by reason of his present genious Mr. William Penkethman, Your misfortune, are of no use to him in the dismost humble servant.'

T. position of any thing. The incapacity of

an infant or a lunatic is designed for his

provision and accommodation; but that of No. 456.] Wednesday, August 13, 1712.

a bankrupt, without any mitigation in re

spect of the accidents by which it arrived, De quo libelli in celeberrimis locis proponuntur, huic is calculated for his utter ruin, except ne perire quidem tacite conceditur.-Tul.

there be a remainder ample enough, after The man whose conduct is publicly arraigned, is not

the discharge of his creditors, to bear also suffered even to be undone quietly.

the expense of rewarding those by whose Osway, in his tragedy of Venice Pre

means the effect of all this labour was served, has described the misery of a man

transferred from him. This man is to look whose effects are in the hands of the law,

21 on and see others giving directions upon with great spirit. The bitterness of being what terms and conditions his goods are to the scorn and laughter of base minds, the be purchased: and all this usually done. anguish of being insulted by men hardened

dened not with an air of trustees to dispose of his beyond the sense of shame or pity, and the effects, but destroyers to divide and tear injury of a man's fortune being wasted, un- I them to pieces. der pretence of justice, are excellently ag

There is something sacred in misery to gravated in the following speech of Pierre

great and good minds; for this reason all to Jaffier:

wise lawgivers have been extremely tenI pass'd this very moment by thy doors,

der how they let loose even the man who And found them guarded by a troop of villains:

has right on his side, to act with any mixThe sons of public rapine were destroying. They told me by the sentence of the law,

ture of resentment against the defendant, They had commission to seize all thy fortune; | Virtuous and modest men, though they be Nay, more, Priuli's cruel hand had sign'd it.

used with some artifice, and have it in Here stood a ruffian with a horrid face, Lording it o'er a pile of massy plate,

their power to avenge themselves, are Tumbled into a heap for public sale.

slow in the application of that power, and There was another making villanous jests

are ever constrained to go into rigorous 1 At thy undoing. He had ta'en possession Of all thy ancient most domestic ornaments,

measures. They are careful to demonRich hangings intermix'd and wrought with gold; strate themselves not only persons injured, The very bed, which on thy wedding night

but also that to bear it longer would be a Receiv'd thee to the arms of Belvidera. The rene of all thy joys, was violated

means to make the offender injure others, before they proceed. Such men clap their rest of the world will regard me for yours. hands upon their hearts, and consider what There is a happy contagion in riches, as it is to have at their mercy the life of a well as a destructive one in poverty: the citizen. Such would have it to say to their rich can make rich without parting with own souls, if possible, that they were mer- any of their store; and the conversation of ciful when they could have destroyed, the poor makes men poor, though they rather than when it was in their power to borrow nothing of them. How this is to be have spared a man, they destroyed. This is accounted for I know not; but men's estia due to the common calamity of human life, mation follows us according to the company due in some measure to our very enemies. we keep. If you are what you were to me, They who scruple in doing the least injury | you can go a great way towards my recoare cautious of exacting the utmost justice. very; if you are not, my good fortune, if

Let any one who is conversant in the va- ever it returns, will return by slower apriety of human life reflect upon it, and he proaches. I am, sir, your affectionate will find the man who wants mercy has a friend, and humble servant.' taste of no enjoyment of any kind. There is a natural disrelish of every thing which

1 This was answered by a condescension is good in his very nature, and he is born

that did not, by long impertinent profesan enemy to the world. He is ever ex

' sions of kindness, insult his distress, but tremely partial to himself in all his actions, was

was as follows: and has no sense of iniquity but from the 'DEAR TOM,-I am very glad to hear punishment which shall attend it. The that you have heart enough to begin the law of the land is his gospel, and all his world a second time. . I assure you, I do cases of conscience are determined by his not think your numerous family at all diattorney. Such men know not what it is minished (in the gifts of nature, for which to gladden the heart of a miserable man; I have ever so much admired them,) by that riches are the instruments of serving what has so lately happened to you. I shall the purposes of heaven or hell, according not only countenance your affairs with my to the disposition of the possessor. The appearance for you, but shall accommowealthy can torinent or gratify all who are date you with a considerable sum at comin their power, and choose to do one or mon interest for three years. You know other, as they are affected with love or I could make more of it; but I have so hatred to mankind. As for such who are great a love for you, that I can waive opinsensible of the concerns of others, but portunities of gain to help you; for I do not merely as they affect themselves, these men care whether they say of me after I am are to be valued only for their mortality, dead, that I had a hundred or fifty thousand and as we hope better things from their pounds more than I wanted when I was heirs. I could not but read with great de- living. Your obliged humble servant.' light, a letter from an eminent citizen, who has failed, to one who was intimate with him in his better fortune, and able by his No. 457.] Thursday, August 14, 1712, countenance to retrieve his lost condition,

- Multa et præclara minantis.

Hor. Sat. iii. Lib. 2. 9. SIR, It is in vain to multiply words

Seeming to promise something wondrous great. and make apologies for what is never to be defended by the best advocate in the world, I SHALL this day lay before my readers the guilt of being unfortunate. All that a a letter, written by the same hand with man in my condition can do or say, will be that of last Friday, which contained proreceived with prejudice by the generality posals for a printed newspaper that should of mankind, but I hope not with you: you take in the whole circle of the penny-post. have been a great instrument in helpingl "SIR,_The kind reception you gave my me to get what I have lost; and I know (for loot Ei

(for last Friday's letter, in which I broached that reason, as well as kindness to me) you

my project of a newspaper, encourages me cannot but be in pain to see me undone.

to lay before you two or three more; for, To show you I am not a man incapable of

you must know, sir, that we look upon you bearing calamity, I will, though a poor

to be the Lowndes* of the learned world, man, lay aside the distinction between us,

and cannot think any scheme practicable and talk with the frankness we did when

or rational before you have approved of it, we were nearer to an equality: as all I do

though all the money we raise by it is in will be received with prejudice, all you do

our own funds, and for our private use. will be looked upon with partiality. What

I have often thought that a news-letter I desire of you is, that you, who are court

of whispers, written every post, and sent ed by all, would smile upon me, who am

about the kingdom, after the same manner shunned by all. Let that grace and favour

as that of Mr. Dyer, Mr. Dawkes, or any which your fortune throws upon you, be turned to make up the coldness and indif

other epistolary historian, might be highly ference that is used towards me. Allsia

v gratifying to the public, as well as benegood and generous men will have an eye of

* Secretary at this time of the treasury, and director kindness for me for my own sake, and the of the mini.

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