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Address of Democratic Congressmen, 1866. To the People of the United States:
Dangers threaten. The Constitution--the citadel of our liberties-is directly assailed. The future is dark, unless the people will come to the
to order and control its own domestic concerns, according to its own judgment exclusively, subject only to the Constitution of the United States, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depend, and the overthrow of that system by the usurpation and centralization of power in Congress would be a revolution, dangerous to re- be the watchword of every true man. In this hour of peril National Union should publican government and destructive of liberty; Each House of Congress is made by the Con-tain stitution the sole judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its members; but the exclu sion of loyal Senators and Representatives, prop erly chosen and qualified under the Constitution and laws, is unjust and revolutionary;
Every patriot should frown upon all those acts and proceedings everywhere, which can serve no other purpose than to rekindle the animosities of war, and the effect of which upon our moral, social, and material interests at home, and upon our standing abroad, differing only in degree, is injurious like war itself;
As essential to National Union we must main
unimpaired the rights, the dignity, and the equality of the States, including the right of representation in Congress, and the exclusive right of each State to control its own domestic concerns, subject only to the Constitution of the United States.
After a uniform construction of the Constitution for more than half a century, the assump tion of new and arbitrary powers in the Federal Government is subversive of our system and de structive of liberty.
A free interchange of opinion and kind feeling between the citizens of all the States is necessary to the perpetuity of the Union. At present eleven States are excluded from the national council. For seven long months the present Congress has persistently denied any right of representation to the people of these States. Laws, affecting their highest and dearest inter
The purpose of the war having been to preserve the Union and the Constitution by putting down the rebellion, and the rebellion having been suppressed, all resistance to the authority of the General Government being at an end, and the war having ceased, war measures should also cease, and should be followed by measures of peaceful administration, so that union, har-ests, have been passed without their consent, mony, and concord may be encouraged, and industry, commerce, and the arts of peace revived and promoted; and the early restoration of all the States to the exercise of their constitutional powers in the national Government is indis-dent, pensably necessary to the strength and the fence of the Republic, and to the maintenance of the public credit;
and in disregard of the fundamental principle of has been made to all the members from a State, free government. This denial of representation although the State, in the language of the Presipresents itself, not only in an attitude of loyalty and harmony, but in the persons of repde-resentatives whose loyalty cannot be questioned under any existing constitutional or legal test."
sentatives of the two sections, producing mutual confidence and respect. In the language of the distinguished lieutenant general,
All such electors in the thirty-six States and States have not been consulted with reference to The representatives of nearly one-third of the nine Territories of the United States, and in the the great questions of the day. There has been District of Columbia, who, in a spirit of patriotno nationality surrounding the present Congress. ism and love for the Union, can rise above per-There has been no intercourse between the represonal and sectional considerations, and who desire to see a truly National Union Convention, which shall represent all the States and Territories of the Union, assemble, as friends and brothers, under the national flag, to hold counsel together upon the state of the Union, and to take measures to avert possible danger from the same, are specially requested to take part in the choice of such delegates.
But no delegate will take a seat in such convention who does not loyally accept the national situation and cordially endorse the principles above set forth, and who is not attached, in true allegiance, to the Constitution, the Union, and
the Government of the United States.
"It is to be regretted that, at this time, there cannot be a greater commingling between the citizens of the two sections, and particularly of those intrusted with the law-making power.'
This state of things should be removed at once and forever.
Therefore, to preserve the National Union, to vindicate the sufficiency of our admirable Constitution, to guard the States from covert attempts to deprive them of their true position in the Union, and to bring together those who are unnaturally severed, and for these great national purposes only, we cordially approve the call for a National Union Convention, to be held at the city of Philadelphia, on the second Tuesday (14th) of August next, and endorse the princi ples therein set forth.
We, therefore. respectfully, but earnestly, urge upon our fellow-citizens in each State and ted States, in the interest of Union and in a Territory and congressional district in the Unispirit of harmony, and with direct reference to the principles contained in said call, to act promptly in the selection of wise, moderate, and conservative men to represent them in said Cou
NEW HAMPSHIRE-Smyth, Union, 35,018; Sinclair, Democrat, 30,176.
CONNECTICUT Hawley, Union, 43,974; English, Democrat, 43,433.
RHODE ISLAND-Burnside, Union, 8,197; Pierce, Democrat, 2,816.
OREGON-Wood, Union, 327 majority.
At the special election in CONNECTICUT, in the fall of 1865, on suffrage, the vote stood:
For colored suffrage, 27,217; against, 33,489. majority against, 6,272.
In WEST VIRGINIA, a vote was taken in May, on ratifying this constitutional amendment:
"No person who, since the 1st day of June, 1861, has given or shall give voluntary aid or assistance to the rebellion against the United States, shall be a citizen of this State, or be allowed to vote at any election held therein, unless he has volunteered into the military or naval service of the United States, and has been or shall be honorably discharged therefrom."
the Confederate States army known as the Army of Northern Virginia.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, U. S. GRANT, Lieut. Gen., Commanding Armies of the United States APRIL 7, 1865. GENERAL: I have received your note of this date. Though not entirely of the opinion you express of the hopelessness of the further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia, I reciprocate your desire to avoid a useless effusion of blood, and therefore before considering your proposition I ask the terms you will offer on condition of its surrender.
R. E. LEE, General. To Lieut. Gen. GRANT, Commanding Armies of the United States.
APRIL 8, 1865.
General R. E. LEE, Commanding C. S. A.:
GENERAL: Your note of last evening, in reply to mine of same date, asking conditions on which I will accept the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, is just received.
In reply I would say that peace being my first desire, there is but one condition I insist upon, viz: That the men surrendered shall be disqualified for taking up arms again against the Government of the United States, until properly exchanged. I will meet you, or designate officers to meet any officers you may name, for the same purpose, at any point agreeable to you, for the which the surrender of the Army of Northern purpose of arranging definitely the terms upon Virginia will be received.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
APRIL 8, 1865. GENERAL: I received, at a late hour, your note of to-day, in answer to mine of yesterday. I did not intend to propose the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, but to ask the terms of your proposition. To be frank, I do not think the emergency has arisen to call for the surrender of this army; but as the restoration of peace should be the sole object of all, I desire to know whether your proposal would tend to that end. I cannot, therefore, meet you with a view to In the Territory of NEBRASKA, a vote was surrender the Army of Northern Virginia; but taken, with this result: For the proposed State as far as your proposition may affect the Confedconstitution, 3,938; against it, 3,838. Congress-erate States forces under my command, and tend Marquette, Union, 4,110; Brooke, Democrat, 3,974. Governor-Butler, Union, 4,093; Morton, Democrat, 3,948.
The majority in its favor is 6,922.
Correspondence between General Grant and General Lee.
APRIL 7, 1865. Gon. R. E. LEE, Commanding C. S. A.: GENERAL: The result of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further effusion of blood, by asking of you the surren ler of that portion of
to the restoration of peace, I should be pleased
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
General R. E. LEE, Commanding C. S. A.:
GENERAL: Your note of yesterday is received. As I have no authority to treat on the subject of peace, the meeting proposed for 10 A. M. to-day could lead to no good. I will state, however, General, that I am equally anxious for peaco
with yourself, and the whole North entertain the same feeling.
The terms upon which peace can be had are well understood. By the South laying down their arms they will hasten that most desirable event, save thousands of human lives, and hundreds of millions of property not yet destroyed. Sincerely hoping that all our difficulties may be settled without the loss of another life, I subscribe myself, very respectfully, your obedient
U.S. GRANT, Lieut. Gen. U. S. A.
APRIL 9, 1865.
HEADQ'RS ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA, April 9, 1865. Lieut. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Com'g U. S. Armies· GENERAL: I have received your letter of this date containing the terms of surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, as proposed by you. As they are substantially the same as those expressed in your letter of the 8th instant, they are accepted. I will proceed to designate the proper officer to carry the stipulations into
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, R. E. LEE, General The other Rebel armies subsequently surren GENERAL: I received your note of this morn-dered on substantiaily the same terms. ing on the picket line, whither I had come to meet you and ascertain definitely what terms Agreement between Generals Sherman and were embraced in your proposition of yesterday with reference to the surrender of this army. I now request an interview in accordance with the offer contained in your letter of yesterday for that purpose.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
To Lieut. Gen. GRANT, Com'g U. S. Armies.
General R. E. LEE, Commanding C. S. A.:
Notice sent to me on this road where you
Memorandum, or Basis of Agreement, made this 18th day of April, A. D. 1865, near Durham's Station, in the State of North Carolina, by and between General Joseph E. Johnston, commanding Confederate army, and Major General William T. Sherman, commanding Army of the United States, both being present: 1. The contending armies now in the field to maintain the status quo, until notice is given by the commanding general of any one to its opponent, and reasonable time, say forty-eight hours, allowed.
2. The Confederate armies now in existence to
be disbanded and conducted to their several State capitals, therein to deposit their arms and public property in the State arsenal, and each pur-officer and man to execute and file an agreement to cease from acts of war, and to abide the action of both State and Federal authorities. The number of arms and munitions of war to be reported to the Chief of Ordnance at Washington city, subject to the future action of the ConStates.gress of the United States, and in the meantime to be used solely to maintain peace and order within the borders of the States respectively. 3. The recognition by the Executive of the United States of the several State governments, on their officers and legislatures taking the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United States; and where conflicting State governments have resulted from the war, the legitimacy of all shall be submitted to the Supreme Court of the United States.
APPOMATTOX C. H., April 9, 1865. General R. E. LEE, Commanding C. S. A.:
In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of the 8th instant, I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia on the following terms, to wit:
Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate.
The officers to give their individual paroles not to take arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery, and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officers appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of officers, nor their private horses or baggage.
This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their parole and the laws in force where they may reside. Very respectfully,
U. S. GRANT, Lieut. Gen.
4. The re-establishment of the Federal Courts in the several States, with powers as defined by the Constitution and laws of Congress.
5. The people and inhabitants of all these States to be guaranteed, so far as the Executive can, their political rights and franchise, as well as their rights of person and property, as defined by the Constitution of the United States, and of the States respectively.
6. The Executive authority of the Government of the United States not to disturb any of the people by reason of the late war, so long as they live in peace and quiet, and abstain from acts of armed hostility, and obey the laws in existence at the place of their residence.
7. In general terms, the war to cease, a general amnesty, so far as the Executive of the United States can command, on the condition of the disbandment of the Confederate armies, dis
Maj. Gen., Commanding Army U. S. in N. C.
General, Commanding C. S. A. in N. C.
The following official dispatch to the Associated Press gives the particulars of its disapproval, and the supposed reasons therefor:
It is reported that this proceeding of General Sherman was disapproved for the following, among other, reasons:
1. It was an exercise of authority not vested in General Sherman, and on its face shows that both he and Johnston knew that General Sherman had no authority to enter into any such arrangement.
2. It was a practical acknowledgment of the rebel government.
3. It undertook to re-establish the rebel State governments that had been overthrown at the sacrifice of many thousand loyal lives and immense treasure, and placed the arms and munitions of war in the hands of the rebels at their WASHINGTON, April 22.-Yesterday evening a respective capitals, which might be used as soon bearer of despatches arrived from General Sher- as the armies of the United States were disman. An agreement for a suspension of hos-banded, and used to conquer and subdue the tilities, and a memorandum of what is called a loyal States. basis for peace, had been entered into on the 18th inst., by General Sherman with the rebel General Johnston, the rebel General Breckinridge being present at the conference.
A Cabinet meeting was held at 8 o'clock in the evening, at which the action of General Sherman was disapproved by the President, the Secretary of War, by General Grant, and by every member of the Cabinet.
General Sherman was ordered to resume hostilities immediately, and he was directed that the instructions given by the late President, in the following telegram, which was penned by Mr. Lincoln himself, at the Capitol, on the night of the 3d of March, were approved by President Andrew Johnson, and were reiterated to govern the action of military commanders.
On the night of the 3d of March, while President Lincoln and his Cabinet were at the Capitol, a telegram from General Grant was brought to the Secretary of War, informing him that General Lee had requested an interview or conference to make an arrangement for terms of peace. The letter of General Lee was published in a message of Davis to the rebel Congress.
4. By the restoration of rebel authority in their respective States they would be enabled to re-establish slavery.
5. It might furnish a ground of responsibility by the Federal Government to pay the rebel debt, and certainly subjects the loyal citizens of rebel States to debt contracted by rebels in the
6. It would put in dispute the existence of loyal State governments, and the new State of West Virginia, which had been recognized by every department of the United States Govern
7. It practically abolished the confiscation laws, and relieved the rebels, of every degree, and penalties for their crimes. who had slaughtered our people, from all pains
8. It gave terms that had been deliberately, Lincoln, and better terms than the rebels had repeatedly, and solemnly rejected by President ever asked in their most prosperous condition.
9. It formed no basis of true and lasting peace, but relieved the rebels from the pressure of our victories, and left them in condition to
renew their efforts to overthrow the United States Government and subdue the loyal States whenever their strength was recruited and any Opportunity should offer.
General Grant's Orders.
WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, WASHINGTON, January 12, 1866.
General Grant's telegram was submitted to Mr. Lincoln, who, after pondering a few minutes, took up his pen and wrote with his own hand the following reply, which he submitted to the Secretary of State and Secretary of War. It was then dated, addressed, and signed by the Secre- [General Orders, No. 3.] tary of War, and telegraphed to General Grant: WASHINGTON, March 3, 1866, 12 P. M.-Lieutenant General Grant: The President directs me to say to you that he wishes you to have no conference with General Lee, unless it be for the capitulation of General Lee's army, or on some minor and purely military matter. He instructs me to say that you are not to decide, discuss, or confer upon any political question. Such questions the President holds in his own hands, and will submit them to no military conferences or conventions. Meantime, you are to press to the utmost your military advantages.
EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. After the Cabinet meeting last night, General Grant started for North Carolina to direct operations against Johnston's army.
EDWIN M. STANTON,
Secretary of War.
PERSONS AGAINST IMPROPER CIVIL
Military division and department commanders, whose commands embrace or are composed of any of the late rebellious States, and who have not already done so, will at once issue and enforce orders protecting from prosecution or suits in the State, or municipal courts of such State, all officers and soldiers of the armies of the United States, and all persons thereto attached, or in any wise thereto belonging, subject to military authority, charged with offences for acts done in their military capacity, or pursuant to orders from proper military authority; and to protect from suit or prosecution all loyal citizens, or persons charged with offences dono
Resolved, That the thanks of the Democracy of Pennsy!Tania be andered to the Hou. Charles R. Buckalew and Hon. Edgar Cowan, for their patriotic support of the President's restoration policy: and that such thanks are due to all the democratic members of Congress for their advocacy of the restoration policy of President Johnson.
Union Convention of Pennsylvania, March 7. 2. That the most imperative duty of the present is to gether the legitimate fruits of the war, in order that our Constitution may come out of the rebellion purified, our
against the rebel forces, directly or indirectly, during the existence of the rebellion; and all persons, their agents and employés, charged with the occupancy of abandoned lands or plantations, or the possession or custody of any kind of property whatever, who occupied, used, possessed, or controlled the same pursuant to the order of the President, or any of the civil or military departments of the Government, and to protect them from any penalties or damages that may have been or may be pronounced or adjudged in said courts in any of such cases; and also protecting colored persons from prose-spirators, and would be an insult to every soldier who took cutions in any of said States charged with offences for which white persons are not prosecuted or punished in the same manner and degree. By command of Lieutenant General Grant: E. D. TOWNSEND,
SUPPRESSION OF DISLOYAL NEWSPAPERS.
HEADQUARTERS ARMIES OF UNITED STATES,
WASHINGTON, Feb. 17, 1866.
You will please send to these headquarters as soon as practicable, and from time to time thereafter, such copies of newspapers published in your department as contain sentiments of disloyalty and hostility to the Government in any of its branches, and state whether such paper is habitual in its utterance of such sentiments. The persistent publication of articles calculated to keep up a hostility of feeling between the people of different sections of the country cannot be tolerated. This information is called for with a view to their suppression, which will be done from these headquarters only. By order of Lieutenant General Grant: T. S. BOWERS,
institutions strengthened, and our national life prolonged. 3. That failure in these grave duties would be scarcely less criminal than would have been an acquiescence iu secession and in the treasonable machinatious of the con
up arms to save the country.
and fearless courage with which Andrew Johnson resisted 4. That filled with admiration at the patriotic devotion
and denounced the efforts of the rebels to overthrow the National Government, Pennsylvania rejoiced to express her entire confidence in his character and principles, and appreciation of his noble conduct, by bestowing her suffrage upon him for the second position in honor and diguity in the country. His bold and outspoken denunciation of the crime of treason, his firm demands for the punishment of the guilty offenders, and his expressions of thorough sympathy with the friends of the Union, secured for him the warmest attachment of her people, who, remembering his great ser vices and sacrifices, while traitors and their sympathizers alike denounced his patriotic action, appeal to him to stand firmly by the side, and to repose upon the support, of the loyal masses, whose votes formed the foundation of his promotion, and who pledge to him their unswerving support in all measures by which treason shall be stigmatized, loyalty recognized, and the freedom, stability, and unity of the Na tional Union restored.
5. That the work of restoring the late insurrectionary States to their proper relatious to the Union necessarily devolves upon the law-making power, and that until such action shall be taken no State Tate'y in insurrection is enti tled to representation in either branch of Congress; that, as preliminary to such action, it is the right of Congress to States, to inquire respecting their loyalty, and to prescribe investigate for itself the condition of the legislation of those the terms of restoration, and that to deny this necessary constitutional power is to deny and imperil one of the dearest rights belonging to our representative form of gov ernment, and that we cordially approve of the action of the Union representatives in Congress from Pennsylvania on
this subject. Assistant Adjutant General.
Democratic Convention of Penn., March 5, 1866. The Democracy of Pennsylvania, in Convention met, recognizing a crisis in the affairs of the Republic, and esteeming the immediate restoration of the Union paramount to all other issues, do resolve:
1. That the States, whereof the people were lately in rebellion, are integral parts of the Union and are entitled to representation in Congress by men duly elected who bear true futh to the Constitution and laws, and in order to vindicate the maxim that taxation without representation is tyranny, such representatives should be forthwith admitted.
2. That the faith of the Republic is pledged to the payment of the national debt, and Congress should pass all laws necessary for that purpose.
3. That we owe obedience to the Constitution of the United States, (including the amendment prohibiting slavery), and under its provisions will accord to those emancipated all their rights of person and property.
4. That each State has the exclusive right to regulate the qualifications of its own electors.
5. That the white race alone is entitled to the control of the Government of the Republic, and we are unwilling to grant the negroes the right to vote.
6. That the bold enunciation of the principles of the Constitution and the policy of restoration contained in the recent annual message and Freedmen's Bureau veto message of President Johnson entitle him to the confidence and support of all who respect the Constitution and love their country.
7. That the nation owes to the brave men of our armies and navy a debt of lasting gratitude for their heroic services in defence of the Constitution and the Union; and that while we cherish with a tender affection the memories of the fallon, we pledge to their widows and orphans the nation's care and protection.
8. That we urge upon Congress the duty of equalizing the bounties of our soldiers and sailors. The following was also adopted:
6. That no man who has voluntarily engaged in the late rebellion, or has held office under the rebel organization, should be allowed to sit in the Congress of the Union, and that the law known as the test oath should not be repealed, but should be enforced against all claimants for seats in Congress.
7. That the national faith is sacredly pledged to the payment of the national debt incurred in the war to save the country and to suppress rebellion, and that the people will not suffer this faith to be violated or impaired; but all debts incurred to support the rebellion were unlawful, void, and of no obligation, and shall never be assumed by the United States, nor shall any State be permitted to pay any ovi dences of so vile and wicked engagements.
15. That in this crisis of public affairs, full of grateful recollections of his marvellous and me norable services on the field of battle, we turn to the example of unfaltering and uncompromising loyalty of Lieutenant General Grant with a confidence not less significant and unshaken, because at no period of our great struggle has his proud name been associated with a doubtful patriotisfn, or used for sinister purposes by the enemies of our common country.
17. That the Hon. Edgar Cowan, Senator from Pennsylvania, by his course in the Senate of the United States, has disappointed the hopes and forfeited the confidence of those to whom he owes his place, and that he is hereby most earnestly requested to resign.
The following resolution was offered as a substitute for the fourth resolution, but after some discussion was with
That, relying on the well-tried loyalty and devotion of Andrew Johnson to the cause of the Union in the dark
days of treason and rebellion, and remembering his patriotic conduct, services, and sufferings, which in times past endeared his name to the Union party; and now reposing full confidence in his ability, integrity, and patri tism, we express the hope and confidence that the policy of his Administration will be so shaped and conduc ed as to save the nation from the perils which still surround it.
The fourth resolution was then adopted-yeas 100,