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stitution of our country, guaranties liberty of conscience and equality of rights among citizens, we oppose all legislation impairing their security.
Democratic, at Cincinnati, June.
The platform reiterates in detail the resolutions adopted in 1852, down to and including the VIIIth resolution, and added the following:
And whereas since the foregoing declaration was uniformly adopted by our predecessors in national conventions an adverse political and religious test has been secretly organized by a party claiming to be exclusively American, it is proper that the American Democracy should clearly define its relation thereto, and declare its determined opposition to all secret political societies, by whatever name they may be called
liberty," and contains ample provisions for the | from us in other respects, in support of the protection of the life, liberty, and property of principles herein declared; and, believing that every citizen, the dearest constitutional rights the spirit of our institutions, as well as the Conof the people of Kansas have been fraudulently and violently taken from them; their territory has been invaded by an armed force; spurious and pretended legislative, judicial, and executive officers have been set over them, by whose usurped authority, sustained by the military power of the Government, tyrannical and unconstitutional laws have been enacted and enforced; the right of the people to keep and bear arms has been infringed; test- oaths of an extraordinary and entangling nature have been imposed as a condition of exercising the right of suffrage and holding office; the right of an accused person to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury has been denied; the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, has been violated; they have been leprived of life, liberty, and property without Resolved, That the foundation of this Union due process of law; that the freedom of speech of States having been laid in, and its prosperity, and of the press has been abridged; the right expansion, and pre-eminent example in free gov to choose their representatives has been made of ernment built upon, entire freedom in matters of no effect; murders, robberies, and arsons have religious concernment, and no respect of person been instigated and encouraged, and the offend-in regard to rank or place of birth, no party can ers have been allowed to go unpunished; that justly be deemed national, constitutional, or in all these things have been done with the know- accordance with American principles, which bases ledge, sanction, and procurement of the present its exclusive organization upon religious opinions Administration, and that for this high crime and accidental birth-place. And hence a politiagainst the Constitution, the Union, and hu- cal crusade in the nineteenth century, and in manity, we arraign the Administration, the the United States of America, against Catholic President, his advisers, agents, supporters, apol- and foreign-born, is neither justified by the past ogists, and accessories either before or after the history or the future prospects of the country, fact, before the country and before the world; nor in unison with the spirit of toleration and and that it is our fixed purpose to bring the enlarged freedom which peculiarly distinguishes actual perpetrators of these atrocious outrages the American system of popular government. and their accomplices to a sure and condign punishment hereafter.
4. That Kansas should be immediately admitted as a State of the Union, with her present free constitution, as at once the most effectual way of securing to her citizens the enjoyment of the rights and privileges to which they are entitled, and of ending, the civil strife now raging in her territory.
5. That the highwayman's plea that might makes right," embodied in the Ostend circular, was in every respect unworthy of American diplomacy, and would bring shame and dishonor upon any Government or people that gave it their sanction.
6. That a railroad to the Pacific ocean by the most central and practicable route is imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country, and that the Federal Government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction; and, as an auxiliary thereto, to the immediate construction of an emigrant route on the line of the railroad.
7. That appropriations by Congress for the improvement of rivers and harbors of a national character, required for the accommodation and security of our existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution and justified by the obligation of Government to protect the lives and property of its citizens.
8. That we invite the affiliation and co-operation of freemen of all parties, however differing
And that we may more distinctly meet the issue on which a sectional party, subsisting exclusively on slavery agitation, now relies to test the fidelity of the people, North and South, to the Constitution and the Union:
1. Resolved, That claiming fellowship with, and desiring the co-operation of all who regard the preservation of the Union under the Constitution as the paramount issue, and repudiating all sectional parties and platforms concerning domestic slavery, which seek to embroil the States and incite to treason and armed resistance to law in the Territories, and whose avowed purpose, if consummated, must end in civil war and disunion, the American Democracy recog nize and adopt the principles contained in the organic laws establishing the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska, as embodying the only sound and safe solution of the "slavery question" upon which the great national idea of the people of this whole country can repose in its determined conservatism of the Union-NON-INTERFERENCE
BY CONGRESS WITH SLAVERY IN STATE AND TER
RITORY, OR IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
2. That this was the basis of the compromises of 1850, confirmed by both the Democratic and Whig parties in national conventions, ratified by the people in the election of 1852, and rightly applied to the organization of Territories in 1854.
3. That by the uniform application of this democratic principle to the organization of Territories, and to the admission of new States, with
policy to establish between our Government and the governments of the States within whose dominions it lies. We can, under no circumstance, surrender our preponderance in the adjustment of all questions arising out of it. [Adopted-yeas 180, nays 56.]
or without domestic slavery, as they may elect, | interference with the relations it may suit our
Resolved, That we recognize the right of the people of all the Territories. including Kansas and Nebraska, acting through the legally and fairly-expressed will of a majority of actual residents, and wherever the number of their inhabitants justifies it, to form a constitution, with or without domestic slavery, and be admitted into the Union upon terms of perfect equality with the other States.
Resolved, finally, That in the view of the condition of popular institutions in the Old World (and the dangerous tendencies of sectional agitation, combined with the attempt to enforce civil and religious disabilities against the rights of acquiring and enjoying citizenship in our own land,) a high and sacred duty is devolved with increased responsibility upon the Democratic party of this country, as the party of the Union, to uphold and maintain the rights of every State, and thereby the Union of the States; and to sustain and advance among us constitutional liberty, by continuing to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the Constitution, which are broad enough and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it was, the Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be, in the full expansion of the energies and capacity of this great and progressive people.
1. Resolved, That there are questions connected with the foreign policy of this country, which are inferior to no domestic question whatever. The time has come for the people of the United States to declare themselves in favor of free seas and progressive free trade throughout the world, by solemn manifestations, to place their moral influence at the side of their successful example. [Adopted-yeas 230, nays 29.]
4. Resolved, That, in view of so commanding an interest, the people of the United States cannot but sympathize with the efforts which are being made by the people of Central America to regenerate that portion of the continent which covers the passage across the interoceanic isthmus. [Adopted-yeas 221, nays 38.] 5. Resolved, That the Democratic party will expect of the next Administration that every proper effort be made to insure our ascendancy in the Gulf of Mexico, and to maintain a permanent protection to the great outlets through which are emptied into its waters the products raised out of the soil and the commodities created by the industry of the people of our western valleys and of the Union at large. [Adopted-yeas 229, nays 33.]
The following resolution, reported from the committee on resolutions, was laid on the table-yeas 154, nays 120:
Resolved, That the Democratic party recog nizes the great importance, in a political and commercial point of view, of a safe and speedy communication by military and postal roads, through our own territory, between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of this Union, and that it is the duty of the Federal Government to exercise promptly all its constitutional power for the attainment of that object. On tabling, the vote was:
YEAS-Maine 1, New Hampshire 4, Massachusetts 17,
Rhode Island 4, Connecticut 6, New Jersey 7, Pennsylvania 27, Delaware 3, Virginia 15, North Carolina 10, South Carolina 8, Georgia 6. Alabama 9, Mississippi 7, Ohio 16, Kentucky 8, Tennessee 3, Florida 3-164.
NAYS-Maine 7. New Hampshire 1, Vermont 5, MasOhio G, Kentucky 4, Tennessee 9, Indiana 13, Illinois sachusetts 12, Maryland 6, Georgia 4, Louisiana 6, 11, Missouri 9, Arkansas 4, Michigan 6, Texas 4, Iowa 4, Wisconsin 5, California 4-120.
The second day thereafter the rules were suspended-yeas 208, nays 88-and this resolution was adopted-yeas 205, nays 87:
Resolved, That the Democratic party recog 2. Resolved, That our geographical and po- nizes the great importance, in a political and litical position with reference to the other States commercial point of view, of a safe and speedy of this continent, no less than the interest of our communication through our own territory becommerce and the development of our growing tween the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the power, requires that we should hold as sacred Union, and that it is the duty of the Federal the principles involved in the Monroe doctrine; Government to exercise all its constitutional their bearing and import admit of no miscon- power to the attainment of that object, thereby struction; they should be applied with unbend-binding the Union of these States in indissoluble ing rigidity. [Adopted-yeas 239, nays 21 ]
3. Resolved, That the great highway which nature as well as the assent of the States most immediately interested in its maintenance has marked out for a free communication between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, constitutes one of the most important achievements realized by the spirit of modern times and the unconquerable energy of our people. That result should be secured by a timely and efficient exertion of the control which we have the right to claim over it, and no power on earth should be suffered to impede or clog its progress by any
bonds, and opening to the rich commerce of Asia an overland transit from the Pacific to the Mississippi river, and the great lakes of the North.
NATIONAL PLATFORMS OF 1860.
Republican, at Chicago, May. Resolved, That we, the delegated representatives of the Republican electors of the United States, in Convention assembled, in discharge of the duty we owe to our constituents and our country, unite in the following declarations: 1. That the history of the nation, during the
last four years, has fully established the propri- | ety and necessity of the organization and perpetuation of the Republican party, and that the causes which called it into existence are permanent in their nature, and now, more than ever before, demand its peaceful and constitutional triumph.
while the recent startling developments of frauds and corruptions at the Federal inetropolis show that an entire change of administration is im peratively demanded.
7. That the new dogma, that the Constitution, of its own force, carries slavery into any or all of the Territories of the United States, is a dan2. That the maintenance of the principles gerous political heresy, at variance with the expromulgated in the Declaration of the Indepen-plicit provisions of that instrument itself, with dence and embodied in the Federal Constitution, contemporaneous exposition, and with legisla That all men are created equal; that they are tive and judicial precedent; is revolutionary in endowed by their Creator with certain inalien- its tendency, and subversive of the peace and able rights; that among these are life, liberty, harmony of the country. and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed," is essential to the preservation of our republican institutions; and that the Federal Constitution, the rights of the States, and the Union of the States, must and shall be preserved.
3. That to the Union of the States this nation owes its unprecedented increase in population, its surprising development of material resources, its rapid augmentation of wealth, its happiness at home, and its honor abrod; and we hold in abhorrence all schemes for disunion, come from whatever source they may and we congratulate the country that no Republican member of Congress has uttered or countenanced the threats of disunion so often made by Democratic members, without rebuke and with applause from their political associates; and we denounce those threats of disunion, in case of a popular overthrow of their ascendency, as denying the vital principles of a free government, and as an avowal of contemplated treason, which it is the imperative duty of an indignant people sternly to rebuke and forever silence.
That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends; and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.
5. That the present Democratic Administration has far exceeded our worst apprehensions, in its measureless subserviency to the exactions of a sectional interest, as especially evinced in its desperate exertions to force the infamous Lecompton constitution upon the protesting people of Kansas; in construing the personal rela tion between master and servant to involve an unqualified property in persons; in its attempted enforcement everywhere, on land and sea, through the intervention of Congress and of the Federal courts, of the extreme pretensions of a purely local interest; and in its general and ur varying abuse of the power intrusted to it by a confiding people.
6. That the people justly view with alarm the reckless extravagance which pervades every department of the Federal Government; that a return to rigid economy and accountability is indispensable to arrest the systematic plunder of the public treasury by favored partisans,
8. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is that of freedom; that as our republican fathers, when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory, ordained that "no person should be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law," it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it; and we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to slavery in any Territory of the United States.
9. That we brand the recent re-opening of the African slave-trade, under the cover of our national flag, aided by perversions of judicial power, as a crime against humanity and a burning shame to our country and age; and we call upon Congress to take prompt and efficient measures for the total and final suppression of that execrable traffic.
10. That in the recent vetoes, by their Federal governors, of the acts of the legislatures of Kansas and Nebraska, prohibiting slavery in those Territories, we find a practical illustration of the boasted democratic principle of nonintervention and popular sovereignty, embodied in the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and a demonstration of the deception and fraud involved therein.
11. That Kansas should of right be immediately admitted as a State under the constitution recently formed and adopted by her people and accepted by the House of Representatives.
12. That, while providing revenue for the support of the General Government by duties upon imports, sound policy requires such an adjustment of these imposts as to encourage the development of the industrial interests of the whole country; and we commend that policy of national exchanges which secures to the workingmen liberal wages, to agriculture remunerative prices, to mechanics and manufacturers an adequate reward for their skill, labor, and enterprise, and to the nation commercial prosperity and independence.
13. That we protest against any sale or alienation to others of the public lands held by actual settlers, and against any view of the free homestead policy which regards the settlers as paupers or suppliants for public bounty; and we demand the passage by Congress of the complete and satisfactory homestead measure which has already passed the House.
14. That the Republican party is opposed to any change in our naturalization laws, or any State legislation by which the rights of citizen
ship hitherto accorded to immigrants from for- | Democratic (Breckinridge) Platform, adopted at
15. That appropriations by Congress for river and harbor improvements of a national character, required for the accommodation and security of an existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution and justified by the obligation of Government to protect the lives and property of
16. That a railroad to the Pacific ocean is
imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country; that the Federal Government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction; and that, as preliminary thereto, a daily overland mail should be promptly established.
Charleston and Baltimore, June. Resolved, That the platform adopted by the Democratic party at Cincinnati be affirmed, with the following explanatory resolutions:
1. That the government of a territory organized by an act of Congress is provisional and temporary, and during its existence all citizens of the United States have an equal right to settle with their property in the territory, without their rights, either of person or property, being destroyed or impaired by congressional or territorial legislation.
2. That it is the duty of the Federal Government, in all its departments, to protect, when necessary, the rights of persons and property in the territories, and wherever else its constitutional authority extends.
3. That when the settlers in a territory, hav17. Finally, having thus set forth our distinc-stitution, the right of sovereignty commences, ing an adequate population, form a State contive principles and views, we invite the co-ope- and, being consummated by admission into the ration of all citizens, however differing on other Union, they stand on an equal footing with questions, who substantially agree with us in the people of other States; and the State thus their affirmance and support. organized ought to be admitted into the Federal Union, whether its constitution prohibits or recognizes the institution of slavery.
Democratic (Douglas) Platform, adopted at Charleston and Baltimore, June.
4. That the Democratic party are in favor of 1. Resolved, That we, the Democracy of the the acquisition of the Island of Cuba, on such Union, in convention assembled, hereby declare terms as shall be honorable to ourselves and our affirmance of the resolutions unanimously just to Spain, at the earliest practicable moadopted and declared as a platform of princi-ment. ples by the Democratic Convention in Cincinnati, in the year 1856, believing that Democratic principles are unchangeable in their nature, when applied to the same subject-matters; and we recommend, as the only further resolutions, the following:
2. Resolved, That it is the duty of the United States to afford ample and complete protection to all its citizens, whether at home or abroad, and whether native or foreign.
3. Resolved, That one of the necessities of the age, in a military, commercial, and postal point of view, is speedy communication between the Atlantic and Pacific States; and the Democratic party pledge such constitutional Government aid as will insure the construction of a railroad to the Pacific coast at the earliest practicable period.
4. Resolved, That the Democratic party are in favor of the acquisition of the Island of Cuba, on such terms as shall be honorable to ourselves and just to Spain.
5. Resolved, That the enactments of State legislatures to defeat the faithful execution of the fugitive-slave law are hostile in character, subversive of the Constitution, and revolutionary in their effect.
6. Resolved, That it is in accordance with the true interpretation of the Cincinnati platform that, during the existence of the territorial governments, the measure of restriction, whatever it may be, imposed by the Federal Constitution on the power of the territorial legislature over the subject of the domestic relations, as the same has been, or shall hereafter be. finally determined by the Supreme Court of the United States, should be respected by all good citizens, and enforced with promptness and fidelity by every branch of the General Government.
5. That the enactments of State legislatures to defeat the faithful execution of the fugitiveslave law are hostile in character, subversive of the Constitution, and revolutionary in their effect.
6. That the Democracy of the United States recognize it as the imperative duty of this Government to protect the naturalized citizen in all his rights, whether at home or in foreign lands, to the same extent as its native-born citizens.
Whereas one of the greatest necessities of the age, in a political, commercial, postal, and military point of view, is a speedy communication between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts; therefore, be it
Resolved, That the National Democratic party do hereby pledge themselves to use every means in their power to secure the passage of some bill, to the extent of the constitutional authority of Congress, for the construction of a Pacific railroad from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean, at the earliest practicable moment.
NATIONAL PLATFORMS OF 1864.
Republican, at Baltimore, June. Resolved, That it is the highest duty of every American citizen to maintain against all their enemies the integrity of the Union and the paramount authority of the Constitution and laws of the United States; and that, laying aside all differences of political opinions, we pledge ourselves as Union men, animated by a common sentiment, and aiming at a common object, to do everything in our power to aid the Government, in quelling by force of arms the rebellion now raging against its authority, and in bring
ing to the punishment due to their crimes the rebels and traitors arrayed against it.
2. That we approve the determination of the Government of the United States not to compromise with rebels, or to offer them any terms of peace, except such as may be based upon an unconditional surrender of their hostility and a return to their just allegiance to the Constitution and laws of the United States; and that we call upon the Government to maintain this position and to prosecute the war with the utmost possible vigor to the complete suppression of the rebellion, in full reliance upon the self-sacrificing patriotism, the heroic valor, and the undying devotion of the American people to the country and its free institutions.
ployed in its armies, without regard to distinction of color, the full protection of the laws of war; and that any violation of these laws, or of the usages of civilized nations in time of war by the rebels now in arms, should be made the subject of prompt and full redress.
8. That foreign immigration, which in the past has added so much to the wealth, development of resources and increase of power to the nationthe asylum of the oppressed of all nations-should be fostered and encouraged by a liberal and just policy.
9. That we are in favor of the speedy construction of the railroad to the Pacific coast. 10. That the national faith, pledged for the redemption of the public debt, must be kept in3. That as slavery was the cause, and now violate, and that for this purpose we recommend constitutes the strength of this rebellion, and as economy and rigid responsibility in the public it must be always and everywhere hostile to the expenditures, and a vigorous and just system of principles of republican government, justice and taxation; and that it is the duty of every loyal the national safety demand its utter and com-State to sustain the credit and promote the use plete extirpation from the soil of the republic; of the national currency. and that while we uphold and maintain the acts and proclamations by which the Government, in its own defence, has aimed a death-blow at this gigantic evil, we are in favor, furthermore, of such an amendment to the Constitution, to be made by the people in conformity with its provisions, as shall terminate and forever prohibit the existence of slavery within the limits of the jurisdiction of the United States.
4. That the thanks of the American people are due to the soldiers and sailors of the army and navy, who have perilled their lives in defence of their country and in vindication of the honor of its flag; that the nation owes to them some permanent recognition of their patriotism and their valor, and ample and permanent provision for those of their survivors who have received disabling and honorable wounds in the service of the country; and that the memories of those who have fallen in its defence shall be held in grateful and everlasting remembrance.
11. That we approve the position taken by the Government that the people of the United States can never regard with indifference the attempt of any European power to overthrow by force, or to supplant by fraud, the institutions of any republican government on the western continent; and that they will view with extreme jealousy, as menacing to the peace and independence of their own country, the efforts of any such power to obtain new footholds for monarchical governments, sustained by foreign military force, in near proximity to the United States.
Democratic, at Chicago, August.
Resolved, That in the future, as in the past, we will adhere with unswerving fidelity to the Union under the Constitution as the only solid foundation of our strength, security, and happiness as a people, and as a framework of government equally conducive to the welfare and prosperity of all the States, both northern and southern.
5. That we approve and applaud the practical wisdom, the unselfish patriotism, and the unswerving fidelity to the Constitution and the prin- Resolved, That this convention does explicitly ciples of American liberty, with which Abraham declare, as the sense of the American people, that Lincoln has discharged, under circumstances of after four years of failure to restore the Union unparalleled difficulty, the great duties and res- by the experiment of war, during which, under ponsibilities of the presidential office; that we the pretence of a military necessity or warapprove and endorse, as demand d by the emer- power higher than the Constitution, the Constigency and essential to the preservation of the tution itself has been disregarded in every part, nation and as within the provisions of the Con- and public liberty and private right alike trodstitution, the measures and acts which he has den down, and the material prosperity of the adopted to defend the nation against its open country essentially impaired, justice, humanity, and secret foes; that we approve especially the liberty, and the public welfare demand that improclamation of emancipation and the employ-mediate efforts be made for a cessation of hosment as Union soldiers of men heretofore held in slavery; and that we bave full confidence in his determination to carry these and all other constitutional measures essential to the salvation of the country into full and complete effect.
tilities, with a view to an ultimate convention of the States, or other peaceable means, to the end that, at the earliest practicable moment, peace may be restored on the basis of the Fede ral Union of the States.
6. That we deem it essential to the general Resolved, That the direct interference of the welfare that harmony should prevail in the na- military authorities of the United States in the tional councils, and we regard as worthy of pub-recent elections held in Kentucky, Maryland, lic confidence and official trust those only who cordially endorse the principles proclaimed in these resolutions, and which should characterize the administration of the Government.
7. That the Government owes to all men em
Missouri, and Delaware was a shameful violation of the Constitution, and a repetition of such acts in the approaching election will be held as revolutionary, and resisted with all the means and power under our control.