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in its service; the public servants in the various | pense incident to such establishments, and let all Departments of the Government; the farmer who our precious metal be exported in bullion. The supplies the soldiers of the army and the sailors time has come, however, when the Government of the navy; the artisan who toils in the nation's and national banks should be required to take workshops, or the mechanics and laborers who the most efficient steps and make all necessary build its edifices and construct its forts and ves- arrangements for a resumption of specie paysels of war, should, in payment of their just and ments. Let specie payments once be earnestly hard earned dues, receive depreciated paper,while inaugurated by the Government and banks, and another class of their countrymen, no more de- the value of the paper circulation would diserving, are paid in coin of gold and silver. rectly approximate a specie standard. Equal and exact justice requires that all the creditors of the Government should be paid in a currency possessing a uniform value. This can only be accomplished by the restoration of the currency to the standard established by the Constitution; and by this means we would remove a discrimination which may, if it has not already done so, create a prejudice that may become deeprooted and wide-spread, and imperil the national credit.
The feasibility of making our currency correspond with the constitutional standard may be seen by reference to a few facts derived from our commercial statistics.
The aggregate product of precious metals in the United States from 1849 to 1867 amounted to $1,174,000,000, while for the same period the net exports of specie were $741,000,000. This hows an excess of product over not exports of $433,000,000. There are in the Treasury $103,407,985 in coin, in circulation in the States on the Pacific coast about $40,000,000, and a few millions in the national and other banks-in all less than $160,000,000. Taking into consideration the specie in the country prior to 1849 and that produced since 1867, and we have more than $300,000,000 not accounted for by exportation or by the returns of the Treasury, and therefore most probably remaining in the country.
Specie payments having been resumed by the Government and banks, all notes or bills of paper issued by either of a less denomination than twenty dollars should by law be excluded from circulation, so that the people may have the benefit and convenience of a gold and silver currency which, in all their business transactions, will be uniform in value at home and abroad.
"Every man of property or industry, every man who desires to preserve what he honestly possesses, or to obtain what he can honestly earn, has a direct interest in maintaining a safe circulating medium-such a medium as shall be real and substantial, not liable to vibrate with opinions, not subject to be blown up or blown down by the breath of speculation, but to be made stable and secure. A disordered currency is one of the greatest political evils. It undermines the virtues necessary for the support of the social system, and encourages propensities destructive of its happiness. It wars against industry, frugality, and economy, and it fosters the evil spirits of extravagance and speculation." It has been asserted by one of our profound and most gifted statesmen, that "of all the contrivances for cheating the laboring classes of mankind none has been more effectual than that which deludes them with paper money. This is the most effectual of inventions to fertilize the These are important facts, and show how com- rich man's fields by the sweat of the poor man's pletely the inferior currency will supersede the brow. Ordinary tyranny, oppression, excessive better, forcing it from circulation among the taxation-these bear lightly on the happiness masses, and causing it to be exported as a mere of the mass of the community compared with a article of trade. to add to the money capital of fraudulent currency and the robberies commit foreign lands. They show the necessity of re- ted by depreciated paper. Our own history has tiring our paper money, that the return of gold recorded for our instruction enough and more and silver to the avenues of trade may be in- than enough of the demoralizing tendency, the vited, and a demand created which will cause injustice, and the intolerable oppression on the the retention at home of at least so much of the virtuous and well-disposed of a degraded paper productions of our rich and inexhaustible gold-currency authorized by law or in any way counbearing fields as may be sufficient for purposes of circulation. It is unreasonable to expect a return to a sound currency so long as the Government and banks, by continuing to issue irredeemable notes, fill the channels of circulation with depreciated paper. Notwithstanding a coinage by our mints, since 1849, of $874,000,000, the people are now strangers to the currency which was designed for their use and benefit, and specimens of the precious metals bearing the national device are seldom seen, except when produced to gratify the interest excited by their novelty. If depreciated paper is to be continued as the permanent currency of the country, and all our coin is to become a mere article of traffic and speculation, to the enhancement in price of all that is indispensable to the comfort of the people, it would be wise economy to abolish our mints, thus saving the nation the care and ex
tenanced by Government." It is one of the most successful devices, in times of peace or war, of expansions or revulsions, to accomplish the transfer of all the precious metals from the great mass of the people into the hands of the few, where they are hoarded in secret places or deposited under bolts and bars, while the people are left to endure all the inconvenience, sacrifice, and demoralization resulting from the use of depreciated and worthless paper.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1868, six million six hundred and fifty-five thousand seven hundred acres of public land were disposed of.
On the 30th of June, 1868, one hundred and sixty-nine thousand six hundred and forty-three names were borne on the pension rolls, and during the year ending on that day the total amount paid for pensions, including the expenses
of disbursement, was $24,010,982, being $5,391,- | my administration to these principles, I have on 025 greater than that expended for like pur- no occasion lent support or toleration to unlawful poses during the preceding year. * *expeditions set on foot upon the plea of repubTreaties with various Indian tribes have been lican propagandism or of national extension or concluded, and will be submitted to the Senate for its constitutional action.
The strength of our military force on the 30th of September last was forty-eight thousand men, and it is computed that, by the 1st of January next, this number will be decreased to forty-three thousand. It is the opinion of the Secretary of War that within the next year a considerable diminution of the infantry force may be made without detriment to the interests of the country; and in view of the great expense attending the military peace establishment, and the absolute necessity of retrenchment wherever it can be applied, it is hoped that Congress will sanction the reduction which his report recommends. While in 1860 sixteen thousand three hundred men cost the nation $16,472,000, the sum of $65,682,000 is estimated as necessary for the support of the army during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1870. The estimates of the War Department for the last two fiscal years were, for 1867, $33,814,461; and for 1868, $25,205,669. The actual expenditures during the same periods were, respectively, $95,224,415 and $123,246 618. The estimate submitted in December last for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1869, was $77,124,707; the expenditures for the first quarter, ending the 30th of September last, were $27,219,117, and the Secretary of the Treasury gives $66,000,000 as the amount which will probably be required during the remaining three quarters, if there should be no reduction of the army-making its aggregate cost for the year considerably in excess of $93,000,000. The difference between the estimates and expenditures for the three fiscal years which have been named is thus shown to be $175,545,343 for this single branch of the public service. *
The total number of vessels in the navy is two hundred and six, mounting seventeen hundred and forty-three guns. Eighty-one vessels of every description are in use, armed with six hundred and ninety-six guns. The number of enlisted men in the service, including apprentices, has been reduced to eight thousand five hundred.
The ordinary postal revenue for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1868, was $16,292,600, and the total expenditures, embracing all the service for which special appropriations have been made by Congress, amounted to $22,730,592, showing an excess of expenditures of $6,437,991. *** Comprehensive national policy would seem to sanction the acquisition and incorporation into our Federal Union of the several adjacent continental and insular communities as speedily as it can be done peacefully, lawfully, and without any violation of national justice, faith, or honor. Foreign possession or control of those commu nities has hitherto hindered the growth and impaired the influence of the United States Chronic revolution and anarchy there would be equally injurious. Each one of them, when firmly es tablished as an independent republic, or when incorporated into the United States, would be a new source of strength and power. Conforming
aggrandizement. The necessity, however, of repressing such unlawful movements clearly indicates the duty which rests upon us of adapting our legislative action to the new circumstances of a decline of European monarchical power and influence, and the increase of American republican ideas, interests, and sympathies.
It cannot be long before it will become necessary for this Government to lend some effective aid to the solution of the political and social problems which are continually kept before the world by the two republics of the Island of St. Domingo, and which are now disclosing themselves more distinctly than heretofore in the Island of Cuba. The subject is commended to your consideration with all the more earnestness because I am satisfied that the time has arrived when even so direct a proceeding as a proposition for an annexation of the two republics of the Island of St. Domingo would not only receive the consent of the people interested, but would also give satisfaction to all other foreign nations. I am aware that upon the question of further extending our possessions it is apprehended by some that our political system cannot successfully be applied to an area more extended than our continent; but the conviction is rapidly gaining ground in the American mind that, with the increased facilities for intercommunication between all portions of the earth, the principles of free government, as embraced in our Constitution, if faithfully maintained and carried out, would prove of sufficient strength and breadth to comprehend within their sphere and influence the civilized nations of the world. * *
I renew the recommendation contained in my communication to Congress dated the 18th July last, a copy of which accompanies this message, that the judgment of the people should be taken on the propriety of so amending the Federal Constitution that it shall provide
First. For an election of President and Vice
President by a direct vote of the people, instead of through the agency of electors, and making them ineligible for re-election to a second term.
Second. For a distinct designation of the person who shall discharge the duties of President. in the event of a vacancy in that office by the death, resignation, or removal of both the Presi dent and Vice President.
Third. For the election of Senators of the United States directly by the people of the several States, instead of by the legislatures; and
Fourth. For the limitation to a period of years of the terms of federal judges.
Profoundly impressed with the propriety of making these important modifications in the Constitution, I respectfully submit them for the early and mature consideration of Congress. We should as far as possible remove all pretext for violations of the organic law, by remedying such imperfections as time and experience may develop, ever remembering that the Constitution which at any time exists, until changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all."
In the performance of a duty imposed upon are vested all legislative powers, and upon me by the Constitution, I have thus communi- them devolves the responsibility as well for cated to Congress information of the state of the framing unwise and excessive laws, as for neUnion, and recommended for their consideration such measures as have seemed to me necessary and expedient. If carried into effect, they will hasten the accomplishment of the great and beneficent purposes for which the Constitution was ordained, and which it comprehensively states were to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity." In Congress
glecting to devise and adopt measures absolutely demanded by the wants of the country. Let us earnestly hope that before the expiration of our respective terms of service, now rapidly drawing to a close, an all-wise Providence will so guide our counsels as to strengthen and preserve the Federal Union, inspire reverence for the Constitution, restore prosperity and happiness to our whole people, and promote on earth peace, good will toward men." ANDREW JOHNSON. WASHINGTON, December 9, 1868.
POLITICAL VOTES IN THIRD SESSION OF FORTIETH CONGRESS.
CONDEMNATION OF PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S PROPOSITION RESPECTING THE PAYMENT OF THE PUBLIC DEBT.
1868, December 14-Mr. Willey submitted this resolution, which was reported from the Committee on Finance by Mr. Cattell, December 16: Resolved, That the Senate, properly cherishing and upholding the good faith and honor of the nation, do hereby utterly disapprove of and condemn the sentiments and propositions contained in so much of the late annual message of the President of the United States as reads as follows:
"It may be assumed that the holders of our securities have already received upon their bonds a larger amount than their original investment, measured by a gold standard. Upon this statement of facts, it would seem but just and equitable that the six per cent. interest now paid by the Government should be applied to the reduction of the principal in semi-annual installments, which in sixteen years and eight months would liquidate the entire national debt. Six per cent. in gold would at present rates be equal to nine per cent. in currency, and equivalent to the payment of the debt one and a half times in a fraction less than seventeen years. This, in connection with all the other advantages derived from their investment, would afford to the public creditors a fair and liberal compensation for the use of their capital, and with this they should be satisfied. The lessons of the past admonish the lender that it is not well to be over-anxious
in exacting from the borrower rigid compliance
with the letter of the bond."
Mr. Hendricks moved this as a substitute: That the Senate cordially endorse the sentiment in the President's message, "that our national credit should be sacredly observed," and declare that the public debt should be paid as rapidly as practicable, exactly in accordance with the terms of the contracts under which the several loans were made, and where the obligations of the Government do not expressly state upon their face, or the law under which they were issued does not provide, that they shall be paid in coin, they ought in right and justice to be paid in the lawful money of the United States.
Which was disagreed to-yeas 7, naye 44, as follow:
YEAS-Messrs. Buckalew, Davis, Hendricks, McCreery, Saulsbury, Vickers, Whyte-7.
Cole, Conkling, Corbett, Dixon, Drake, Edmunds, Ferry, Fessenden, Frelinghuysen, Grimes, Harris, Henderson, Howard, Howe, Kellogg, Morgan, Morrill of Maine, Morrill of Vermont, Nye, Osborn, Pool, Ramsey, Rice, Robertson, Ross, Sawyer, Sherman, Spencer, Stewart, Sumner, Thayer, Trumbull, Van Winkle, Wade, Warner, Welch, Willey, Williams, Wilson,
NAYS-Messrs. Abbott, Anthony, Cattell, Chandler,
December 18-The resolution was adoptedyeas 43, nays 6, as follow:
YEAS-Messrs. Abbott, Anthony, Cameron, Cattell, Chandler, Cole, Conkling, Corbett, Cragin, Dixon, Edmunds, Ferry, Fessenden, Frelinghuysen, Grimes, Harlan, Harris, Henderson, Howard, Howe, Kellogg, Ramsey, Robertson, Ross, Sawyer, Sherman, Spencer, Morgan, Morrill of Vermont, Nye, Osborn, Pomeroy, Stewart, Sumner, Thayer, Van Winkle, Wade, Warner,
Willey, Williams, Wilson, Yates-43.
NAYS-Messrs. Davis, McCreery, Patterson of Tennessee, Saulsbury, Vickers, Whyte-6.
land, Polsley, Price, Prince, Pruyn, Randall, Raum,
Jones, Mungen, Lawrence S. Trimble-6.
1868, December 14.-Mr. Broomall moved that the rules be suspended, so as to enable him to submit the following preamble and resolution: Whereas the President of the United States, in his annual message to the Fortieth Congress, at its third session, says: "It may be assumed that the holders of our securities have already received upon their bonds a larger amount than their original investment, measured by a gold standard. Upon this statement of facts it would seem but just and equitable that the six per cent. interest now paid by the Government should be applied to the reduction of the principal in semi-annual installments. which in sixteen years and eight months would liquidate the entire national debt. Six per cent. in gold would at present rates be equal to nine per cent. in currency, and equivalent to the payment of the debt one and a half time in a fraction less than The second division of the question-being seventeen years. This, in connection with all the remaining portion of the preamble and resothe other advantages derived from their invest-lution-was agreed to without a division. ment, would afford to the public creditors a fair and liberal compensation for the use of their capital, and with this they should be satisfied. The lessons of the past admonish the lender that it is not well to be over anxious in exacting from the borrower rigid compliance with the letter of the bond;" and whereas such sentiments, if permitted to go to the world withoat immediate protest, may be understood to be the sentiments of the people of the United States and their Representatives in Congress: therefore,
Resolved, That all forms and degrees of repudiation of national indebtedness are odious to the American people. And that under no cir cumstances will their Representatives consent to offer the public creditor, as full compensation, a less amount of money than that which the Government contracted to pay him.
The rules were suspended-yeas 135, nays 29. A division of the question was called, the first division to include the preamble and the first sentence of the resolution. The previous question was called and seconded, and the main question ordered. A motion to reconsider the vote ordering the main question was tabled, yeas 134, nays 37. The question recurring on the first division of the question, a motion to table the preamble was lost-yeas 37, nays 133.
The first division of the question-being the preamble and the first sentence of the resolution -was then agreed to, yeas 155, nays 6, not voting 60, as follow:
YEAS-Messrs. Allison, Ames, Arnell, James M. Ashley, Axtell, Bailey, Baker, Baldwin, Banks, Barnum, Beaman, Beatty, Benjamin, Benton, Bingham, Blair, Boutwell, Bowen, Boyden, Boyer, Broomall, Buckley, Roderick R. Butler, Callis, Cary, Chanler, Churchill, Reader W. Clarke, Sidney Clarke, Coburn, Cook, Corley, Covode, Cullom, Dawes, Deweese, Dickey, Dixon, Donnelly, Driggs, Eckley, Edwards, Eggleston, Ela, Thomas D.Eliot, Farnsworth, Ferriss, Ferry, Fields, French, Garfield, Getz, Glossbrenner, Goss, Gove, Griswold, Haughey, Hawkins, Higby, Hooper, Hopkins, Hotchkiss, Chester D. Hubbard, Richard D. Hubbard, Hulburd, Hunter, Ingersoll, Jenckes, Alexander H. Jones, Judd, Julian, Kelley, Kellogg, Kelsey, Ketcham, Kitchen, Koontz, Lash, George V. Lawrence, Wm. Lawrence, Lincoln, Loan, Loughridge, Lynch, Mallory, Marvin, McCarthy, McKee, Mercur, Miller, Moore, Moorhead, Morrell, Morrissey, Mullins, Myers, Newsham, Norris, O'Neill, Orth, Paine, Perham, Peters, Pettis, Phelps, Pike, Pile, Plants, Po
Vote on Minority Representation.
1869, January 19-Pending a bill (H. P. 1824) to preserve the purity of elections in the several Territories, Mr. Phelps moved this as an additional section:
'That the legislatures of the Territories hereinbefore named shall, at their first session after the passage of this act, provide by law for a reapportionment of the members of the several legislatures as nearly equal as may be among council and legislative districts, entitled each to elect three members of council and three representatives; and that the outlying districts, if any, to which it may be necessary that a less number than three shall be apportioned, shall be located in the least populous portions of said Territories; and that at the next legislative elections thereafter in said Territories every qualified voter shall be entitled to three votes for member of council, and three votes for member of the house of representatives, with the privilege of cumulating said votes upon any one or two of the candidates for either house respectively, it being the intent and meaning of this act to secure an equitable and just representation to minorities in said Territories in all cases where minority parties exceed in number two-fifths of the electoral body."
Which was disagreed to-yeas 49, nays 116, as follow, (not voting, 57):
YEAS-Messrs. Anderson, Archer, Axtell, Baker, Barnes, Barnum, Beck, Benjamin, Boyden, Boyer, Roderick R. Butler, Chanler, Cook, Deweese, Getz, Glossbrenner, Golladay, Gove, Grover, Hawkins, Heaton, Holman, Hotchkiss, Humphrey, Jenckes, Alexander H. Jones, Thomas L. Jones, Kerr, Knott, Lash, George V. Lawrence, Mallory, Marshall, McCormick, McCullough, Mungen, Newsham, Nicholson, Phelps, Ross, Spalding, Stone, Taber, Taffe, Van Trump, Ellihu B. Washburne, Stephen F. Wilson, Woodward, Young-49.
NAYS-Messrs. Allison, James M. Ashley, Bailey, Baldwin, Banks, Beaman, Beatty, Benton, Blaine, Blair, Boutwell, Bowen, Broomall, Buckland, Buckley, Callis, Cary, Reader W. Clarke, Sidney Clarke, Clift, Cobb, Coburn, Corley, Cornell, Covode, Cullom, Dawes, Dickey, Dodge, Eggleston, Ela, Thomas D. Eliot, James T. Elliott, Farnsworth, Ferriss, Fields, French, Goss, Gravely, Harding, Haughey, Higby, Hill, Hopking
Hunter, Ingersoll, Johnson, Judd, Julian, Kellogg, Kel- | the resolution was agreed to-yeas 128, nays 34, sey, Kitchen, Koontz, William Lawrence, Lincoln, not voting 60. Loughridge, Marvin, Maynard, McCarthy, McKee, Mercur, Miller, Moore, Moorhead, Mullins, Myers, The NAYS were: Messrs. Archer, Baker, Barnes, Beck, Newcomb, Niblack, Norris, O'Neill, Orth, Paine, Per-Boyer, Brooks, Burr, Cary, Chanler, Fox, Getz, Golladay, ham, Pettis, Pierce, Pike, Pile, Plants, Poland, Polsley, Price, Prince, Randall, Raum, Robinson, Roots, Sawyer, Schenck, Scofield, Shanks, Shellabarger, Sitgreaves, Smith, Starkweather, Stevens, Stokes, Stover, Thomas, Tift, John Trimble, Lawrence S. Trimble, Upson, Van Aernam, Van Auken, Burt Van Horn, Vidal,
Ward, Henry D. Washburn, William B. Washburn, Welker, Whittemore, Thomas Williams, William Williams, James F. Wilson, John T. Wilson, Windom
Removal of Disabilities.
1868, December 9-Pending the bill to relieve from disabilities Franklin J. Moses, of South Carolina
Mr. GARRETT DAVIS moved to add the words, "and all other citizens of the State of South Carolina."
Which was disagreed to-yeas 9, nays 44, as follow:
Grover, Haight, Hotchkiss, Humphrey, Thomas L. Jones,
The preamble was then agreed to-yeas 135, nays 34, not voting 53.
Brooks, Burr, Chanler, Fox, Getz, Glossbrenner, Golladay,
Counting the Electoral Vote.
1869, February 6-Mr. Edmunds submitted this concurrent resolution:
Whereas the question whether the State of Georgia has become and is entitled to repreYEAS-Messrs. Bayard, Davis, Dixon, Doolittle, Ferry, sentation in the two houses of Congress is now McCreery, Norton, Patterson of Tennessee, Saulsbury-9. pending and undetermined; and whereas by the NAYS-Messrs. Anthony, Cameron, Cattell, Chandler, joint resolution of Congress passed July 20, Cole, Conkling, Conness, Corbett, Cragin, Drake, Ed-1868, entitled "A resolution excluding from the munds, Fessenden, Fowler, Frelinghuysen, Grimes, Harlan, Harris, Howe, Kellogg, Morgan, Morrill of Maine, Morrill of Vermont, Nye, Osborn, Patterson of New Hampshire, Pomeroy, Ramsey, Rice, Robertson, Sherman, Spencer, Stewart, Sumner, Thayer, Tipton, Trumbull, Van Winkle, Wade, Warner, Welch, Willey, Williams, Wilson, Yates-44.
[No general disability bill was passed at either the third session of the Fortieth Congress or the first session of the Forty-First.]
The Representation of Georgia.
1869, January 28—Mr. Paine, from the Committee on Reconstruction, reported the following preamble and resolution:
electoral college votes of States lately in rebellion which shall not have been reorganized," it was provided that no electoral votes from any of the States lately in rebellion should be received or counted for President or Vice President of the United States until, among other things, such State should have become entitled to representation in Congress, pursuant to acts of Congress in that behalf: therefore,
Resolved by the Senate, (the House of Representatives concurring) That on the assembling of the two houses on the second Wednesday of February, 1869, for the counting of the electoral votes for President and Vice President, as provided by law and the joint rules, if the counting Whereas it is provided by the reconstruction or omitting to count the electoral votes, if any, act, passed March 2, 1867, that until the people which may be presented, as of the State of Georof the lately rebellious States shall be by law gia, shall not essentially change the result, in admitted to representation in Congress, any civil that case they shall be reported by the President government which may exist therein shall be of the Senate in the following manner: • Were deemed provisional only, and that no persons the votes presented as of the State of Georgia to shall be eligible to office in such provisional gov. be counted, the result would be for ernments who are disqualified for office by the for President of the United States, fourteenth amendment of the Constitution of the if not counted, for United States; and whereas it is reported that the United States, the legislature of Georgia has expelled the col-case ored members thereof, and admitted to their seats white men who received minorities of votes at the polls, and that members of said legislature who had been elected thereto by the votes of colored men joined in such action, and that twenty-seven disqualified white men hold seats in said legislature in violation of the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution and of the struction acts of Congress; and whereas Senators from Georgia have not yet been admitted to the Senate of the United States: therefore,
votes; - for President of votes; but in either - is elected President of the United States; and in the same manner for Vice Presi dent.
February 8-It was adopted-yeas 34, nays 11, as follow:
YEAS-Messrs. Abbott, Anthony, Cameron, Cattell, Cole, Conkling, Corbett, Cragin, Drake, Edmunds, of Maine, Morrill of Vermont, Morton, Nye, Pool, RamFrelinghuysen, Howard, McDonald, Morgan, Morrill recon-sey, Rice, Robertson, Ross, Sherman, Stewart, Sumner, Thayer, Tipton, Warner, Welch, Willey, Williams, Wilson, Yates-34.
Resolved. That the Committee on Reconstruction be ordered to inquire and report whether any. and if any, what, further action ought to be taken during the Fortieth Congress respecting the representation of Georgia in this House.
Under the operation of the previous question,
NAYS-Messrs. Buckalew, Davis, Fowler, Hendricks, McCreery, Norton, Patterson of Tennessee, Saulsbury, Trumbull, Vickers, Whyte-11.
February 8-The rules were suspended-yeas 97, nays 18, not voting 107-so as to enable the House to take up this resolution. The vote was as follows