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In other papers Lady Moira discusses historical and EARL OK genealogical questions connected with England, and points out misstatements allowed to pass current on the authority of Sir W. Dugdale and Horace Walpole.

There is also here extant an interesting letter of six pages, dated Edinburgh, 10th February 1805, addressed to Lady Moira by Walter Scott, in which he observes : -"Your ladyship's genealogical deductions gave me . “ much amusement and information; they are the keys of history and often its touchstone, and it is scandalous that the history of our most noble families " should be, as they are, abandoned to the interested tribe of heralds and pedigree makers. Till of late years, I believe, these matters were better managed “ in Scotland, but we have long grown nearly as care“ less as the neigbours whom we are daily aping. I “ think your Ladyship's conjecture with respect to the “ origin of the song Queen Eleanor was a sick woman' " is quite a ray of light; hardly anything was so likely “ to be of advantage to the Lancastrians as to slur the “ descent of the house of York."

The letters here of Lady Moira's mother, Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, the enthusiastic and munificent patroness of Methodism, are dated in 1759, 1767, 1778, and 1781.

The collection further contains letters from the following :--Ailesbury, Lord; Atkinson, Joseph; Cobbe, Charles, Bishop of Dromore (1727), of Kildare (1732-43). and Archbishop of Dublin, 1742-1765 ; Comings, F.: Courtenay, J.; Doyle, Welbore Ellis ; Egmont, Earl of. 1741-1765; Gilford, Lord, 1794; Hertford, Lord, Viceroy, 1766 ; Hillsborough, Earl of, 1757-70; Jones, W. Todd; Lévinge, Sir Richard; Lindsay, Theophilus ; Maule, Henry, Bishop of Dromore, 1741; O'Gorman, Chevalier Thomas ; Nugent, Buckingham, 1791; Prior, Thomas, 1723; Stormont, Lord, 1783 ; Toplady, Augustus, 1760; Westmoreland, Earl of, 1795.

The publication of a selection from the letters and .. papers in this collection would render accessible much new historical and biographical information. Dublin.


EARL OF “ thereby enabling me to unite my detachments, that GRANARD. " he strenuously advised Gates to pass Lynches Creek

“ and fight me at all events : this was related to me by

De Kalb's aid-de-camp (a relation of the M. de la “ Fayette) who was made prisoner. Gates rejected the “ advice, threw himself across the country into the “ other road above Hanging Rock Creek, and gave us " three days to prepare to meet him; in a country “ likewise very favourable for us. Since that action the “ sickness of the troops, added to want of provisions “ and almost every kind of stores has detained us inactive. We are now in march towards Hillsborough, where Gates has collected a small body of militia. At present there is no prospect of serious opposition, 66 but I cannot believe that the Congress will not make an effort to stop the advance of our successes. We “ have reason to hope that we shall be joined by the

greater part of the North Carolinians, who have certainly given strong proofs of faithful attachment

to us. We hear that a French fleet is on the coast; “ and has landed troops to the Northward... It is now “ ten weeks since we have heard from New York ... “ You must have been astonished at our warfare here “ after the representations which we perceive were “ made to you respecting the loyalty and peaceable “ state of His Majesty's Province of South Carolina.”

The correspondence also includes letters connected with the following:-Lord Rawdon's challenge of Duke of Richmond, and apology of the latter in the House of Lords for his observations on the execution of the American prisoner, Isaac Haynes; affairs of the Regency (1789); succession of Lord Rawdon to earldom of Moira on his father's death in 1793. His residence in Scotland as Commander-in-Chief in 1802-3; intimacy, at Holyrood House, with “Monsieur," subsequently Charles X., and his own popularity at Edinburgh. In connexion with the latter he writes as follows, under date of 13th December 1803, to his sister, the Countess of Granard :

Could the gratification of vanity compensate to me for a very uncomfortable life I should be well paid “ here. I am the fashion to a degree quite ridiculous. “ The Lord Chief Baron (Dundas) had offered himself “ for the office of Lord Rector of the University of " Glasgow, corresponding to the Chancellorship of our " Universities. Whilst the vacancy had been impending “ he had been designated by general opinion as the “ successor, and when the opening happened all com“ petition with him was supposed to be utterly vain. « On the day of election last week, when he was pro“ posed, a graduate stepped forward and named me. “ There was a burst of applause. A poll took place. I carried it by one. On a scrutiny two who had voted " for me were invalidated, so the Chief Baron was seated “ by one. As this was within the walls of the College, “ care has been taken to suppress any publication of " the circumstance, but as it was from mouth to mouth “ it disseminates a wondrous notion of my influence. I “ had not the remotest knowledge of the matter; not “ even that there was a vacancy."

Elizabeth Hastings. Countess of Moira, mother of Francis Rawdon, was the last direct descendant of the ancient house of Hastings, and inherited numerous titles. Independently of these she long exercised influence in Ireland through her great natural talents, antique grandeur of sentiments, and enlightened devotion to the interests of the Irish. In 1769 Lord Huntingdon writes to her : “ Was you but to know the number“ less inquiries that are made after your health in “ London, you would be vastly satisfied with your long “ list of well-wishers. Your Irish acquaintance are so " eager to inform me of your convalescence, that I am “ charmed with their appearance of kindness towards you; and I met with many civilities at Bath from “ people I had never seen before, on the score of being

la I had never seen before, on the score of being " your brother.”

Lady Moira's views on Irish affairs in 1797-8, are expressed in letters now before us, addressed at that period to her son, who, in the Houses of Lords in England and Ireland, urged the adoption of conciliatory measures towards the Irish people.

At Castle Forbes are also preserved the following:

“Memoirs of the family of Hastings, collected by their “ descendant E[lizabeth) Moira, daughter of Theophilus, " and sister of Francis, Earls of Huntingdon, and wife of John, Earl of Moira.” Quarto, 96 pages.

.“ Genealogy of Henry VII. and affinity of the “ house of Stewart with him, drawn up for the Earl of “ Granard by Elizabeth, Countess dowager of Moira, “ Baroness Hastings, &c., with many curious traditional “ anecdotes."



GERALDINE A paper manuscript in small folio of 278 pages, trans- EARLS OF cribed about the middle of the last century, which DESMOND. would appear to be also the period of its compilation. It commences as follows:

“ The Fitz-Geralds, Earls of Desmond, for their " loyalty and the faithful services which they rendered " to the Crown of England were for several.generations “ rais'd from time to time to such degree of honour “ and preferment that since the conquest of Ireland " under King Henry the Second no subjects even till “ now have in that kingdom flourished in greater “ splendour and oppulence than they.”

From page 1 to page 226 is occupied with memoirs of the Geraldine Earls of Desmond to the period of their extinction in the reign of Elizabeth. These memoirs are partly based on the work of O'Daly,* with much additional matter from Stanihurst, Hooker, Camden, and “Hibernia Pacata,” interspersed with some local particulars and extracts from Irish poems with versions in English.

Page 227. The Genealogy of the Rt. Hon. John Earl of Grandison, as descended by the mother's side from Gerald Fz. Gerald, the only brother of Thos. Earl of Desmond, beheaded at Drogheda.

Page 232. Pedigree of the Right Hon. John, Earl of Grandison, as descended of the house of Desmond by the name of FitzGerald.

Page 233. Pedigree of Richard Fitz Gerald. esar. commonly called Mac Thomas of Woodhouse, who married the Hon. Katherine Villiers, sister of the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Grandison.

After this the author writes, at page 235:

“Haveing thus shewn the original descent of the Fitz“ Geralds, and deduced an account of those of the “ house of Desmond in a lineal succession of the Earls “ so called, and of such of their relations by that name severally as in course of seniority and proximity of

“Initium, incrementa, et exitus familiæ Geraldinorum, Desmoniæ " Comitum, Palatinorum Kyerriæ in Hybernia, ac persecutionis hæreti. « corum descriptio. Ex nonnullis fragmentis collecta, ac Latinitate “ donata. Per Fratrem Dominicum de Rosario O'Daly, Ordinis Præ“ dicatorum, S. Theologiæ professorem, in supremo S. Inquisitionis “ Senatu censorem, in Lusitaniæ regnis quondam visitatorem generalem

rem conuentuum Hybernorum eiusdem Ordinis in Portu“ gallia. Vlyssipone. Ex officina Craesbeeckiana. Anno 1655."


HISTORICAL “ kindred were their next heirs to a period in the house MEMOIRS " of Dromana (for want of issue male of the Honorable


“ John FitzGerald, esq", grandfather to the present EARLS OF " Earl of Grandison), I shall now proceed to the geneDESMOND.

" alogy of others of the collateral and most remarkable “ familys descended of the house of Desmond; and as “ I find that those of the White Knight, the Knight of Kerry, and the Knight of Glinn weare an early and " considerable offspring of that line, and who made no “ small figure in Ireland, according to such Irish and “ English manuscripts as came to my hands, I will “ likewise show the source from whence they took head " and set forth their genealogies in particular.”

Page 241. “Genealogy of those distinguished [as] " the progeny of the Old Knight.”

Page 253. “Genealogy of the family of the White “ Knight, the same being chiefly collected from manuscript memoirs relating thereunto."

Portions of the leaves towards the end of the volume have been destroyed by damp, which has also rendered imperfect those which contained the pedigrees of the Knight of Kerry, the Knight of Glinn, Fitz-Geralds of Cloyne, Castlemartyr, Clonglish, &c., and in many places the writing is much faded.

In these notices of branches of the Desmond stock and their descendants — Fitz Geralds, Mac Gibbons, Fitz Gibbons, and others-are to be found many genealogical and local details not elsewhere accessible. Some of these, the author tells us, le gathered from “ old and broken scraps of ancient family memoirs." His own name does not, however, appear; and of the history of the volume itself, the only particulars known are as follow :-For many years it was in the possession of the Rev. James Hingston, appointed Vicar General of Cloyne in 1794. After his death in 1840 it was given to the Rev. George E. Cotter, of Rockforest, near Mallow, co. Cork. From the latter it passed in 1871 to its present owner, Abraham Fitz Gibbon, Esq., M. Inst.,

, Esq., M. Inst., C.E., of the Rookery, Stanmore, Middlesex who has with much assiduity laboured to bring to light materials illustrative of the history of the Geraldines of Munster and their connections. Dublin.



[Viceroys.) Secretarys. 1751. 13th session. 1 vol. p. 292. Duke of Dorset. Ld. Geo. Sackville. 1743. lth session. 1 vol. p. 298. Duke of Dorset. Ld. Geo. Sackville 1705. 15th session. 1 vol. p. 308. Marquis of Hart. H. Sey. Conway.

ington. 1757. 16th session. 1 vol. p. 322. Duke of Bedford. Wm. Rigby. 1759. 17th session. 1 vol. p. 346. Duke of Bedford. Wm. Rigby.

GEORGE 3D. 1761. 1st session, 1 vol. p. 378. Earl of Halifax. Wm. Geo. Hamiltoru. 1763. 2nd session. 2 vol. p. 1. Earl of Northum: Wm. Geo. Hamilton

berland. 1765. 3rd session. 2 vol. p. 49. Earl of Hertford. Lord Beauchamn. 1767. 4th session. 2 vol. p. 107. Viscount Towns. Ld. Fred. Cambell.

end. GEORGE 3D.

(2d Parliament.) 1760. 1st session. 2 vol. p. 125. Viscount Towns- Sir Geo. McCartney.

end. 1771. 2nd session. 2 vol. p. 145. Viscount Towns. Sir Geo. McCartner.

end. 1771. 3rd session. 2 vol. p. 167. Viscount Towns- Sir Geo. McCartney.

end. 1773. 4th session. 2 vol. p. 272. Lord Harcourt. John (Col.) Blaquiere."

Prefixed to the first volume are the following memoranda by Howard :

About 237 written pages in this book, “ about 214 in ye other.

451 “N.B.—These two volumes of ye abridgm of ve Journals, &c. were begun in April 1772 & finished in Máy 1773, & during ye same space ye Parls of King Charles ye 1st were also abridgd.

“11 volumes] of Journals from 1 Georgell contain .

10,503 pages. "Abridgd in these books in

305 pages.

10,198 “N.B.—The order in wch this work was carried on was this-ab' gth April 1772, I began to abridge such part of ye Stat(utes] us related to ye Constitution, from ye beginning to ye end of ye reign of Q. Eliz. I then began ye Journals with ye Esarl] of Harrington's 24 adm", & carried them on to ye end of ye Ě[arl] of Hallifaxes. I then began ye sth session of Geo. ye 24 & carried it on to ye E. of Harrington's 21 adm“, being ye 12th session, & also ye Parl' of James ye first. I next begin with ye lt session of Geo. ye ]*, & carried it thro' his reign. I then began ye Esarl] of Northumberland's adm", 1763, being ye 2d session of Geo. y' 34. & carried it on to almost yé end of ye session of 1771. I next abridgd ye 6 first sessions of Geo. ye 24, and then finishd to the end of Lord Townshend's administration in 1771. I then abridgd ye Parlts of Charles ye first, Charles ye. 24, King James, King William, & Queen Mary; and lastly Queen Ann; and finishd ye whole the (blank] day of July 1774. And found it very easy by doing some of it for about an hour every morning, & sometimes in ye day when I had leisure. But I had avocations each summer of above 3 months.

Pages in Pages in

Journal. Abridgmt. James ye 1 contains p.


16 Charles ye 1 contains .

484 114 Charles ye 20

741 230 King William .

561 104 Queen Anne

1,019 Geo. ye 1st

1,287 Geo. ye 20

• 6,276 Geo. ye 3d

3,249 178




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LL.D. The author or compiler of this work was the second son of Robert Howard, Bishop of Killala and Elphin (1729), some of whose letters were noticed in my report in 1871 on the papers of William King, Archbishop of Dublin.* Bishop Howard's eldest son Ralph, was advanced to the peerage in 1776, as Baron Clonmore, co. Carlow, and created Viscount Wicklow in 1785.

Hugh Howard, called to the Irish bar in 1758, sat in Parliament in Ireland successively for Johnstown (Donegal) and Athboy, held the office of AccountantGeneral of Chancery, and died in 1799.

Howard's “ Parliamentary History," of which no account has hitherto been published, extended originally to six or eight folio volumes, of which we have now only the first and second.

Upwards of 100 pages of the first volume are occupied with extracts from published works on the early state of Europe, and on the affairs of Ireland in successive reigns from Henry II. to James I. inclusive. The remainder of the two volumes is composed of an abstract of Parliamentary business in Ireland from 1715 to 1773, arranged under sessions and viceroyalties, as set out by Howard in the following table, at page 415 of his first volume :“GEORGE 1st. (Viceroys.)

Secretarys. 1715. 1st session. 1 vol. p. 138. Duke of Grafton. Earl of Galway. 1717. 2nd session. 1 vol. p. 168. Duke of Bolton. Webster. 1719. 3rd session. 1 vol. p. 182. Duke of Bolton. Webster. 1721. 4th session. 1 vol. p. 191. Duke of Grafton. Rt. Hon. Edw.

Hopkins. 1723. 5th session. 1 vol. p. 204. Duke of Grafton. Rt. Hon. Edw.

Hopkins. 1725. 6th session. 1 vol. p. 222. Ld. Carteret.

Clutterbuck. GEORGE 2D. 1727. Ist session. 2 vol. p. 199. Lord Carteret.

Clutterbuck. 1729. 2nd session. 2 vol. p. 211. Lord Carteret.

Clutterbuck. 1731. 3rd session. 2 vol. p. 223. Duke of Dorset. . Walter Cary. 1733. 4th session. 2 vol. p. 230. Duke of Dorset.

Walter Cary. 1735. sth session. 2 vol. p. 240. Duke of Dorset. Walter Cary. 1787. 6th session. 2 vol. p. 246. Duke of Devonshire. Walpole. 1739, 7th session. 1 vol. p. 248. Duke of Devonshire. Walpole. 1741. 8th session. 1 vol. p. 256. Duke of Devonshire. 1743. 9th session. 1 vol. p. 262. Duke of Devonshire. 1745. 10th session. I vol. p. 268. Earl of Chesterfield. Lyddel. 1747. 11th session. 1 vol. p. 278. Earl of Harrington, Richd. Weston. 1749. 12th session. 1 vol. p. 280. Earl of Harrington. Richd. Weston.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

1727. end session: 2 vol. P: 230). Duke of Dorsetshire.

12,945 less in ye

- abridgm." “N.B.—There are 6 Folio Books in brown covers marked A. 1, A. 2, B. 1, B. 2, C. and D.

“From these, a very accurate Parliamentary History of Ireland may be collected, and which would indeed form the only and best History of Ireland; as Ireland has seldom an opportunity of acting otherwise than by its Parliament. "If a judicious abridgement were made of these 6 volumes (wch in part I have already done in sort of pocket books, but not in the way I would wish it done, being too brief), the whole might be comprized in three or four octavo volumes.

“ The 6 vol. of Manuscript contain two very intereste ing periods.

* 1. From Hen. 24 to ye reign of James ye 1", when ye Journals commence. This I think a very interesting part, but it is deficient in one particular. That defect

* Second Report of Royal Commission on Historical MSS., 1871, pp. 232, 252.


. may be thus supplied. Look over Lodge's Peerage MENTARY from beginning to end, and there you will find many HISTORY OF Parlts held in this Kingdom, vouched by records, of IRELAND.

wch there is no other memorial ; enter every one of these, and in that King's reign to wch it belongs, on the authority of Lodge; and 2dly, look over all the English great Counsils (whether put down as Parliaments in the English Parliamentary History in 20 vols, or not) in wch ye ArchBp. of Dublin, Earl of March, or other Irishmen signed, and confidently add them as part of the Irish Parliamentary History; the Irish & English Councils manifestly then sitting togather in one great Counsil or Parliam.

“2. The period from the commencement of the Journals in ye beginn; of James ye 1st, to ye present time is likewise deficient in one particular. This deficiency may be easily supplied by comparing the abridgement with the Lords' Journals, and corrects and explains the Commons' Journal by the Lords. This I should have done if I had had the Lords' Journals, but they were not published until after I had finished the abridgm of the Commons' Journals. “Rutland Square, 25th Febry 1797.

H. H.”

The books not now forthcoming are described as foliows by Howard on a page of his second volume:

“B. 1 contains:“1. The several sessions of King Charles the 1st

“B. 2 contains 1. Nine sessions of Charles ye 24 from 1661 to 4 Novr. 1662.

“ Book C. contains"1. The remaining sessions of. Car. 2d from 4 Novr. 1662 to 7 Augt 1666, p. 1 to 113.

“ 2. The single session of James 2d, p. 115 to 125. “3. The two first sessions of Wm 34, p. 127 to 161. “4. The sessions of Queen Anne, p. 165 to 352.

" Book D., with strings, contains"1. The remaining sessions of Wm the 34, p. 1 to 137.

“Green Book E. contains“1. Out of this may be made two separate tracts

“1. On the revenue of Ireland.

" 2. On Poynings' law.” As the Commons' Journals and other sources from which Howard compiled are now accessible in print, the main value of his two volumes before us is to be found in his incidental notices of affairs of which he personally had cognizance or had received information on through those conversant with Irish politics in the last century. His original matter is, however, in general, combined with details of Parliamentary acts from which it cannot well be separated. An exception is to be found towards the end of the second volume in the following, on the viceroyalty of Lord Harcourt, which may be taken as a specimen of the original composition of a writer hitherto unknown to the public: George 3rd, 1773. 4th session. 16th vol. of Journals.

Lord Harcourt. “ The Earl of Harcourt, a nobleman far advanced in years, but of an hale constitution, was thought a proper person to succeed Lord Townsend. He had been pre. ceptor to ye King, & was at ye time of his appointm embassador at Paris. His instructions were, as appears from his whole administration, to finish what his predecessor had laid ye foundations of; & it is very remarkable ye without any amiable quality, either of the head or heart, and tho' professedly sent to lay on great & heavy additional taxes, he met with no opposition y could make him uneasy, & continued here [blank] years, neither loved nor hated, neither esteemed nor despised, a single & most part of ye time a lone man, & that he performed all this meerly by some natural qualities of wch he was possess", such as prudence & a coolness of head and heart, being entirely set upon his designs, & doing nothing either from affection or hatred, but all from interest. The only circumstance in wch he shewed weakness was a timidness in his nature wch made him dread ye opposition of all numerous bodies, & hence it was y he was affraid to carry the design of erecting a new bridge into execution, for fear of incensing ye Corporation of Dublin, & rather than do this he chose to throw an indignity on a large majority of ye House of Communs. He could not withstand private solicitations for pardons for malefactors, & he was in this respect so remarkably weak, y he pardoned almost

et robber, housebreaker, & thief y' was con demned during his governm', to yo great hurt of society. His Excellency's age was not of proof to fence him from ye scandal of an amour with an unmarried lady of past

50 years old. But if there was any foundation for this

PARLIAreport, it does not appear yt Miss Alicia M.Cartney had MENTARY any influence in ye managem of public affaires. She

HISTORY OF was sensible & agreeable, tho' all her life almost of suspected reputation, &' as he was a lono man, it was probably ye charms of her conversation alone fixed his attention to her. Lord Harcourt brought over with him for his Secretary, Lieut. Col. John Blaquiere, who was his Secretary to ye embassy at Paris. He had been bred up in an Irish regiment of cavalry along with an elder brother, & they were at this time both of them Lieut. Colls; & as they were Englishmen of a very moderate extraction, they were very little known. But the Secretary who, tho' the younger, had ye best character of yo brothers, having found means to get himself appointed Secretary to Lord Hartcourt's embassy, he was found of capacity sufficient for ye place he now enjoyd. A singular circumstance happened in his favour even before he entered on his office or arrived in ye kingdom. Mr. Bagnall, member for ye county of Carlow, a man of great estate, but of a very extraordinary character, had asked some very slight favour of him in London, just before his setting out for Ireland, & conceiving, with very little foundation, yt ye Secretary had not used him well, he followed him over to Ireland, with the sole purpose of sending him a challenge. The Secretary had scarce set his foot on Irish ground before he received this challenge, wch he accepted. The combatants met in ye Phænix Park & discharged their pistols, but luckily no mischief was done ; and the first action of ye Secretary's wch brought him into public notice was this duel, wch made the whole of his ministry here extremely easy, & he was never once attempted to be bullied in ye house or out of it, tho' such attempts were made almost daily on his predecessor, Sr George M°Cartney. Mr. Bagnal continued here for a few days longer, during wch time he quarelled & fought a duel with another gentleman & received a wound in his arm; & having done the business he came about, he returned to England before ye Parlo met, & never attended in Parliam afterwds, & upon ye expiration of it declined representing ye county of Carlow, wch he might have done without expence, in ye next Parliam'. . . . But as ye making a fortune for this man seems to have been ye chief point of Lord Harcourt's administration, it may be curious to pursue it step by step. Upon his first arrival he was, in right of his office, made a privy counsillor, but this was but little consolation as he was in very indigent circumstances. In former times Secretarys were generally contented with ye emoluments of their office, & had such opportunitys of getting money for doing favours that they were seldom rewarded with great places. And all this was done without envy & with noise. But in Lord Harington's adm" a different mode prevailed, much to ye detri. ment of ye people of Ireland. For it is of little real consequence to ye public whether a man gets a peerage for nothing or whether he pays money for it; but every place given to an Englishman is so far a loss to ye people. Of the Secretarys since Lord Harington's time, one only, L. Frederick Cambell,* returned without taking a considerable lucrative employmt along with him. Mr. Weston was made Aulnager ; Lord George Sackville, Clerk of the Council, with ye reversion of ye place of Ranger of ye Phenix Park; Si Henry Cavendish was indeed a resident, so yi ye making him Teller of ye Exchequer does not fall within ye rule. Mr. Rigby was made Master of ye Rolls, Mr. Hamilton, Chancellor of ye Excheq"; Sr Geo. McCartney, from y® circumstances of ye times, was content with a pension of £1,500 a year, but it was soon changed into a governm of an unheard of castle in the North of Ireland. But to proceed with Col. Blaquiere. In order to give him something like a fortune, & to bestow some consequence upon him, he was made a Knight of ye Bath ; & a common gate keeper of ye Phænix Park who had a small gate house there & a salary of about 12€ a year, happens to dye, the place was given to the Secretary, & to make it worth his acceptance, a lease was made him by ye Crown of a few acres in ye Park for the term of 3 lives, wch were walled in & a very handsom lodge & improvem' built & layed out for him at y public expence. The value of this grant could not have been less than 5 or six 1000 pounds. But as this was a scheme of the Col* own, for he was not until some time after made Knight of ye Bath, it was like all the rest of his schemes, daring & inconsiderate. The Park was already overburthened with rangers and lodges, & ye people cryed out age the enclosure, alleging that they had a liberty of


* “But he got a great place in his own country, Scotland."

bringing over with him y® repeal of ye Oak-boy Act, & PART a power to unite ye two revenue boards, tho it was cer- MENTART

HISTORY OF tainly for ye advantage of ye country they shd be kept IRELAN separate, if it could be done without expense. In treating of this session I shall divide it into two periods, the business of yo House till ye passs the money bills & ye recess, & ye business subsequent to y period.”

The manuscript is entirely in the autograph of Howard, and many pages are in writing of very small size.

It was most liberally placed at the disposal of your Commission by its owner, the Reverend Michael Molony. C. C,. of Kilbride, co. Wicklow. He acquired it about eighteen years ago, at a sale of effects of the late Rev. Jas. McKenna, P. P., Rathdrum, who bought it at the sale of the late Colonel Howard, of Castle Howard whose book-plates appear in both volumes.

J. T. GILBERT. Dublin.

PARLIA- roads away

1. roads & ways thro' ye Park; and, their cause being MENTARY undertaken by some turbulent persons in ye City, the HISTORY OF IRELAND." improvem' was presented as crossing a public road; &

the King was put to ye indignity & expence of making out a title to his own Park, wch with a great deal of difficulty he was enabled to do; & ye whole transaction was attended with great heats & uneasinesses to L Harcourt's adm", & forced ye Secretary to remain a great while incognito. But this grant was by no means sufficient to satisfy ye ambition & yo penury of SJohn Blaquiere. He was looking circumspectly about for ye fall of some great office; but no opportunity offered. At length Francis Andrews, Provost of Trinity College, died in consequence of ye irregularities of his youth. A man of more principle & less audacity than sr John Blaquiere could never have elicited any personal advantage from such an event. Tho' sufficiently learned for an officer, he could not be Provost, but an opportunity offered of accommodating ye matter. John Hely Hutchinson, Prime Serjt at law, ye vainest man alive, set his heart upon ye place. The return of 2 members to serve in Parlt was supposd to be annexed to it, wch was a power the Prime Serjeant envied in other men, & wish to procure for himself. He immagined too yt it would give him an opportunity of gratifying his revenge by supplanting the Attorney-Gen' in yê next Parl', who had, early in his life, represented ye University, & had ever since held ye seat. He did not reflect how very improper it would be to put a practising lawyer, a man with a wife & family, & no divine, contrary to all rule & order, at ye head of ye only University in ye kingdom. He onli considered the precedent in ye case. Andrews was a lawyer & yet Provost, & why might not he ; leaving out of ye consideration yt Andrews was a Fellow, & as such rose only in his own profession. A bargain was struck between these two men, that Hutchinson sh" give up to ve other his place of Aulnager, & resign bis place of Prime Serjeant in favour of Mr. Dennis, in whose promotion Lord Shannon strongly interested himself, & y as a compensation for it, he shd be made Provost ; and Lord Harcourt, who had not in any of his political transactions the smallest regard to decency, did not oppose it; at least, much. But it is likely the thing could not have been effected, or the King be prevailed upon to do so preposterous an act, but by ye strongest influence of the English minister. The adopting this measure was attended with all yt ridicule, vexation, & persecution of ye new Provost wch might be expected, & wch will probably prove fatal to him. But it did not impede Lord Hartcourt's adm", wch from some fatality, nothing could move or disturb. But there still remained something to ye completion of Sir John Blaquiere's schemes, wch was a wife of a good connection, & intitled to a good fortune. The lady pitched upon was an heiress whose father had an estate of £800 a year, & who was cousin-german to Sir Wm Montgomery's three daughters. But as yo father could not afford to part with any thing in present upon ye marriage, a mean was found out to put the new Knight in possession of ye whole estate at once, by procuring for the father a pension equivalent in income to what he parted with. From these circumstances wch are known, some guess may be made how other matters were carryed on. As to ye state of parties, Lord Harcourt opened his administration with a strong majority, & accidents concurred during ye first session to render him still stronger. The expected honours, many of wch were promised over & over again, were still delayed, by wch the small inte rests were kept in ył obedience to the commands of Governm', wch they had shewn from ye beginns of this Parlt, & it was determind to carry them on to ye end of it. In yt hope Lord Shannon's interest was entirely come over, & had made some terms wch they expected would be fulfilled; so yt the whole opposition consisted of Mr. Ponsonby, ye former Speaker's shattered interest, & ye Duke of Leinster's. The single opposition of Mr. Barry Maxwell Barry, who made up in pertinacity & industry for what he wanted in abilities, & some individuals who were not very much in earnest. And by yo death of ye D. of Leinster in this session, the Marquiss of Kildare, now Duke of Leinster, withdrew his opposition, of wch he was heartily tired ; and for ye remainder of this session & ye whole of ye following one, the field was left open to my Lord Hartcourt almost without an enemy. And in ye next session ye small opposition wch remained (for by yt time Mr. Flood & Mr. Hussey Burgh, the two best popular speakers, were very much soften", & Flood made Vice-Treasurer) found an advantage in their situation, & by a new maneuvre the Secretary chose to carry all points of danger by their means. Another thing wch contributed to ye ease of L Harcourt's adm" was his



BOOK OF The late President of St. Patrick's College, May- LIMERICK. nooth, bequeathed to the College library an extensive collection of manuscripts, now called from his name the “O’Renehan Manuscripts,” consisting of original documents and transcripts, chiefly relating to the history of Ireland, and especially to the history of the Irish Church.

Among these manuscripts is one, the Regestum Limericense, commonly known as the Liber Niger, or Black Book of Limerick, of which the college is only the depositary, the manuscript being the property of the Roman Catholic Bishop of the diocese of Limerick.

The Regestum Limericense is, as its name implies, the cartulary of the Cathedral of Limerick, being a collection of all the documents relating to the property, and the rights, statutes, usages, and privileges of the see. It is written on vellum and parchment, the most ancient part consisting of seventy-six leaves, written in the latter part of the 14th century, the earliest document bearing date in 1194, and the latest in 1362. An appendix containing the Procuration Table and Rental was added in the beginning of the 15th century by Bishop Cornelius O'Dea, whose name may possibly be remembered in connexion with the very beautiful Limerick crozier and mitre, which formed one of the most attractive groups of ecclesiastical art in the Mediæval Loan Exhibition of South Kensington,

The documents contained in the cartulary consist of charters, statutes, agreements, inquisitions, and other records of transactions relating to the affairs of the see. They are of the same general character which is common in ancient ecclesiastical and monastic cartularies; and they supply much valuable information as to the history of the Cathedral Church of St. Mary, and as to the usages, the discipline, and above all, the topography of the diocese and city of Limerick.

The history of this MS. is somewhat remarkable. The more modern portion was compiled (in 1418) during the episcopate of Cornelius O'Dea, already referred to, and consists of the Rental, the Procuration Book and other documents relating to the property of the see. But the more ancient part consists of transcripts of documents from the date of the Invasion downward; the earliest being of the year 1194, and the latest of 1362 The book appears to have remained in the diocesan archives from Bishop O'Dea's time till the War of the Confederates in 1641. Bishop Adams, in the reign of James I., had a transcript made of the latter portion, which was rapidly becoming illegible. This transcript is known as the Little Black Book. The Black Book itself was seen and used by Ware, and extracts from it are found in the Sloane MSS.

During the ascendency of the Catholic party in 1641 and the years which followed, the Protestant Bishop. George Webb, having been imprisoned, the Black Book returned into Catholic hands; but little seems to be known of its subsequent fortunes for a long period. It passed a second time out of the custody of the Catholic Church; for the medium through which it is believed to have been recovered by the Catholic Bishop in the beginning of the present century was Mr. Ralph Ouseley, a Protestant gentleman, by whom it was given to the Right Rev. Dr. Young, who was Bishop of Limerick from 1796 till 1813. Bishop Young evidently knew and understood its value, and the mar. gin bears evidence in many places of his intelligent appreciation.

The late Roman Catholic Bishop, Dr. Ryan. placed it in the hands of the late President of St. Patrick's



BLACK College, Maynooth, Very Reverend Laurence O’Rene- a very critical one in the parliamentary history of that CHIEF BOOK OF han; and Dr. O'Renehan having bequeathed his MSS. kingdom in the last century. It was during this time


WILLES'S to the College, and the Black Book being still in the that the first stirrings of the agitation for legislative collection, it remains with the consent of the present independence may be said to have begun in Ireland; RANDA ON Bishop, Right Reverend Dr. Butler, in the custody of and almost every question of public policy in turn the College, but subject to the disposal of the Bishop.

was eagerly seized by the Irish national party as an
A transcript of it was made for the Library of occasion for presenting in some new form the principle
Trinity College, Dublin, under the direction of the late of freedom from English control which it was their
Reverend Dr. Todd, and two further copies have been aim to establish. Of the secret history of this move-
since made, one for the Bishop of Limerick, and one for ment and the impulses by which it was created or
the library of Maynooth College.

urged on, but little is disclosed by contemporary
Its contents differ but little from those of other dio- writers, and I cannot help considering the Chief Baron's
cesan or monastic cartularies, being partly ecclesiastical, memoranda as a valuable accession to the existing
but in great part relating to the temporal possessionsmaterials.
of the see. They consist of papal documents, diocesan These memoranda commence from the date of his
statutes, ordinances, disciplinary enactments, presen- arrival in 1757, and contain a very interesting account
tations to benefices, licenses, regulations for the chapter of the debate on the Pension List which occurred during
and for monastic bodies, intermixed with leases, con- the Duke of Bedford's government, and of the direct
tracts, inquisitions, quit-claims, covenants about mills, agitation for the repeal or modification of Poynings' Act,
fisheries, right of water-courses, fairs, and markets, by which it was followed. A still more curious and
and the numberless similar details of the affairs of less known chapter of Irish Parliamentary history is
great mediæval seigneurs. These, it need hardly be the Chief Baron's account of a bill introduced by Lord
said, are replete with instruction as to the antiquities Clanbrassil for the registration of the Roman Catholic
not alone of the district, but of the entire Anglo-Irish clergy, by which it was proposed to license one priest
community of the period. It would be out of place to for each parochial district, provision being made for the
enter here into any detail of these documents. I shall perpetuation of the same license to the priest who
only mention one, which has been referred to already should succeed on the demise of each incumbent. Lord
in more than one account of the Liber Niger.

Clanbrassil had introduced the measure unsuccessfully
It is an Inquisition taken in the year 1201, under an in the session of 1756; but it was carried by a small
order of Meyler Fitz Henry, Grand Justiciary, by William majority in the Lords in 1757, and was then brought
de Burgo, of all the property of the Bishop of Limerick. for discussion to the Privy Council. The Chief Baron's
The particulars of the Inquisition do not call for any account of the debate, as well as his reflections on the
special notice; but it is remarkable in this respect, that question generally, afford a curious insight into the
it was held under a triple jury selected out of the three condition of public opinion on Catholic 'claims at this
classes of the population then existing in Limerick, period, even in the more moderate and liberal classes.
namely, twelve Englishmen, twelve Irishmen, and The bill was rejected on the ground that, whereas all
twelve Ostmen or Danes. The necessity of such an previous enactments for registration of Popish clergy
arrangement at this period is a noteworthy evidence of had aimed at the extinction of the clerical body at the
the strength and durability of the footing which the expiration of the term of the existing registration, Lord
Northerners had obtained in the maritime towns of Ire- Clanbrassil's proposal, even by the moderate measure
land. That such had been their position in Waterford of toleration which it doled out in providing for a suc-
and the towns of the eastern coast had been sufficiently cession, was in effect an establishment of Popery in
apparent; but it is more remarkable to find them occu- Ireland. On this ground even the Chief Baron him-
pying such a relation in a remote western port, such self, although with an evident unconsciousness of any
as Limerick.

want of enlightened liberality in so doing, argued against
In any selection from Irish cartularies for publication, the bill. O
the Black Book of Limerick ought to hold a prominent It was rejected by a large majority of the Council.

But the very discussion of it at this time is in itself
C. W. RUSSELL. a noticeable circumstance; and it is creditable to the

proposal of Lord Clanbrassil that this bill appears to

have been but one of a series of kindred measures which CHIEF CHIEF BARON WILLES's MEMORANDA ON IRELAND. he had projected, among which was a scheme for the

recognition of episcopal government in the Catholic WILLES's

Since the appearance of the notice of Chief Baron church, and a still more remarkable one for the establish-
RANDA ON Willes's Notes on Ireland, published in the Appendix of ment of a seminary for the education of the priesthood
IRELAND. last year's report, another MS. volume from the same at home-a curious anticipation, in truth, by nearly half

pen has been put into my hands by Mr. Willes, with a century, of Mr. Pitt's policy in the foundation of
kind permission to bring it under the observation of Maynooth College.
the Historical Manuscripts Commission.

In the same volume with these memoranda of the
Like the two volumes of notes reported on last year, debates is bound up a most interesting letter (evidently
the present volume is autograph, and is entitled to Lord Warwick), dated 15th December 1760, giving
“ Memoranda on Debates, &c., in the Irish Houses of an account from day to day of the progress of the contest
“ Parliament.” It is a small 4to volume of about 150 as to the right of originating money bills, which culmi.
pages, and contains the Chief Baron's account of the nated in the declaration of independence. The struggle
proceedings which took place in the Irish Parliament began on occasion of the dissolution of Parliament at
during his sojourn in Ireland, upon the chief questions of the death of George II., and the subsequent general
public interest at that period. Chief Baron Willes was election. The sympathies of the Chief Baron, as an
not a member of either House of Parliament, nor does Englishman, were naturally with the Royal prerogative,
he profess to report even in the most summary way the but his narrative is most instructive, and appears to be
parliamentary discussions, with which, indeed, he had thoroughly fearless and impartial.
no direct opportunity of becoming acquainted. But his Equally graphic are his account of the mingled alarm
position as a privy councillor brought him officially into and excitement caused throughout Ireland by the news
connection in the Privy Council with all the important of the landing of the French at Carrickfergus; and
discussions of public policy which arose in Parliament. his summary of the discussions in the Privy Council on
It is not necessary to observe that under the operation a proposed alteration of the law as to municipal elec-
of Poynings' Act all heads of bills intended to be sub tions in Dublin, giving new and more direct powers
mitted to Parliament were first discussed in the Privy to the burgesses in the election of wardens.
Council in order to be certified by the Lord Lieutenant in It is to be regretted that he did not continue these
Council to the Privy Council of England, to be by them interesting memoranda to the end of his residence in
returned, with any required modification, for proposal Dublin; but the period which they cover may be said
and discussion in either house of the Irish Parliament. to have opened up in a greater or less degree the prin-
In this way all measures originating with the Irish ciples of nearly all the discussions which, for the rest of
Government necessarily came before the Privy Council the century, were destined to keep alive in Ireland
in the first instance, and even measures which had been that spirit of agitation which only subsided in the total
introduced in one of the two Houses were discussed in prostration consequent on the unhappy crisis of the
the Privy Council before passing to the other House. rebellion of 1798.
The time of the Chief Baron's sojourn in Ireland was



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