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8 73. Liability of principal for act of agent.When construing and enforcing the provisions of this chapter, the act, omission, or failure of any official, agent, or other person acting for or employed by any association, partnership, or corporation within the scope of his employment or office, shall, in every case, also be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such association, partnership, or corporation as well as that of the person. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch, 313, part B, § 1, 39 Stat. 482.)

§ 74. Establishment of grain standards by Secretary; promulgation.—The Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized to investigate the handling, grading and transportation of grain and to fix and establish standards of quality and condition for corn (maize) wheat, rye, oats, barley, flaxseed, soybeans, and such other grains as in his judgment the usages of the trade may warrant and permit, and the Secretary of Agriculture shali have power to alter or modify such standards whenever the necessities of the trade may require. In promulgating the standards, or any alteration or modification of such standards, the Secretary shall specify the date or dates when the same shall become effective, and shall give public notice, not less than ninety days in advance of such date or dates, by such means as he deems proper. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, S 2, 39 Stat. 482; July 18, 1940, ch. 636, 54 Stat. 765.)

§ 75. Designation of official grain standards.—The standards fixed and established as authorized in section 74 of this title shall be known as the official grain standards of the United States. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 3, 39 Stat. 483.)

§ 76. Compulsory use of official standards; exceptions; inspection and grading after shipment; appeal.--Whenever standards shall have been fixed and established under this chapter for any grain no person thereafter shall ship or deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce any such grain which is sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by grade unless the grain shall have been inspected and graded by an inspector licensed under this chapter and the grade by which it is sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale be one of the grades fixed therefor in the official grain standards of the United States: Provided, That any person may sell, offer for sale, or consign for sale, ship or deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce any such grain by sample or by type, or under any name, description, or designation which is not false or misleading, and which name, description, or designation does not include in whole or in part the terms of any official grain standard of the United States: Provided further, That any such grain sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by grade may be shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce without inspection at point of shipment by an inspector licensed under this chapter, to or through any place at whch an inspector licensed under this chapter is located, subject to be inspected by a licensed inspector at the place to which shipped or at some convenient point through which shipped for inspection, which inspection shall be under such rules and regulations as the Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe, and subject further to the right of

appeal from such inspection, as provided in section 78 of this title: And provided further, That any such grain sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by any of the grades fixed therefor in the official grain standards may, upon compliance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, be shipped in interstate or foreign commerce without inspection from a place at which there is no inspector licensed under this chapter to a place at which there is no such inspector, subject to the right of either party to the transaction to refer any dispute as to the grade of the grain to the Secretary of Agriculture, who may determine the true grade thereof.

No person shall in any certificate or in any contract or agreement of sale or agreement to sell by grade, either oral or written, involving, or in any invoice or bill of lading or other shipping document relating to, the shipment or delivery for shipment, in interstate or foreign commerce of any grain for which standards shall have been fixed and established under this chapter, describe, or in any way refer to, any of such grain as being of any grade other than a grade fixed therefor in the official grain standards of the United States. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 4, 39 Stat. 483.)

§ 77. Misrepresentation respecting grade; reexamination by Secretary of inspected grain; hearing and publication of findings. -No person, except as permitted in section 76 of this title, shall represent that any grain shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce is of a grade fixed in the official grain standards other than as shown by a certificate therefor issued in compliance with this chapter; and the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cause examinations to be made of any grain for which standards shall have been fixed and established under this chapter, and which has been certified to conform to any grade fixed therefor in such official grain standards, or which has been shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce. Whenever, after opportunity for hearing is given to the owner or shipper of the grain involved, and to the inspector thereof if the same has been inspected, it is determined by the Secretary that any quantity of grain has been incorrectly certified to conform to a specified grade, or has been sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale under any name, description, or designation which is false or misleading, he may publish his findings. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch, 313, part B, $ 5, 39 Stat. 483.)

$ 78. Appeal to Secretary from official grading; fees for reinspection; conclusiveness of findings on appeal.—Whenever standards shall have been fixed and established under this chapter for any grain and any quantity of such grain sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale, or which has been shipped, or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce shall have been inspected and a dispute arises as to whether the grade as determined by such inspection of any such grain in fact conforms to the standard of the specified grade, any interested party may, either with or without reinspection, appeal the question to the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cause such investigation to be made and such tests

to be applied as he may deem necessary and to determine the true grade: Provided, That any appeal from such inspection and grading to the Secretary of Agriculture shall be taken before the grain leaves the place where the inspection appealed from was made and before the identity of the grain has been lost, under such rules and regulations as the Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe. Whenever an appeal shall be taken or a dispute referred to the Secretary of Agriculture under this chapter, he shall charge and assess, and cause to be collected, a reasonable fee, in amount to be fixed by him, which fee, in case of an appeal, shall be refunded if the appeal is sustained. All such fees, not so refunded, shall be deposited and covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. The findings of the Secretary of Agriculture as to grade, signed by him or by such officer or officers, agent or agents, of the Department of Agriculture as he may designate, made after the parties in interest have had opportunity to be heard, shall be accepted in the courts of the United States as prima facie evidence of the true grade of the grain determined by him at the time and place specified in the findings. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 6, 39 Ştat. 484.)

§ 79. License to inspect and grade; State inspectors.—The Secretary of Agriculture may issue a license to any person, upon presentation to him of satisfactory evidence that such person is competent, to inspect and grade grain and to certificate the grade thereof for shipment or delivery for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, under this chapter and the rules and regulations prescribed thereunder. No person authorized or employed by any State, county, city, town, board of trade, chamber of commerce, corporation, society, partnership, or association to inspect or grade grain shall certify, or otherwise state or indicate in writing, that any grain for shipment or delivery for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, which has been inspected or graded by him, or by any person acting under his authority, is of one of the grades of the official grain standards of the United States, unless he holds an unsuspended and unrevoked license issued by the Secretary of Agriculture: Provided, That in any State which has, or which may hereafter have a State grain inspection department established by the laws of such State, the Secretary of Agriculture shall issue licenses to the persons duly authorized and employed to inspect and grade grain under the laws of such State. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 7, 39 Stat. 484.)

$ 80. Revocation and suspension of license.—The Secretary of Agriculture may suspend or revoke any license issued by him under this chapter whenever, after opportunity for hearing has been given to the licensee, the Secretary shall determine that such licensee is incompetent or has knowingly or carelessly graded grain improperly or by any other standard than is authorized under this chapter, or has issued any false certificate of grade, or has accepted any money or other consideration, directly or indirectly, for any neglect or improper performance of duty, or has violated any provisions of this chapter or of the rules and regulations made thereunder Pending investigation the

Secretary of Agriculture, whenever he deems necessary, may suspend a license temporarily without hearing. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, $ 7, 39 484.)

§ 81. Disqualification to act as inspector or departmental agent.--No person licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture to inspect or grade grain or employed by him in carrying out any of the provisions of this chapter shall, during the term of such license or employment be interested, financially or otherwise, directly or indirectly, in any grain elevator or warehouse, or in the merchandising of grain, nor shall he be in the employment of any person or corporation owning or operating any grain elevator or warehouse. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, S 7, 39 Stat. 484.)

$ 82. Records and reports by inspectors.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall require every inspector licensed under this chapter to keep complete and correct records of all grain graded and inspected by him and to make reports to the Secretary of Agriculture, in such forms and at such times as he may require, showing the place of inspection, the date of inspection, the name of the elevator or warehouse, if any, to which the grain was delivered or from which it was shipped, the kind of grain, the quantity of each kind, the grade thereof, and such other information as the Secretary of Agriculture may deem necessary. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B. $ 7,39 Stat. 484.).

8 83. Semiannual reports by Secretary.--The Secretary of Agriculture, on each first Tuesday in January and each first Tuesday in July of each year shall make publication of a summary of such facts as are ascertained, showing in as great detail as possible all the facts, including a summary as to the amount and grade of grain delivered to any elevator or warehouse and the amount and grade of grain delivered from such elevator or warehouse, and the estimated amount received on sample or type by such elevator or warehouse, and the estimated amount delivered therefrom on sample or type. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, $ 7, 39 Stat. 484.)

§ 84. Adoption by Secretary of rules and regulations generally. -The Secretary of Agriculture shall, from time to time, make such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary for the efficient execution of the provisions of this chapter. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, 8 8, 39 Stat. 485.)

§ 85. Violations generally; punishment.--Any person who shall knowingly violate any of the provisions of sections 76 or 79-83 of this title, or any inspector licensed under this chapter who shall knowingly inspect or grade improperly any grain which has been shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, or shall knowingly give any false certificate of grade, or shall accept money or other consideration, directly or indirectly, for any neglect or improper performance of duty, and any person who shall improperly influence or attempt to improperly influence any such inspector in the performance of his duty, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not more than $1,000, or be imprisoned

not more than one year, or both. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, $ 9, 39 Stat. 485.)

$ 86. Interference with execution of official duties; punishment.–Every person who forcibly assaults, resists, impedes, or interferes with any officer or employee of the United States Department of Agriculture in the execution of any duties authorized to be performed by this chapter or the rules and regulations made thereunder shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $1,000, or be imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, $ 10, 39 Stat. 485.) 8 87. Effect of partial invalidity of chapter.

If any clause, sentence, paragraph, or part of this chapter shall, for any reason, be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder thereof, but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, paragraph, or part thereof directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, $ 11, 39 Stat. 485.)

Chapter 4.-NAVAL STORES ACT

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS The Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture and its functions, except those functions relating to the administration of the Naval Stores Act, sections 91-99 of this title, were transferred to the Federal Security Agency by Reorg. Plan No. IV, § 12, set out in notes to section 133t of Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.

§ 91. Short title of chapter. For convenience of reference, this chapter may be designated and cited as “The Naval Stores Act.” (Mar. 3, 1923, ch, 217, § 1, 42 Stat. 1435.)

$ 92. Definitions. When used in this chapter(a) “Naval stores” means spirits of turpentine and rosin.

(b) "Spirits of turpentine" includes gum spirits of turpentine and wood turpentine.

(c) "Gum spirits of turpentine" means spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree.

(d) “Wood turpentine" includes steam distilled wood turpentine and destructively distilled wood turpentine.

(e) "Steam distilled turpentine" means wood turpentine distilled with steam from the oleoresin within or extracted from the wood.

(f) “Destructively distilled wood turpentine" means wood turpentine obtained in the destructive distillaton of the wood.

(g) "Rosin" includes gum rosin and wood rosin.

(h) "Gum rosin" means rosin remaining after the distillation of gum spirits of turpentine.

(i) "Wood rosin" means rosin remaining after the distillation of steam distilled wood turpentine.

() "Package" means any container of naval stores, and includes barrel, tank, tank car, or other receptacle.

(k) "Person" includes partnerships, associations, and corporations, as well as individuals.

(l) The term “commerce” means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any

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