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foreigners only added to the excitement which was visible in every face; and we were soon surrounded by self-constituted guides, who volunteered to lead us to the Pasha's residence. As we were already old acquaintances, our reception was most cordial. Quarters were soon found for us in one of the few Christian houses of the place; and we received a pressing invitation to be present at a great demonstration which was to come off on the following day at Mazaraki.

While our Christian host was preparing the evening banquet, we strolled about the quaint little town, which counts nearly 4000 inhabitants, of which only a small fraction are Christians. It is built in an amphitheatre formed by two spurs which project out of the main ridge westwards into the plain. The principal portion of the town—i.e., the bazaars and the houses of the lower classes—lies in the hollow, while the residences of the wealthier citizens and beys occupy the hill-slopes. The summit of the steep bluff to the south is crowned by an imposing castle, built by Ali Pasha to check the bold mountaineers, whom he never succeeded in completely subduing. The grey walls of the solid

stone houses, square and massive, would form a somewhat monotonous ensemble, were they not relieved by the luxuriant and varied tints of poplar, chestnut, and walnut trees, and the picturesque domes and minarets of the mosques. The bazaars were closed on account of the festival; but as there is no local industry in this district, they were scarcely likely to present any features of special interest, for the wants of the people whom they supply are of the simplest order. When we returned to our quarters, there was, however, alas ! no supper ready. An Eastern host would rather keep his guests starving than serve them a modest but hasty meal, which would not, in his opinion, do credit to his hospitality. But coffee and cigarettes, and cigarettes and raki, combined with the garrulousness of Mr Triantaphilos himself, helped to while away the time. Although a Christian and a Greek, and in a town where the Mussulman Albanian element was supreme, Mr Triantaphilos seemed to have little to complain of, either for himself or his community. His leanings towards Hellenism were eminently Platonic, his chief anxiety appearing to be lest a war should

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The first part of the programme the next day was to attend the Pasha's levee. In the corner of a large and lofty room, the only adornment of which consisted in the brilliant carpets which lined three-quarters of the floor, and the delicate wood-work of the panels and painted ceiling, his Excellency squatted more Turcorum on a heap of rugs. We took up our places beside him, and soon suw apparently the whole male population of Margariti detile before us — Imaums and Kallis with gran turlxans and flowing kaftans, Ulemas with white turbans, and Albanians of every rank and class, differentiated only by the fulness of their starched petticoats, the brilliancy of their jackets, and the gorgeousness of their belts, into which daggers and pistols were stuck with indiscriminate profusion. But to detect the rank of every visitor, it was only necessary to watch the Pasha. Himself an Albanian of these parts, and the owner of large estates in the Tchamouria, he was evidently versed in the jealous rules of local etiquette, and according to the standing of every guest he modified his greeting, now saluting them only with a faint motion of the hand to heart, lips, and forehead, now rising on one knee to perform the salutation, now on both, and now again standing full upright to welcome some personage of transcendent distinction. The code of etiquette is rigid in all parts of the East, but nowhere more so than in Albania. The reason for this is not far to seek --it lies in the fundamental constitution of Albanian society. It is a society made up of castes. In Northern Albania, where clan distinctions are more strongly marked, especially among the Christian tribes, the distinction of castes has been


slightly overshadowed by the more obvious features of the clan system ; but it exists throughout Albania, and is pre-eminent among the Tchamis. The highest of these castes is that of the warriors, who are at the same time the landowners; next to them rank the artisans and traders ; then the shepherds; and lastly the husbandmen. At the first blush it might appear that this classification was arbitrary, as there are many among the smaller arm-bearing landowners who till their own soil, while others combine trading with farming; and among the shepherds and the husbandmen the larger majority also carry arms, and are only too prone to lay aside the crook or the plough in favour of the rifle or the lance. But this objection is merely superficial. Every man's caste is determined by his chief avocation. The warrior-landlord does not cease to be the warrior-landlord because he takes a share in the labours of his peasantry or sells the produce of his estates; but the artisan and the shepherd and the husbandman do not rise out of their respective castes because they are always ready to follow their leaders on the warpath. The chief proofs that this rigid distinc

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