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pledged to vote for this amend- same principles with those held ment, if adopted as a substitute, to be unconstitutional; and the but he preferred it to the original result has been, to open an entire bill. It will give the people some new field of internal improvement. insight into the principle, upon Favorite objects, Mr C. said, which their money is drawn from had been considered constitutionthem. How can gentlemen sup- al, while objects in States not so port
this system without extend- much cherished, had been held ing to every section a portion of to be local. Mr C. concluded its benefits?
by saying, that he thought with Mr Clay thought the proposi- the Senator from South Carolina, tion of the Senator from South that there ought to be some prinCarolina entitled to serious con- ciple of distribution for internal sideration. He regretted, that it improvement settled for the fuhad been made at so late a pe- ture. He regretted, that it was riod of the session, as to preclude too late now in the session to that examination and reflection, mature any satisfactory plan, but which the importance of the sub- be boped, that at the next session ject deserved. He thought, how- the subject would be taken up, ever, that the principle of distri- and some principle recognised bution should depend as well on that would do equal justice to all the extent and exigencies of the the States of the Union. States, as on federal numbers. Mr Smith gave a history of the
His object, however, in rising, commencement and progress of was to express his extreme sur- appropriations for the improveprise, that the President, after put- ment of harbors._The doctrine ting his veto on the appropriations held was this : The States on for works of such public utility the Atlantic had relinquished to as the Maysville and Rockville the federal government the right roads, should have sanctioned the of imposing tonnage duties, thus internal improvement bill, in depriving themselves of all power which appropriations were made of improving their harbors and to a very large amount, and rivers. It was the bounden duty, which differed in principle not therefore, of the General Governone particle from the one he had ment to do that, which the States rejected. If the Maysville and could not do of themselves, beRockville roads were local ob- cause they had given up the jects, there were hundreds of funds, from which they could objects in the bill just approved, make such improvements. infinitely more local. What had Mr Hayne rose, not for the been the course of the present purpose of entering into any aradministration? They first held gument on the question before appropriations for certain objects the Senate; but to say, that alof internal improvement to be though he should vote for this unconstitutional, and then sanc- amendment of his colleague, as tioned appropriations for other an alternative preferable to the objects depending entirely on the bill, he was utterly opposed to
the whole scheme, and should sent to the House for concurrence ultimately vote against the bill, in the amendments. He viewed the amendment mere- The House concurred in these ly as an alternative to the bill, amendments, after making an and of the two he thought it unimportant amendment, to which preferable ; but the system itself the Senate assented; and the bill
a general scramble, and was sent to the President for his there was no knowing where it approbation on the 13th of July, would end ; it was wild and ex- three days before the close of the travagant, and the sooner it was session. abandoned the better. The bill This bill, which did not differ signed by the President appro- in principle from the internal impriated one million one hundred provement bill, the President thousand dollars, and this bill resolved not to sanction; but appropriated about six hundred finding the task of assigning any thousand dollars inore.
reasons for a direct veto difficult, Mr Mangum said, he was un
he retained the bill until after the willing to countenance a propo- adjournment of Congress, and sition of the nature submitied by thus prevented it from becoming the Senator from South Carolina, a law. in any shape. He was opposed The same course was adopted, to any distribution among the in relation to a bill providing for States of any kind according to the repayment to the respective federal numbers, because he be- States of all interest actually paid, lieved, as did the gentleman on for moneys borrowed by them on the opposite side, that those account of the federal governStates who received the least ment, and expended in the serwould
pay the most. Alghough vice of the United States. This he knew he could, according to bill, which only sanctioned one the parliamentary practice, vote of the plainest maxims of natural for the amendment, and finally justice, was passed by both against the bill, yet he was unwil- Houses ; but when it came into ling, that his vote should meet the the hands of the President, it was public eye as sanctioning any- doomed 10 the fate of the harbor thing like the scheme either in bill, and was negatived in this the bill or the amendment. indirect manner,
without The question was then taken, sons submitted to Congress for and Mr Miller's amendment was this novel and unconstitutional rejected, yeas 8, nays 33. inode, of defeating the action of
The bill was then ordered to the legislative branch of the gova third reading, yeas 25, pays 16. ernment.
The bill was then passed, and
France State of Parties. Remodelling of the Chamber of
Peers — Banishment of the Bourbons — Condition of the Working Classes — Riots at Lyons — Civil List - Anniversary of the death of Louis XVI— Prosecutions of the Peers — Conspiracies — The Cholera - Death of Casimir Périer Funeral of Lamarque and Riots of June - La Vendéc — The Duchess of Berri The Chambers Landing at AnconaBelgian Negociations — Reduction of the Citadel of Antwerp.Germany - Hanover - Meeting at Hambach - The Diet. Greece. Sovereignty of Otho. - Russia. - Fate of Poland. – Turkey.- Conquest of Syria by Ibrahim Pacha. – SpainSickness of the King and its Consequences. — Portugal — Don Pedro's Preparations — Occupation of Oporto — Military Operations.
CONTINENTAL Europe, du- by the friends of the new dynasty ring ihe year 1832, was not the and the enemies of any further theatre of great and stirring extension of the principles of the events, such as fixed the atten- Three Days. The President of tion of the world in the two pre- the Council bad rather precipiceding years. France, Belgi- tately resolved to retire, upon um, Portugal, and Turkey, offer view of the snall majority of the points of interest, however, and Deputies in favor of M. Girod some few incidents in other parts de l'Ain, the ministerial candiof the Continent require to be date for the presiding office in touched upon briefly, in order to the Chamber. But, having conto give a complete idea of the tinued in authority in obedience European history of the period. to the public necessity imposed
We left the history of France upon him by the breaking out of at a moment, when the policy of hostilities in Belgium, M. Péthe government was somewhat rier soon found, on coming to unsettled, by reason of the un- discuss the address in answer certainty whether M. Casimnir to the king's speech, that his Périer would continue at the purpose of surrendering the head of the ministry, supported helm of state
ment-party was altogether pre- contemplated. In settling the conmature and uncalled for, inas- stitutional changes of that epoch, as much as the vote upon this sub- in transferring the crown to its presject showed the general pol- ent possessor, the Chamber of icy of the Ministers to be pos- Deputies, as the immediate repsessed of overwhelming strength resentatives of the people, had in the Chambers. And the proceeded with little deference for struggle, at this time, was quite the Chamber of Peers. Indeed, decisive of the permanency of the Peers, it was then apparent, the existing cabinet. M. Périer, had no substantive power, and and his associates of the admin- were under the necessity of folistration, made up a distinct issue lowing in the wake of the Depuwith the Opposition upon the ties, whithersoever the latter might great questions of domestic and choose to lead. They had subforeign politics, which then occu- mitted with murmuring, but unpied the attention of the French. resisting acquiescence, to the unThe Ministers averred that the peering of the peers created by Charter of 1830 was the record Charles X. They had accepted of their political creed. They the Charte Bérard, notwithstandstood ready to carry the princi- ing the provision it contained, that ples of liberalism to the utmost the constitution of the peerage verge of that instrument, but there should be revised at a future they were determined to stop. meeting of the Chambers. The It was for the Chambers, for time was now arrived to complete France, to say, whether the na- the unfinished work of the tion demanded, or could sustain Three Days, and meet the requisithe shock of a new series of rev- tions of the country by re-modelolutionary agitations; or whether, ling the Chamber of Peers. It content with a faithful and firm was a task which the ministers but liberal administration of the undertook from no good will of government, in accordance with their own, but rather because they the provisions of that Charter, felt it to be impossible safely to tranquillity should be given to the refuse themselves to it, and bepeople, and with il prosperity to cause it was due to their consistihe country. The vote of the ency as the professed maintainers Chambers upon the address ren- of the principles of the Charter, — dered it certain that the party of of no more and of no less, – of moderation, of resistance to movement so far as this carried change, of peace abroad and sta- them, and of unshaken constancy bility at home, was thenceforth, for of station at that point. a time at least, to control the des- In introducing the measure to tinies af France.
the Chamber of Deputies, M. This matter being thus deter- Périer confessed the indisposition mined, the ministers proceeded to of the ministers, acting upon their evince their disposition to concede own personal convictions, to make everything to the popular party, any essential change in the conwhich the Charter of 1830 bad stitution of the Chamber of Peers.
But the hereditary quality of of the Chamber of Peers of no the peerage was odious to the avail, by enabling the ministers to nation, which demanded its aboli- adopt, with safety, the strong tion with great unapiinity. It was measure of creating 36 new peers the condition, also, on which the for the express purpose of carrypopular party, as represented by ing the law_through the upper Lafayette and his friends, had Chamber. By this means the agreed to the Charte Bérard. – projet became a law. Various Good faith towards their party, attempts bad been made in the not less than the voice of the Chamber of Deputies to engraft country, required that the minis- the elective principle upon the ters should now act on the subject, peerage, and to provide for the and set the question at rest, so periodical renewal of the members that thus the government of July of the Chamber of Peers, in a might be finally and fully organ- manner analogous to the organizaized. Reluctantly and doubtful- tion of the Senate of the United ly, however, as the ministers gave States. But the ministers, and in to the abasement of the peer- the majority of the Chambers, age, no such scruples were enter- sustained the principle of royal tained by the great body of the nomination, as more congenial Deputies, who were in fact pledg- with a monarchical constitution ed to their constituents to carry than the principle of election.through the measure. The pro- Indeed, the abolition of the heredjet of law, as it passed the Cham- itary descent of the peerage, adber of Deputies, enacted that the ded to that of the rights of primopeerage should cease to be hered- geniture in the descent of property, itary, leaving to the crown the enacted under the Restoration, left right of nominating future peers, to the people little cause of apprelimiting the right, however, to be hension from any undue preponexercised only in certain "cate- derance of the aristocracy in the gories' or descriptions of persons. government of France. These categories embraced all Another important measure of the great public functionaries, po- the same session was passed with litical, military, or judicial, - pro- the acquiescence, rather than the prietors and heads of manufactur- cordial approbation, of the minising, commercial, or banking hous- ters, namely, a law for the peres, who paid a direct tax of 3,000 petual banishment of the elder francs per annum, -members of branch of the house of Bourbon, the four acadernies of the Institute, and their descendants, as also the —and citizens to whom a national family of Bonaparte. As to the reward should have been special- latter, there was no cause of serily awarded by law, on account of ous apprehension, except so far as eminent public services. The regarded the Duc de Reichstadt; hereditary quality of the peerage and bis untimely death removed, was abolished by a vote of 324 in a great measure, the jealousy against 86, which made all oppo- of the government of Louis Philsition to the measure on the partippe respecting the popularity of