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24 articles, applicable to all the ference, so long protracted and so great questions of difference be- ineffective, had come to be a bytween Belgium and Holland. word in all Europe. The allies Instead of assigning to each coun- had temporized so much, that men try the identical line of ancient could hardly believe they were boundary, it gave to the King of in earnest; and it remained to be Holland part of Limbourg as an seen, whether their decision of indemnity for a part of Luxem- October, 1831, which they had bourg, conceded to the demands pronounced to be fixed and final, of the Belgians. Each country

Each country was only brutum fulmen, or the was made responsible for its own umpirage of powers who meant debt, as it existed anterior to the what they spoke, and did not Union, and Belgium was charged threaten without reflection upon with one half of the debt contract- consequences. ed since, together with a yearly Meantime, the marriage of payment of 600,000 Aorios in Leopold with the Princess Louise consideration of commercial ad- of Orleans, solemnized at the vantages exacted of Holland.

royal château of Compiegne on Communication by land and wa- the 9th of August, 1832, served ter between the two countries . to add the ties of domestic conwas adjusted on terms of recipro- nexion to the strong considcity and equality, in conformity erations of the public interest, with the principles of European which previously united France law on this point, established by and Belgium. the Congress of Vienna. Ant- Weary at last of the unsettled werp was to continue solely a state, in which the Belgian quesport of commerce, as had been tion kept the affairs of western determined in 1814, and the Pow- Europe, Great Britain and France ers guaranteed the perpetual neu- resolved to bring matters to a critrality of Belgium. On the 15th sis. On the 22d of October, of November the plenipotentiaries 1832, they signed a treaty, agreeof the five Powers and of Belgi- ing, that if the King of Holland um signed the treaty, and it was did not, on the 2d of November ratified by the governments of next ensuing, engage to evacuate Great Britain, France, and Bel- the places held by him within the gium, on the 31st of January, Belgian frontiers, as marked out 1832. Austria, Prussia, and by their treaty of November, Russia delayed the ratification of 1831, they would lay an embargo the treaty so long as to create on all Dutch vessels within their much doubt of the fairness of respective ports, arrest and bring their intentions; but finally, on the in such as they met at sea, and 18th of April, came the ratification semble a combined English and of Austria and Prussia, and on French squadron on the coasts of the 10th of May that of Russia. Holland for the enforcement of The Dutch, however, continued their decision; and agreeing furto negotiate, evade, and shuffle, ther, if William did not actually until the proceedings of the Con- withdraw his troops from the Bel

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gian territory on or before the against Algiers. On the 17th, 15th of the same November, that Baron Chassé, who still comthen a French corps should enter manded the citadel of Antwerp, Belgium and forcibly expel the issued an order of the day, anDutch. This treaty had meaning nouncing his resolution to hold and point in it; and was precisely out the place to the last extremithe measure which, and which ty. Simultaneously with the enalone, could overcome this vis in- trance of the French into Belgiertiæ of Holland.

um, Prussia caused a numerous The King of Holland having army of observation to assemble distinctly refused to evacuate the on the Maes, engaging io withcitadel of Antwerp, and the forts draw it when the French should and places dependant upon it, withdraw. And thus at length which the treaty was destined to the Belgian question, which had effect, an English order in filled Europe with alarm for two council made its appearance on years, openly assumed the threatthe 7th of November, suspendingening aspect of an impending all intercourse with Holland, and European war. commanding the detention and By the 30th of November the capture of all ships belonging to French army was ready to comthat nation. The Moniteur of mence attempting the reduction that date gave information that a of the citadel. The only delilike order had been issued in cate point in the matter was to France. And at the same time preserve the city of Antwerp the combined English and French from being subject to the fire of fleets were despatched to the the citadel. To attain this object Scheldt. And these demonstra- Marshal Gérard opened a negotions producing no effect, the tiation with Baron Chassé, which French army of the North, un- resulted in an understanding that der the command of Marshal Gé- the garrison would treat the city rard, passed the frontiers on the as neutral in the contest, on con15th, directing itself on the cita- dition that the French abstained del of Antwerp. In taking this from availing themselves of the step Louis Philippe expressly un- fortifications of the city in their dertook not to occupy any of the hostile operations. This arrangefortified places of Belgium, but ment added greatly to the diffithat, on the contrary, after attain- culies of the French, but was ing their object, the French troops dictated by every consideration would immediately retire upon of honor and humanity. It is the territory of France.

edifying to remark the tranquil Marshal Gérard was accom- civility of language employed in panied by the Dukes of Orleans the summons to surrender, and and Nemours, and followed by a the reply. I hope,' says Génumerous army, organized and rard, to find you disposed to equipped with those irresistible acknowledge the justice of my means of sure success, which request (for the possession of the had characterized the expedition citadel.) If, contrary to my ex

pectation, it should be otherwise, citadel they found all the build

am charged to apprise you that ings within it a heap of ruins, and I must employ all the means at the soil everywhere plougbed up my disposal to occupy the citadel by shot and shells, indicating of Antwerp,' To which Chassé alike the skill of the besiegers responded in the same courteous and the resolution of the garrison. tone: In reply to your sum- The great object of their expedimons, which I have this instant tion being accomplished, the received, I inform you that I shall French troops were immediately not surrender the citadel of Ant- marched back to their country, werp, until after having exhausted leaving King William to digest all the means of defence at my this decisive step of his good aldisposal.' Whereupon the parties lies, and to ponder upon the proceeded to address each other measures of coercion still emin the more expressive language ployed by them on the water. uttered at the cannon's mouth. In GERMANY, during the year

The trenches were opened 1831, various changes occurred during the night of the 29th to among the secondary States, and the 30th, and the fire commenced occasional insurrectionary movefrom the citadel at noon of the ments, not attended with any im30th. Amid great embarrass- portant general results. Of the ments from heavy rains and the insurrection, the most serious was local situation of the works under that which broke out in the kingthe fire of the citadel, everything dom of Hanover, in January, was completed by the fourth of 1831, beginning at Osterode, and December, on which day the then showing itself at Gottingen. French batteries opened with a It was promptly suppressed, howtremendous discharge from eigh- ever, by marching up a strong tytwo pieces of ordnance. All body of troops, serving no other means of siege and attack, which purpose but to indicate the modern art supplies, were now spread of constitutional opinions, brought in requisition by the the great point of controversy French, and to such effect that, between the people and the govon the 22d of December, Gene- ernment being the neglect of the ral Chassé signified his desire to latter to concede the constitutionstop the further effusion of blood. al forms promised by the ConBy the articles of capitulation gress of Vienna. The manifest the garrison, consisting of about uneasiness of the people in the 4000 men, became prisoners of smaller States, generally, had alwar, to be released, however, on ready awakened the jealousy of condition that the King of Hol- the three greater ones, especially land should order the surrender Austria and Prussia, where the of the forts of Lillo and Liefken- happening of a political meeting shoek, which, being independent in Rhenish Bavaria in 1832, led to of General Chassé, could not be decided measures of coercion on delivered up by him. When the the part of the Diet, under which French took possession of the measures Germany is now labor

ing and struggling, like a giant bued with republican spirit, to tied to the earth by ignoble bonds. be acceptable to the crowned

It was the first wish of the heads of Germany. Indeed, the Germans, as subsidiary to their meeting itself was of peculiar grand aim of uniting all Germany influence upon their authority, together in one country with free Here were the people, not of this institutions, to have the press un- or that State, — of Baden or Bafettered, so as to be able to dis- varia, — but of Germany, acting cuss political subjects with inde- together upon a common object, pendence. In Bavaria and Hes- and upon a question where the se, public journals existed, which interest of the governors conflictentered into political affairs more ed with that of the governed. than was agreeable to the ruling A few such meetings, and the powers; and the States of Baden Germans would be prepared to exacted from their Prince his as- assert their political rights effecsent to a law relieving the press tively. Looking to such a conof the Grand Duchy froin censor- sequence, the Diet gladly availed ship. Hereupon the Diet on the itself of the occasion to throw the 13th of March, in pursuance of swords of Austria and Prussia a decree on the subject adopted into the scale of political justice. in 1819, as related in our last Germany, it is to be rememvolume, ordered the suppression bered, is divided into two great of three journals, two printed in interests; on the one hand, that of Bavaria and one in Hesse. In- Austria and Prussia, which have dignant at the dictation imposed no representative assemblies exupon the governments of Hesse cept the old provincial states, and and Bavaria, the popular party on the other, Saxony, Bavaria, proposed to hold a meeting in the Wurtemberg, and the minor prinopen air, at Hambach, for the cipalities, which possess a conpurpose of concentrating the opin- stitutional government. Hanover, ions of Germany, and giving to it notwithstanding its being a dean audible expression. At first, the pendency of the English crown, King of Bavaria prohibited the is always governed in conformity meeting, but this prohibition was with the views of Austria and afterwards withdrawn; and the Prussia. It is the settled policy assembly accordingly took place of the two latter governments to on the 27th and 28th of May. discredit, in all possible ways, Twenty thousand persons, it is the legislative assemblies of ihe averred, met on the occasion, smaller States, because in them gathered from Hesse, Nassau, every man sees the instruments Rhenish Prussia, Baden, and of the ultimate deliverance of Wurtemberg, as well as from Ba- Germany. Constitutional assemvaria. Some few Frenchmen and blies and the press, these are the exiled Poles likewise attended it. dreaded enemies of absolutism Their speeches, toasts, resolu- all over Europe. The meeting tions, and their proceedings in of Hambach, like the murder of general, were too strongly im- Kotzebue in 1800, furnished the great sovereigns with a plausible of which a portion was appropretext for whatever outrage on priated to paying to the Porte an ihe independence of the smaller indemnity in consideration of the States, and the political rights of extension of the Greek frontier to the people, it might be deemed a line uniting the gulfs of Arta desirable to perpetrate. In July, and Volo. By the close of the the Diet published a set of de- year, all the preliminary arrangecrees, which imposed on the leg- ments were so far completed as islative bodies of the constitution- to enable Otho to embark for al States a variety of restrictions, Napoli in December, after recalculated to deprive them of the ceiving full assurances that his faculty of deliberating or acting authority would be gladly recogfreely, and rendering them the nised by the great body of the mere subordinate agents of the Greeks. Diet. At the same time, addi- If Greece had thus finally estional regulations were provided caped the immediate control of in relation to the press. These Russia, that empire did not the acts encountered the warmest op- less labor for the extension or position in the several legislatures consolidation of its power in Poaffected by them, although sup- land and Turkey. It was not to ported by most of the sovereigns; be supposed, indeed, that Russia and the discussion of this whole would lose the opportunity she matter is the great political ques- had acquired, to take from the tion, which now occupies the gen- Poles what little they still retaineral mind of Germany.

ed of their peculiar justitutions. Greece, after the assassination In February an organic statute of Capo d'Istrias in 1831, be- appeared, which declared the came the scene of utter anarchy, kingdom of Poland to be an inand so continued until the three tegral part of the Russian Empowers which had

interested pire, and numerous changes were themselves in its affairs, England, made in the interior government, France, and Russia, pitched upon in the intent of totally obliterating Otho, a minor son of the King of the nationality of Poland. WhatBavaria, to be made King of ever of remonstrance Greece. The basis of the new head might be addressed to the sovereignty was established by a Emperor, by Great Britain and trealy concluded in May, 1832. France as parties to the Congress It was stipulated, that the King of of Vienna, it was now too late for Bavaria should furnish his son 'them to interpose very efficientwith 3600 Bavarian troops for the ly in behalf of the Poles. They maintenance of his authority might have done so, when Poland among the turbulent

Greek bristled with armed freemen ; but chiefs, the troops to be paid out the complete suppression of the of the revenue of Greece. The insurrection rendered Russia inpowers guaranteed a loan of two dependent of their wishes, and and a half millions sterling for but little disposed to listen to their the service of the new sovereign, reclamations.

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