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And the progress of events in came. Osman Pacha, indeed, TURKEY was such, as ere long to advanced as far as Tripoli, but direct the eyes of all Europe to was fain to abandon every thing the seeming approach of the and Ay in disgrace on the apdownfall of the Porte, and the proach of Ibrahim. Finding it consequent ascendency of Russia impossible to hold out any longer, on the Bosphorus. Those who Abdallah at length capitulated, observed the progress of the Pa- in May 1832, after sustaining a cha of Egypt on the side of Ara- siege of several months' duration. bia, and who recollected the ex- Ibrahim and his father-in-law tent of territory formerly possess- were now fairly embarked in reed by the Sultans of Egypt, had bellion against the Porte. They long foreseen that Mehemet Ali had treated the Sultan's firman would be likely to embrace some with contempt, driven Osman propitious occasion to make bim- Pacha from the field, and taken self master of Syria. Such an possession, by force, of the Paoccasion grew out of a dispute chalic of Acre. Fortified in between Mehemet Ali and Ab- their purpose by the success they dallab, Pacha of the neighboring had thus far enjoyed, the Egypgovernment of Acre. Ibrahim tians lost no time in marching Pacha, the conqueror of Greece, upon Damascus, which sell with was despatched with a powerful scarce a serious attempt at dearmy, supported by a fleet, to de- fence. Continuing his triumphprive ibrahim of his Pachalik.- ant march, Ibrahim proceeded The Porte saw two of its provin- towards Aleppo. On the 8th of cial vassals thus engaged in dead- July he encountered a large Turkly hostilities, without reference to ish force commanded by the Pathe wishes of their common head. cha of Aleppo, aided by the disMehemet Ali, however, was in placed Pachas of Tripoli and the situation of aggressor, as he Damascus, and gained a signal had invaded the territory of the victory, which assured to bim the Sultan by sea and land. A firman possession of Aleppo. The war was despatched to the tivo Pa- had now grown to be a matter of chas, commanding them to desist life and death to the Sultan, who from hostilities, and submit their strained all bis exhausted resourdifferences to the arbitration of ces to raise a force adequate to the Porte. This Mehemet Ali withstand the Egyptians. Ibrawould by no means consent to do; bim had, meanwhile, advanced to and be pressed the siege of Acre Antioch, and there he found that with redoubled vigor, while Ab- Hussein Pacha had taken post at dallah held out as obstinately, in Beilan, with a large army, to guard the expectation of receiving suc- the passes of Mount Taurus. If cor from Constantinople. The Ibrahim could overcome this force, Egyptians gained possession of there would be nothing to prevent Gaza and Jaffa without difficulty, bis entering Caramania, when he and reduced Acre 10 a heap of might, if he pleased, march upruins. Time wore, and no succor on Constantinople, and dictate his own terms to the Sultan in the to be crowned with complete succapital of the empire. It was a cess, and the King was accounted bold venture, but the Egyptian as it were already dead, he untried it, and triumphed. He al- expectedly rallied, recovered full tacked the Turks on the 29th of possession of his reason, and was July, and gained a complete vic- made conscious by the Queen of tory, thus completing the con- the machinations of which she quest of Syria. The circumstan- and her daughter were to have ces, which saved the Turkish been the victims. Indignant that Empire from total dissolution in such advantage had been taken consequence of the advance of of his condition, he appointed the Ibrahim to the neighborhood of Queen to be Regent of the kingConstantinople, belong to the bis- dom during the continuance of tory of another year, when the his illness, banished Calomarde Sultan was seen to have recourse, from his councils and eventually for the preservation of his from the kingdom, and entered throne, to the Russians, the hered- upon a series of comparatively itary enemies of Turkey by re- liberal measures, which promised ligion and by policy, - deliver- the happiest influence upon the ing up his capital to them as his general welfare of Spain. This only means of defending it from last change in policy necessarily the all-grasping ambition of the ensued from the character and purEgyptians.

poses of the individuals, who had SPAIN was tranquil, and afford- composed the particular adhered no materials for history, until ents of Don Carlos, they being the dangerous illness of the king the ultra-absolutists, and by no irr September, 1832, proved by means cordially attached to Ferhow feeble a thread ihe peace dinand himself. To strengthen and happiness of an hereditary herself against them, the Queen monarchy are suspended. His invited to her service many of health had been sometime de- the moderate party. Don Franclining, and at length the pros- cisco de Zea Bermudez was repect of his death became immi- called from the Court of Saint nent. The partisans of Don Car- James, to replace Calornarde in los seized upon the favorable mo- authority at Madrid. The uniment of bodily and mental weak- versities were reöpened. A ness to obtain from him a decree eral amnesty for political offences revoking that of March, 1830, was proclaimed, from which those and restoring the Salic law of only were exempted, who had at succession, introduced by Philip any time commanded an armed V. Yielding to the representa- force against their King, or who tions made to him by so many

as members of the Cortes had eager advocates of the pretensions voted for his deposition at Seof his brother, he consented to ville. Finally, a decree was isdisinherit his daughter in favor of sued in December, reviving that Don Carlos. But when the of March, 1831, and restoring schemes of the Carlists appeared the ancient law of succession in

A gen

behalf of the daughter of Maria expedition were successful, there Cristina. And thus, by the acci- would be prize money for the dent of an abortive intrigue in privates, and honor for the offitlie sick chamber of a monarch, cers; they hardly paused to rethe dawn of improvement, so long flect bow it would fare with them hoped for and almost despaired of, if they failed. was at length opened upon Spain.

Pedro set sail from Saint MiIt remains only to relate the chael's in June, with a fleet of beginning and progress of the war five large, and seven smaller vesin PORTUGAL between Miguel, sels, besides transports and gunthe ruler of the kingdom de fac- boats, mustering a force of about to, and his elder brother Pedro, 10,000 men. His preparations acting in the name of bis daugh- having gone on very publicly for ter Donna Maria de Gloria. Im- upwards of six months, Miguel mediately after his arrival in Eu- had ample notice to be ready to rope, Pedro had set about the receive him, and might have revindication of the rights of the sisted his landing, except that his titular Queen of Portugal. intended place of effecting it was Troops were enlisted, and ves- kept secret. At length, however, sels, arms, and stores iaken up in the squadron appeared off the England and France, a rendez- Douro, near the mouth of which vous being established at Belle- the troops were disembarked isle, on the coast of France. Al without resistance, to march imter making such arrangements as mediately and gain possession of were necessary, the expedition Oporto. This they accomplishdeparted for Saint Michael, one ed on the 10th of July, while the of the Azores, where the final troops of Miguel fell back upon measures were taken for effecting Coimbra. Oporto had been sea landing in Portugal. Notwith- lected by Pedro, as a point at standing the professed neutrality once defensible on the land side, of the governments of England and accessible to communication and France, they undeniably with his fleet by means of the connived at the preparations mak- Douro, at the same time that it ing in the ports of their respec- was the second city in the kingtive countries, influenced by, dom, and peculiarly attached to views adverse to the authority of the Constitution. Here he fortiMiguel. It was very easy to fied birnself strongly, and preparcollect a large force of disbandeded to take advantage of circumsoldiers, hall-pay officers, eini- stances, hoping to see the Portugrant Portuguese and Poles, in guese themselves rise in the cause short, men of action and adven- of his daughter. In this, however, ture, of various nations,- to inan he was disappointed. The counthe ships and compose the arıny try remained tranquil and unmovof Don Pedro. British officer's ed, while Miguel took measures commanded his fleet, and French to invest Oporto with all his forces, of British officers held eminent and either to reduce the city, or at rank in his land forces. If the least prevent Pedro from making

any advance into the heart of the themselves for a while in despekingdom.

rate efforts to gain or hold those Although Miguel's troops fell places respectively. On the 29th back at first, yet they came up of September, again, the Miguelagain in a few days, and took post ites made a combined attack on at Penafiel. A little skirmishing, the works around Oporto, but with marching and countermarch- without carrying them; and on ing, ensued, previous to the 22nd, the 13th of October another atwhen a battle was fought at Val- tempt was made, without success, longo, which satisfied both parties on the convent of Serra. After that the contest was not likely to this the Miguelites contented be a brief one. Pedro claimed theinselves with laying siege to the victory, but was content to Oporto; and for the residue of make good his position in Oporto the year the war consisted only and in the suburb of Villa Nova, of the usual incidents of a siege, on the opposite side of the river, in which neither side made any while the troops of Miguel con- very effectual progress towards a tinued to hem in the Constitutiou- conclusion of the affair. Thus alists by a line of posts stretching much, however, was apparent.from Penafiel on the southeast, Pedro was shut up in Oporto, around to Redondo on the south with a turbulent army, opinionatside of the Douro. On the 7th ed foreign officers, and

imof August the Constitutionalists perfect resources, to maintain the made an unsuccessful attempt to pretensions of Donna Maria. carry the position of the Miguelites But the Portuguese nation affordat Redondo. Some few rencon- ed him neither men nor money. tres, of no great moment, occur- On the contrary, Miguel's army red in the same month between was numerous, resolute, comparthe fleet of Pedro under Admiral atively well found, and betrayed Sartorius, and that of Miguel. - not the slightest disposition to quit Early in September the Miguel- his service, for that of Pedro. ites became the assailants. They In fact at the expiration of the began by driving the Pedroites year, the war presented to all apfrom Villa Nova; but as the lat- pearance the picture of an invadter still retained the convent of er and a foreign army striving to Serra on the same side of the impose a new government upon river, the two parties exhausted Portugal.




Situation of England in 1831 - Proclamntion against Political Unions

Meeting of Parliament Reform Bill again introduced Character of Bill - Adjournment of Parliament - Trial of Bristol Rioters - Parliament re-assembles - Proceedings in Commons on Reform Bill Bill passes - Proceedings in House of Lords - Second reading of Bill - Ministers defeated in Committee Ministers resign Negotiation to form a new Administration Excitement - Resolutions of Commons- Whig Ministers re-appointed Opposition to Reform withdrawn Reform Bill passes Scotch Reform Bill Nature of ReformBill passes Irish Reform Bill Nature of Reform— Bill passes Nature of Reform Consequences - Ireland Opposition to collection of Tithes Modification of Tithe System proposed Nature of alteration - Law for collection of Tithes passes for Composition of Tithes - Prohibiting Party Processions State of Ireland Disturbances West India Colonies Emancipation Insurrection at Jamaica Reform in Finances Legislation Dissolution of Parliament.

The riots at Bristol, Notting- motion was carried, interposed an ham and other places, in the lat- insuperable obstacle against the ter part of 1831, had given indi- return of the Tory party to powcations, which could not be mis- er. The ministers on their part, understood, that the downfal of - Lord Brougham in the upper, the Tory party was at hand. and Lord Althorpe in the lower

Upon the rejection of the re- House, - assured the public, that form bill in the House of Lords, their continuance in office dependon the 7th of October, steps were

success of

a measure immediately taken to prevent the of reform equally extensive and resignation of the ministry. Lord thorough, with that which had Ebrington moved, in the House been rejected, and adjured the of Commons, a vote of confidence friends of reform to show themin the Whig cabinet, and the tri- selves the friends of public order, umphant majority, by which that and to restrain all violence and

ed upon

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