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outrage. It was not however had proved very efficient in giving consistent with the course of par- an impulse to the work of reform, liamentary proceedings, to bring having evinced a disposition to forward the bill at that session, give greater unity to their proafter it had been once rejected, ceedings, by forming a National and the ministers consequently political union, the government turned their attention to the com- began to fear that a power was pletion of a few bills, which were growing up in the State, which in a state of forwardness before might ultimately prove too strong the prorogation.

for control. The doctrines put On the 20th of October the forth by an association of the session was closed by a speech working classes, savored strongly from the throne, which strongly of a Jacobin spirit, and a meeting enforced the necessity of a con- called by that association in Lonstitutional reform of parliament, don on the 7th of November to and the King expressed his un- sanction those doctrines, was realterable desire to promote the garded with such distrust by govsettlement of that question by ernment, that precautionary meassuch an improvement in the rep- ures were taken to put down the resentation as might be found ne- meeting, and a deputation from cessary for securing to his people the society was informed by the the full enjoyment of their re- Home Secretary, that its professpective rights, which in combi- sed objects were treasonable, and nation with those of the other they were advised to abandon it. orders of the State,' he declared This was accordingly done, and were essential to the support of on the 22d of November, a proour free constitution."

clamation was issued declaring This liberal sentiment, in the these political associations to be King's mouth, materially aided unconstitutional and illegal, and the government in preserving pub- commanding all the lieges to ablic order during the turbulent va- stain from joining them. cation, which followed the rejec- This had the effect of checking tion of the reform bill. It evinc- the growth of the spirit of affiliaed the determination of the mon- tion and concerted action ; but arch to yield to the wishes of the the existing unions continued as nation, and indicated that in the before to act in impelling the final struggle with the aristocratic progress of reform, and to press party, the King and the people their peculiar ideas

upon were united in interest, and in ernment. sentiment.

All eyes were now directed to At the same time the govern- the opening of Parliament, which ment took efficient steps for the took place on the 6th of Decempreservation of the public tran- ber, 1831. The King delivered quillity. Special commissions were the speech in person, it being one issued for the trial of the rioters of the longest delivered from the at Bristol, Nottinghain, and Der- throne for many years, and reby. The political unions which markable, also, for furnishing some

the gove

real information concerning the sideration, the character of the state of public affairs. In this houses, as well as their number, document, which will be found so that an inconsiderable place, in the appendix, page 292, the with the requisite number of housspeedy and satisfactory seule- es, might not be represented, to ment of the question of reform the exclusion of towns of more is enforced, as of great impor- real importance, but with a smalltance to the security of the State,

er number of houses. This was and for the contentment and wel- done by referring to the annual fare of the people.

amount of assessed taxes in conIn pursuance of this recom

nection with the number of houses mendation Lord John Russell, on of £10 annual value. the 12th of December, brought Upon these data a new schedule forward for the third time, the (A) had been formed, containing bill for reforming the House of the boroughs to be disfranchised, Commons.

which amounted to 56, the This bill, although somewhat same number that were in the modified from that, which had former bill, although some of the been rejected, was not less ef- boroughs which formerly escaped ficient.

The principles recog- disfranchisement now took the nised in the former bill, consisted place in schedule A, of the other, in the disfranchisement of decay, and that by the operation of the ed boroughs; the enfranchise- new rule were removed to schement of large and opulent towns; dule B. and the introduction of new elec- Those now proposed to be adtoral qualifications. In determin- ded to the disfranchised class ing upon the boroughs to be dis- were Aldborough, Amersham, franchised, the census of 1821, East Grinstead, Oldbampton, and was taken as the standard in the Saltash, in the place of Midhurst, former bill, and all whose popula- Petersfield, (Eye), Wareham, tion did not reach a certain num- and Woodstock, which were reber were included in the disfran- moved to schedule B, containing chised list. Since then, a new the boroughs that were to be repcensus had been completed, which resented by one member. As although it could not be entirely the disfranchising these boroughs thrown out of view, was liable to would still leave 23 members to the objection, that in all the bor- be disposed of, besides the addioughs whose population approach- tional members given to the couned the point of disfranchisement, ties and to the newly enfranchised great pains had been taken to towns; it was proposed to give swell the enumeration above that an additional member to some of point. It was therefore determin- the new boroughs, and to remove ed to resort to the number of some of the largest of the borhouses, rather than that of inhab- oughs from schedule B. This itants, as affording less room for schedule would then contain 30 imposition. In adopting this test, boroughs, instead of 41, the numit was necessary to take into con- ber included in the same class annexed to the former bill; and served forever, excepting those the representation of the newly who were non-resident; and that enfranchised towns, entitled to in those cities which were counsend two members each, would ties in themselves, those who be increased from 12 to 22. In voted in the county at large, and this manner the towns of Bolton, those who voted for the county Brighton, Bradford, Blackburn, of the city, should stand on the Macclesfield, Stockport, Stoke same footing as formerly; and upon Trent, Oldham, Stroud, those who were not entitled to and Halifax, were added to sche- vote for either place, should be dule C, and enabled to send two allowed to vote upon their qualimembers each. A member was fications in the county where the also given to Chatham, and borough was situated. It was another to the county of Mon- asserted by the Tory party, that mouth. These alterations had these alterations had been made the effect of diminishing the num- in consequence of their suggesber of boroughs, whose represent- tions; and that the provisions, ation was reduced, from 41 to perpetuating the rights of free30; but on the other hand, it gave men and preserving the full comadditional representation to some plement of the House, had been of the larger towns. The mea- inserted through their earnest opsure of reform therefore, was not position at the last session. It materially altered, so far as the was admitted on all hands, that apportionment of representatives the bill was better considered was concerned. That important than its predecessor; and leave part of the bill, which regulated was given to bring it in, and it the right of suffrage, was subject- was read the first time, and after ed to a greater modification. In an animated debate on the 16th the former bill the occupants of and 17th of December, was orhouses assessed to the poor rate

dered to a second reading, ayes at £10, and which were of the 324, pays 162. Parliament then yearly value of £10, were entitled adjourned to the 17th of January, to vote in boroughs; but no ten- when the subject was to be again ant whose landlord compounded brought forward for a final defor the poor rates, unless he cision., claimed to be rated himself, and During the recess, legal prounless he had occupied the prem- ceedings were instituted against ises for one year, was admitted the rioters at Bristol and Notto the exercise of this right. — tingham, and inquiries were also The present bill proposed, that directed into the conduct of the the occupants of houses, of the municipal authorities, and of the yearly value of £10, who were officer commanding the military rated at any sum, should be enti- at Bristol. tled to vote in boroughs.

Twentyone of the rioters at It was also provided, that the Bristol were convicted and conrights of freemen acquired by demned to death, four of whom birth or servitude, should be pre- were left for execution. Nine

were convicted at Nottingham, March, by which time it had of whom five were condemned gone through all the important to death, and three were exe- clauses of the bill — the miniscuted. The court martial held ters yielding to many of the sugon Col. Brereton, was suddenly gestions of their opponents, with terminated by the suicide of that a fair and liberal spirit, when they officer, who was unable to bear did not affect the grand principles up against the censure of the of reform. public for his indecision at such Various efforts were made to a crisis; and the Mayor was ac- break in upon the integrity of the quitted on the indictment found measure, but without success. against him, - it having been with the view of embarrassing proved, that he had acted with its progress, Mr Croker moved, firmness and efficiency, and that that no specific number be named he failed only from the refusal of to be inserted in Schedule A; the respectable householders to but the ministers admitting that co-operate in suppressing the tu- the number of 56 was arbitrary, mult.

contended that some number This severe investigation, how- should be mentioned ; and that ever, had a happy effect in check- as that number bad been inserted ing the spirit of turbulence, and in the last bill, it was a good reaenabled the Government to pre- son for continuing it. The House serve its ascendency in the ap- accordingly determined to retain proaching struggle between the it, by 198 to 123. privileged few and the great body A similar fate attended of the nation. A strong convic- amendment moved by Sir Robtion prevailed, that the ensuing ert Peel, that the boroughs in session would be decisive as to Schedule B should continue to the expectation of a legal and send two members - which was peaceable reform, and would re- rejected, 112 to 210. An amendsult either in a law according to ment was then offered, to prevent the general wish, or in the horrors the division of the counties to

violent revolution. The which four members were to be meeting of Parliament was there- given, but it was negatived, 89 fore expected with an anxiety to 215. proportionate to the important The Committee then proceedconsequences of its decision upon ed to fix the qualifications for this momentous question. On borough electors, which brought the third day after its assernbling, forth various amendments. Mr (viz. on the 20th of January) Hunt first proposed, that all perupon the motion of Lord Johnsons paying direct taxes should Russell, the House went into be allowed to vote, which was Committee on the Reform Bill, negatived, only eleven members and commenced the examination voting in favor of it; as was also of its details. The Committee another proposition by him, that continued its labors with great all persons not entitled to vote, perseverance until the 9th of should be exempted from taxa

an

of a

a

tion, militia service, and impress- franchise Petersfield, and four ment. The other amendments other boroughs; but withdrew involved no important principle, his motion upon the suggestion of and were rejected either without Lord Althorpe, that if he should a division, or by large majorities. succeed the bill would be endan

On the 20th of February, the gered in the Upper House.* Schedules were taken up, and Schedule B was then taken preliminary discussion took place, up, and after some opposition as to the principles, upon which had been made to the partial disthe line was drawn between the franchisement of Dartmouth and boroughs to be disfranchised and Helston, and to the representathose whose representation was tion of Midhurst, the names of preserved. No division, how- thirty boroughs contained therein ever, was had upon this point, were agreed to.t and the disfranchisement of fifty- When Schedule C, containing two of the boroughs in Schedule the new boroughs entitled to two A, was agreed to. Some con- members each, came under conversation took place respecting sideration, the only opposition Lostwithiel and Brackley; which made, was to increasing the repalso were included therein; and resentation of the capital, by an effort was made to place Mid- giving new members to the niehurst in the same schedule, in- tropolitan districts of Tower Hamstead of Amersham, which was lets, Finsbury, Mary-le-bone and negatived, 254 to 153; as was Lambeth. This was resisted, a similar attempt in favor of Ap- as too much augmenting the pleby, 256 to 143.

power of London, by increasing Mr Shiel then moved to dis- its representation to 22 members,

Stockbridge
Romney (New)
Hedon
Plympton
Seaford
Heytesbury

Okehampton
Appleby
Lostwithiel
Brackley
Amersham

*SCHEDULE A,
Containing the disfranchised boroughs.
Old Sarum Aldborough
Newton

Camelford St Michael's or Hindon Midshall

East Love Gatton

Corfe Castle Bramber

Bedwin (Great] Bossiney

Yarmouth Dunwick

Queensbough Ludgershall

Castle Rising
St Mawe's

East Grinstead
Beeralston Higham Ferrers
West Looe Wendover
St Germaiu's

Weobly
Newport

Winchelsea Blechingley Whitchurch Tregony

Steyning Haslemere

Wotton Basset Saltash

Downton Orford

Fowey Callington

Milborne Port Newton

Aldehurgh Ilchester

Minehead
Boroughbridge Bishop's Castle

| SCHEDULE B,
Containing old boroughs, with one member.
Petersfield Thirsk
Ashburton

Christ Church
Eye

Horsham
Westbury

Great Grimsbury
Wareham

Calne
Woodstock Arundel
Wilton

St Ives
Malmesbury Rye
Liskeard

Clitheroe
Reigate

Morpeth
Hythe

Helston
Droitwich North Allerton
Lyme Regis Wallingford
Launceston Dartmouth
Shaftesbury Midhurst

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