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it attacked the Russian army, and of Great Britain, where every meadirectly after the battle of Igani sure of precaution had been taon the tenth of April, the Polish ken; and raging with more severtroops defending Warsaw. Its ity and for a longer period in ravages continued in that city Ireland, where the habits and seven weeks, and it extended it- poverty of the people presented self through Poland. It appear- a favorable field for its ravages. ed at Dantzic and Riga in the On the thirteenth of February month of May, and on the tenth 1832, it appeared at London, of June it made its appearance where it soon ceased to be an obat St Petersburgh, where it re- ject of terror except to the higher mained about the same period. classes, although its visitations In July it was found at Archan- were most frequent among those gel, in August at Berlin and at poorly lodged and fed. In that Vienna. In Hungary the de- city the total number of deaths struction was appalling, it having up to the seventh of April was destroyed 102,657 in that king- 1158; while in Paris, (where it dom between the months of June suddenly appeared on the twentyand October. Having thus rav- sixth of March, without having aged the interior of the European visited any of the frontier ports or continent, it made its appearance towns,) the deaths were 1000 per on the shore of the German ocean, diem, and by the 20th of April at Hamburgh in the beginning of they had amounted to 11,000 in October, and established itself in that city. From Paris the pesthe centre of the commercial in- tilence spread to the adjoining tercourse of the north of Europe. towns, and particularly to those Great alarm was now selt in Eng- on the banks of the Seine, where land, and the government with great mortality prevailed. commendable prudence took ev- lis progress through Europe from ery precaution to avert or to al- the interior of Russia to the wesleviate the scourge, which seemed tern shores of the old world, exto be approaching that kingdom. cited apprehensions that it would Medical men were sent to the ultimately reach the American continent, to obtain information of continent. Notbing, however, the best mode of treating the dis- was done to prevent its introducease, and to make themselves ac- tion, and on the 9th of June those quainted with its nature and its apprehensions were realized, by characteristics. A rigid quaran- the announcement of its appeartine was kept up in all the ports; ance at Quebec and almost simulbut in Sunderland where the reg- taneously at Montreal. A great ulations were lax and ill observed, number of emigrants from Irethe cholera made its appearance land had arrived at Quebec that on the twentysixth of October. season, 25,700 having reached It thence slowly extended itself there before the day when the through England, Scotland and cholera broke out, and in the CarIreland, exhibiting itself with ricks, a vessel from Dublin, fortycomparative mildness in the island two passengers had died of that

complaint on her voyage. Short- concluded, that no measures of ly after the arrival of the Carricks precaution could prevent its exthe cholera made its appearance iension to the principal cities of in Quebec, and extended itself the United States. Measures up the river St Lawrence, appar- however, were at once taken in ently travelling with the emigrants, the larger towns to mitigate the to Montreal, and the villages on severity of the scourge, which its banks as far as Lake Ontario. now seemed inevitable.

Warned It also diverged towards Lake by the example of New York, Champlain, and appearing at where a supineness, and a want of Whitefall on the 16th and at foresight highly discreditable to Fort Miller on the 17th of June, that city, had prevented any travelled with rapid strides to- preparations from being made wards Albany. No steps had against a pestilence so long exbeen taken by the federal govern- pected, the magistrates of the ment to guard against its intro- neighboring cities adopted the duction, and the state govern- most energetic measures, to thorments were entirely unprepared oughly cleanse the streets and all for its appearance. The citizens, places where filth was likely to however, took the matter into be collected. Public hospitals their own hands, and acting upon were provided at the municipal the supposition, that cholera was expense, and in some towns comcontagious, they put a stop to the miitees were formed to aid the intercourse, between the United medical profession in taking care States and Canada. Whether of the sick. In the interior of the this quarantine was evaded, or country, however, apprehension whether the disease moved along of the disorder prevailed over all the great channels of commercial other considerations, and in many intercourse in obedience to some instances persons attacked with law of the atmospheric or telluric the cholera, while Aying from insystem, certain it is, that about the fected places, were inhumanly left last of June, suspicious cases ap- to die in baros and sheds deserted, peared both at New York and and their sufferings unalleviated Albany, and on the 2d of July it by sympathy or aid. In the city was fully ascertained, that the of New York the disease raged cholera had obtained a foothold with great violence — the deaths in both of those cities. No hope by cholera alone exceeded one now remained of preventing the hundred per day from the 20th diffusion of the disease through to 25th of July, when it seemed the country. These cities were to have attained its height. Afthe two central points, from which ter that it diminished, but did not the chief routes of communica- entirely disappear until the first tion to the different quarters of of November, when it no longer the union diverged; and yielding to appeared in the weekly reports. the belief, that the contagion was During that time 3497 died of communicated through burnan that complaint, and the total numintercourse, the public at once ber of deaths in that city from

the first of July to the twenty- cases.

From Cincinnati it passseventh of October exceeded ed to Louisville and thence to 6,200.

New Orleans where it raged with On the twentyseventh of July, violence unprecedented in Amerthe cholera made its appearance ica, at the same time with the yelin Philadelphia, but did not afflict low fever, commencing about the that place severely; great pains 26th of October, and on the first having been taken to purify the of November alone the deaths excity. From New York and Al- ceeded one hundred and seventy. bany the pestilence took a wester- From the 28th of October to the ly direction, appearing in the 11th of November, the interEastern States only in a few isolat- ments in that city amounted to ed cases; but travelling along 1668, notwithstanding a large the great western canal from Al- portion of the population had left bany, and through New Jersey the place. Such dreadful morfrom New York to Philadelphia, tality had never been witnessed Baltinore, Washington, Norfolk before even in that unhealthy and Richmond, beyond which it place, and in less than a year the did not penetrate on ihat route. city would have been depopulated

From Montreal too the cholera by the hand of death. Fortutook a similar course towards nately the pestilence was as short the northwest — making its ap- in its duration, as it was violent. pearance at Kingston and York On the ninth of November the in Upper Canada, sborily before temperature of the atmosphere breaking out at New York. changed, cool winds prevailed From Albany it extended it- and a slight frost at an unusually self to Utica, Rochester and early period, put an end to the Buffalo, where it met the con- yellow fever and cholera totagious current which had as- gether. cended the St Lawrence. From The same cause checked its Buffalo it spread along lake Erie activity in other places, and the to Cleaveland, where it showed pestilence which seemed to be itself on the sixth and at Cincin- passing off to the southwest, slumnati on the eighth of October. bered during the winter season, It did not appear at Pittsburgh as it had upon the European conuntil later, and then only in a few tinent.

CHAPTER IV.

Preliminary remarks on Nullification Nullification by Geor

gia -- Decisions of Supreme Court. Nullification by SouthCarolina - Bill calling a Convention defeated - Free trade Convention Tariff Convention Proceedings in Congress In House In Senate Bill of Secretary of Treasury

Bill of Committee on manufactures Bill passes Address of the South Carolina Delegation - Convention called in South Carolina Ordinance nullifying Revenue Laws Measures adopted to enforce Ordinance Course of the Federal Government Proclamation of President.

IN

every community there is a principle; where the necessities principle hostile to the authority of men are greater than their of the government; and the differ- means, an impatience at the exence between an arbitrary gov- isting state of things springs up, ernment and one formed upon a which incites individuals to crime constitutional basis, is strikingly and communities to rebellion.manifested in the development of Such ever has been, and such this principle.

ever will be the condition of soIn despotism, the actual injus- ciety, until the principle of evil tice suffered from the minions of shall be eradicated from the napower; the uncertain tenure byture of man, and the restraints which all civil and religious rights of government abolished as no are held; and the general poverty longer necessary. Until the preand wretchedness, which such in- dicted Millenium shall be upon stitutions are calculated to pro- earth, civil freedom and good orduce, all conspire to place the der can be preserved only by a people in opposition to the gov- constant contest on the one hand ernment and render them prompt with arbitrary power, and on the to rebel against its authority. In other with those, who confound governments of a more liberal liberty with licentiousness and character, disaffection is produced who regard the institutions of soby other causes. Wherever pas- ciety, merely as so many impedision prevails over reason; where ments to the gratification of their the excitements of interest are own desires. Against the enstronger than the prohibitions of croachments of rulers, political

constitutions framed with wisdom position of an excise on whiskey, and preserved with care furnish a was an unconstitutional intersersufficient safeguard; while the li ence with the investment of capcentious and the factious are 10 ital, and a partial and oppressive be restrained solely by the terror burden on the industry of that of the law, or by the physical part of the union. Similar instanforce of the sound part of the ces have never been wanting, community. Treaties and com- when any considerable portion of pacts, are insufficient securities. the community bave been desiIncapable of self-control, they rous of evading or opposing the soon cease to respect the binding execution of a law which bears force of covenants, and look upon upon their particular interests. the attainment of their own pe- The wit of man is quick to devise culiar ends and the gratification of 'ingenious arguments, and sophistheir own desires, as the chief rule try is ever ready to vindicate the of their conduct, before which all pretensions of cupidity and ambiother laws must bow. This general tion. Hence the constitution is proposition has not found an ex- as often appealed to in behalf of ception in the United States. those, who would use it to proFrom the earliest period of our mote the designs of state aggranhistory, there always have been dizement, and local oppression, portions of the community, to as of those who regard it merely whom the restraints of the consti- as the palladium of civil liberty. tution and the laws, have been When Georgia advanced her claim obnoxious; but from the popular to the Cherokee country under the character of the government, they specious pretence, that the laws have always been compelled to and treaties of the United States veil their real designs under an af- were contrary to the federal comfected desire to extend the rights pact, the whole country was opof the people, and to restore the posed to her pretensions, and in puriiy of the constitution. the 19th Congress they were re

That article in the treaty of ’83, jected, by an almost unanimous which prevented the confiscation of voice. Emboldened by the change debts due to British subjects, gave which had taken place in the fedgreat dissatisfaction to a certain eral governinent, and probably portion of society, and when Shay acquainted with the views of the raised the standard of rebellion, new President, those who adminevery one that was in distress, istered

the state

government, every one that was in debt, and proceeded shortly after the accesevery one that was discontented, sion of General Jackson 10 engathered themselves unto him,' as croach upon the Cherokee territhe vindicator of popular rights, tory, in violation of the laws and against the tyranny of the laws. treaties of the United States,

When the western settlers of which they declared to be null Pennsylvania opposed the execu- and void, as inconsistent with the tion of the revenue laws, it was reserved rights of the sovereign under the pretence, that the im- State of Georgia.

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