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doctrines not only contrary to his decision and character of a solprevious opinions, but entirely in- dier, than that regard for the compatible with the existence of permanency of our political instithe Government of which he was tutions, which should have been temporarily the head. His per- manifested by the chief magissonal opposition to Mr Clay made trate ol a republic. Upon these him an opponent of the American grounds the National Republicans System ; and the decided stand put in nomination as a candidate hé took against the Cherokees in in opposition to General Jackson, their controversy with Georgia, Henry Clay of Kentucky, and finally led him to question the au- bis election was urged as the only thority of the very tribunal, ex- means of saving the institutions of pressly created to determine all the country from destruction. controversies arising under the Mr Clay was a warm friend of constitution of the United States. domestic manufactures and of
Nor was this the only evil internal improvements. He was arising from the personal charac- indeed considered as the father of ter, which the contest assumed. the American System, of which It stimulated zealous partizans to those measures formed so promilose sight of their duty as citi- nent a part; and a long course zens, and during the first session of service in Congress had shewn of the twentysecond Congress to him the necessity of maintainsome of his indiscreet friends ing the constitutional authority of ventured to assail members of the federal judiciary. As a canCongress, for the part they took didate for the Vice Presidency, on the floor of the bouse, in urg- the same party nominated John ing an inquiry into alleged abu- Sergeant of Pennsylvania, a juses of the Government. Such a rist and statesman of high and high banded attempt to overawe deserved reputation. the national Legislature in the dis- On the side of the administration charge of one of its most impor- Martin Van Buren of New York tant duties excited great indigna- was nominated as a candidate for tion among the opposition, and the the Vice Presidency. Upon retirPresident was charged with seek- ing from the State Department he ing to arrogate to himself all bad been appointed by the Presthe powers of the government. ident Minis er to the Court of St The frequent use of the veto was James, and when, according to the imputed to him, as an additional constitution, bis nomination was proof of his disposition 10 en- submitted to the Senate for concroach upon the powers of the firmation, the National Republicoördinate branches of the gov- cans in that body opposed it on ernment; and the avowal of his the ground, that in his instructions determination to construe the given while Secretary of State, constitution for himself, in ques- in relation to the Colonial trade, tions seuled both by judicial de- he had so far lost sight of the cisions and by the practice of the dignity of his country, as to claim government, evinced more of the as a sort of merit in the eyes of
the British government, that the though the ultra anti-federal docparty now in power had not sus- trines espoused by his adherents, tained the claims urged by the prevented them from joining the government of the United States, opposition in their support of Mr when Mr Adams was at the head Clay; it was soon understood, that of affairs. For this reason they the President had lost their convoted against the appointment, and fidence and would not receive being joined by a few Senators, their suffrages. The character who were dissatisfied with the of the contest however effectually conduct of Mr Van Buren while precluded them from openly lendin the Department of State, the ing their aid to overthrow the adnomination was rejected by the ministration. It was a contest in casting vote of the Vice Presi- relation to the powers of the feddent. As the minister had al- eral government, although from ready departed on his mission, the cautious and ambiguous manhis recall in this manner produced ner in which the opinions of the a strong sensation throughout the executive were promulgated, the country. It was the first instance, true nature of the question at isin which the representative of the sue was not fully understood by United States at a foreign court the people in certain portions of had been recalled, in consequence the Union. Even where it was of the refusal of the senate to so understood, no deep universal concur in the selection of the conviction prevailed, that the rePresident. The partizans of the sult of this election would be President insisted, that he was decisive as to the powers of personally dishonored by the re- the federal government. Many jection of his minister; and that it hoped from the strong personal was incumbent on his friends to enmity manifested towards Mr convince the world, that he had Calhoun, that the President not lost the confidence of his would finally be brought to opcountrymen by electing Mr Van pose doctrines, of which that Buren to preside over the body, gentleman was now considered which had declared that he was the chief advocate ; and the exunworthy to represent the coun- perience of a few years bad furtry at the British Court.
nished ample proof, that he would This mode of reasoning pre- not be deterred from taking that vailed, and notwithstanding the ef- step by any apprehension of a forts of the delegates of states charge of inconsistency. The where Mr Van Buren was un- further development of the views popular, he received the nomina- of the dominant party in South tion of the convention appointed Carolina too, now began to excite to nominate a candidate, to be great fears of a premeditated de. supported by the administration sign to dissolve the union; and it party for the Vice Presidency. was supposed, that while on one
This nomination entirely alien- hand the inclination towards antiated the friends of Mr Calhoun federal doctrines previously shewn from the administration : and al- by the President, would prevent
the disaffection from extending ed by the refusal of its members itself to the other southern states; to unite upon a single candidate. on the other, that the energetic This intractibility, which was manner in which he executed his so often wilnessed in the local didecisions would completely put visions of the opposition, was mandown the dangerous heresy of nul- ifested in a most striking manner lification, and in the end strength- at this election in placing two en the general governinent. candidates for the chief magis
The apprehension that his re- tracy before the nation. election would tend to unsettle The anti-masons professed an the government, consequently did equal dislike with the National not operate upon the mass of the Republicans to the principles and Electors 10 the same extent as policy of the administration, and upon the leaders of the opposi- both parties declared themselves tion.
ready to combine to defeat the They were governed by the election of General Jackson. more ouvious considerations Neither however were willing to growing out of the pressing ques- yield to what they called the diction of nullification on the part of tation of the other. The former South Carolina ; and as he had declared that ihey could not, undeclared himself opposed to the der any circumstances, bestow pretensions of that State, the dis- their suffrages upon a high mason, tant dangers to be apprehended, who refused to renounce the orfrom the effect of the principles der, and they accordingly nominaadvocated by the President in the ted William Wirt of Maryland as Georgia controversy were by their candidate for the Presidency, many disregarded. Even among and Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylthe mass of those, who professed vania, for the Vice Presidency. to be governed by a desire to The latter on their part prosessed preserve the constitution from great confidence in the integrity destruction, there was a want of and qualifications of Mr Wirt; that untiring energy, and self-de- but insisted that they could not votion, which flow from a deep with honor sacrifice Mr Clay to conviction of the importance of what they denominated an una cause. An unwillingness to reasonable prejudice, nor could postpone plans of personal ad- they consistently with their selfvancement, or to sacrifice individ- respect give up the candidate of ual prejudices and private views the great majority of the opposito the good of the cause, too tion to quiet the scruples, whethmuch characterised the opposi- er real or affected, of a small mition to the adıninistration. Its nority of their party. members professing great inde- While the two divisions of the pendence of character were too opposition were prevented from apt to forget, that where combined coalescing, by what they regarded effort is required, individual will as insuperable obstacles; the must give way, and the plans of friends of the administration unithe party were constantly thwart- ted in its support with a zeal and earnestness, which both deserved country,) the foreign relations of and ensured success. Local di- the United States had been manvisions were done away; personal aged with ability and success. difficulties adjusted, and private The claims of American merquarrels forgotten, in the general chants for confiscations by the imdesire to promote the triumph of perial government of France were the party. The people at large, prosecuted with great diligence, witnessing on one side so much and finally adjusted for the sum party devotion, and on the other of 25,000,000 of francs to be paid so much of the opposite quality, by the French government for were led to regard the cause of distribution among the claimants. the administration with more fa- A treaty was concluded with vor, than it would have obtained Denmark, by which she agreed to upon a mere view of its principles pay the sum of $650,000 for depand policy
redations committed by her priThey could not be made to vateers; and even the clajins on believe, that men who seriously Naples, which were regarded alsupposed the constitution would most as hopeless, were acknowlbe subverted by the re-election of edged, and the sum of$1,720,000 General Jackson, could be pre- stipulated to be paid as an indemvented from conibining to defeat niiy. The prompt chastisement him by such considerations as of the Malays for a piratical attack kept the national republicans and upon an American merchant vesanti-masons apart. They knew, sel was cited as an instance of the that minor interests and petty vigor and decision of the Presifeelings are laid aside in moments dent; and the satisfactory adjustof great excitement, and they ment of the terms of a treaty with justly concluded, that those who Mexico was urged as equally ilacted so much unlike men, deep- lustrative of his ability at negotialy and powerfully impressed with tion. the importance of the crisis, could Even the treaty formed with not fully believe themselves, in Turkey, although the preliminathe reality of the dangers which ry difficulties were surmounted, they bad described.
and the terms arranged by his Nor were the adherents of the predecessor, from its being first administration deficient in topics communicated to the public in the well calculated to affect the pub- second year of the administration lic mind. In addition to the high of General Jackson, was deemed personal popularity of the Presi- an additional proof of his diplodent, bis administration had been matic skill and sagacity. Nor eminently successful in the man- was the nation less prosperous at agement of our foreign affairs. home than the government forWith the exception of the adjust- tunate abroad. Abundant harment of the controversy in rela- vests rewarded the labor of the tion to the colonial trade, (which farmer' and imparted activity to was effected at the expense both commerce; while the rapid exof the dignity and interests of the tension of the manufacturing interest gave employment to thou- ministration, in its desire to subsands, whose industry would have serve the views of Georgia, had been unprofitably devoted to ag- weakened the constitutional auriculture, and furnished a home thority of the federal government market for the productions of the and exposed it to the reproaches, soil. The policy pursued by the of the civilized world for its dispreceding administration was now regard of treaty stipulations; the beginning to produce the effects state authorities did not cease to anticipated. To that administra- coinplain of the delay in the exetion, impartial justice would have cution of the compact of 1802, awarded the merit due to the and prosecuted their designs to wisdom which adopted the policy. appropriate the Cherokee lands But in the heat and turmoil of party to the use of the land speculators dissensions, her voice is seldom of Georgia without regard to the heard, and those who had taken rights of the aborigines, or the retheir side as partizans insisting, quirements of humanity. that our domestic prosperity was The unhappy effects of this owing to the policy of the adminis- departure in the President from tration;
the mass who seldom look the established policy of his prebeyond the most obvious causes, decessors were not confined to willingly assented to a proposition, the aborigines of the southern which relieved them from the la- section of the union. In the bor of investigation and reflection. northwestern states difficulties be
Although the course of the gan to occur which, before the administration was sustained in end of the period of which we are this manner, by the popular treating, bad involved the country voice, those who administered in an expensive frontier war. the government did not find their A treaty had been made in task unattended with difficulties. 1830, with the Sacs and Foxes,
The question between the by which they agreed to cede Cherokees and the State of Geor- their lands to the United States gia was fast approaching to a final and to remove beyond the Misdecision before the Supreme sissippi. As they did not promptCourt of the United States : and ly comply with the treaty, and one although no doubt could be en- band under the command of tertained as to the judgment of that Black Hawk evinced a determitribunal; strong doubts were felt nation to maintain possession of concerning the willingness of the their old village, John Renyolds, executive to ensorce its decision : governor of the State of Illinois, and an absolute certainty prevail- chose to construe their continued ed, that a refusal to enforce it, residence in the ceded territory, would deprive the federal govern- as an invasion of the state, and ment of all pretence to require under his authority to protect the South Carolina to submit her state from invasion, he ordered claims to annul the revenue laws, out seven hundred militia to reto the arbitrainent of the same tri- move the Indians beyond the bunal. Notwithstanding the ad- Mississippi according to the treaty