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peculiar mind of the Turk, the two upon myself to add, nor would it nations would be so intimately be agreeable to those of my Govconnected, that he would with dif- eroment, for me, while within the ficulty separate them, but would dominion of the Ottoman Porte, generally associate them in bis to recognise or accept the protecpolicy towards either. In all the tion of any other power than that little intercourse I have had with of the Sublime Porte itself. Upthis Government and people, I on that alone I relied for my sehave universally found that the curity, and felt assured that here nearer I could approach them- I should need no other.' This selves, the fewer the persons in- answer was received with evident terposed between me and then, surprise and gratification. They the more siinple, easy, and suc- have since seemed to endeavor cessful were my transactions. Di- fully to justify the confidence it rect negotiation is particularly implied. They have in consesuited to the character of the quence voluntarily offered me Turks. It implies a degree of inany indulgencies and facilities, confidence which is gratifying to (some of them unusual,) which, their pride, and which they en

en- I am persuaded, would otherwise deavor by their conduct to justify. have been obtained with difficulty I have in my own case made this or altogether withheld. I mention experiment with them, and have this case merely as illustrative of seen this trait of their character what I consider a prominent trait clearly evinced. Although this in the character of the Turks, case relates to myself individual- and one that may be turned to ly, I will take the liberty of men- much advantage in all intertioning its particulars.

course with them. They are inIt is usual for all citizens or deed a very singular people. subjects of powers not having Their characier seems an extraoramicable relations established by dinary union of opposite qualities. treaty with the Porte, upon their Although in many respects exarrival within the Turkish domin- tremely uncivilized, they are caions, to place themselves under pable of the most elevated and the protection of some power hav- refined sentiments. An appeal ing such relations. In my first to their generosity and magnainterview with the Government nimity, is generally successful, and here, under the supposition that I confidence reposed in them is had, of course, done in this re- rarely violated. In any interspect what is usual in such cases, course, therefore, which the UniI was asked under the protection ted States may have with this of what power I had placed my- Government and people, I am self? I answered, that of the fully satisfied, from all I have obSublime Porte; that I was here served of both, that, to approach a stranger, and reposed myself them at all times directly, and not upon the hospitality of the country; intermediately through any third that it would neither consist with power, will ever be found, not only my own feelings, and I took it most easy and successful in the first place, but most permanently favor. embarrassed by all this regulaable to the interests of our country; tion.' This detached and inand certainly most consistent with dependent situation of our counan avowed and very wise princi- try, gives it a great advantage in ple of policy in its foreign inter- its foreign relations. It renders course,' to have friendly relations friendly intercourse with us more with all nations, entangling allian- desirable to other nations, generces with none.' In this course, ally, and more particularly so to too, we shall have the advantage, this. Such intercourse would, which is no inconsiderable one, in some degree, relieve the Subof being the sole conductors of lime Porte from the apprehension our own affairs, and the keepers it perpetually entertains of a of our own counsels. The pe- change in its relations with the naculiar situation of the United tions of Europe, inasmuch as it States particularly favors this pol- would greatly diminish the evils icy. Separated, as we fortunate- it would otherwise experience ly are, from the nations of Europe from such an event. These adby an ocean three thousand miles vantages are important to our wide, it is our interest, and in our country, and would be particularly power to preserve ourselves equal- useful in any future intercourse ly unconnected with its politics; it may have with this Governand while we abstain from all po- ment. In departing from this litical connection with any one separate independent policy, hownation in particular, to cultivate ever, we should sacrifice these friendly relations with all. This advantages. happy situation of our country Direct, in preference to indiexempts it from the necessity ex- rect negotiation with this Governperienced by the nations of Eu- ment, is, in the case of the Unirope, of yielding their individual ted States, recommended by anviews and interests to the sup- other consideration of consideraport of a general system. We ble importance.

That narrow recognise no Holy Alliance, no system of policy, heretofore pur• Tutelary Congress of Sover- sued by soine of the nations of eigns,' to whose supreme decis- Europe having friendly relations ion our affairs are to be submit- with the Porte, I am exceedingly ted, who, to preserve the gen- sorry to have occasion to observe, eral peace, partition nations; still continues to influence their solemnly to determine what sov- conduct. This policy would lead ereign nation shall lose, and what the nations influenced by it, to enshall gain territory ; which shall deavor to exclude all others from be governed by the will of an in- any participation in the privileges dividual, and which shall have a which they themselves enjoy. constitution; whether this sover- The United States would be eign shall be legitimate, or that particularly an object of this exan usurper. We are happily left clusion, in as much as we are, independently to pursue our more than any other, an object of own affairs in our own way, un- jealousy with that nation which

is most influenced by this narrow hostile to the views of the United policy. I know the opinion is States in this quarter, and would generally entertained in our coun- oppose any advances we might try, that the nations of Europe, make towards the establishment heretofore hostile to commercial of commercial relations with the relations between the United Sublime Porte. This hostility, States and the Sublime Porte, however, whatever form it may would now no longer oppose their assuine, will not, I am well asestablishment; but that, yielding sured, deter the Porte from folto the influence of liberal princi- lowing its present dispositions upples, and adopting a more en- on this subject, provided it be larged and sounder policy, would met by the United States. But be willing to exchange their former it would render the Porte desimonopoly for a fair and more hon- rous, in the existing posture of its orable competition. This opinion relations with the European Powis incorrect. I speak with confi- ers, and the present state of its dence upon this subject; I am own internal affairs generally, and not left to mere conjecture, or to especially with its two revolted derive my opinion upon this point provinces, that negotiations should from appearances. It is found- be direct ; that the knowledge ed upon positive information, de- not only of the fact of negotiation, rived from the highest source. but the conclusion of a treaty, I am explicitly informed, in con- might thereby be confined to the fidence, by the Porte itself, that parties immediately interested **** ****, under the idea iherein, until the exchange of that the United States contemplate ratifications, and the treaty should negotiation with the Porte, has, actually go into effect. This has within a few days passed, present- induced the Porte itself to suged to the latter a formal and sol- gest that the person authorized emn protest against such negotia- on the part of the United States tion, in which she has even threat- to treat, should not appear here ened, in case the Porte should as minister, but merely as a priconclude a treaty with the United vate individual, until the treaty States, to break off her present should be about to go into effect. relations, and declare war against It would then be expected that the Porte. The other nations an avowed and accredited minismost influenced by the narrow ter of the United States should policy which has induced this very appear and receive the usual forsingular measure on the part of ** mal audience of the Sultan, &c,

when the customary presents * * * * Although these bave been would, of course, be expected. less explicit than *******

These latter, indeed, by the usages and have even avowed contrary of the Porte, could not, in any sentiments, I have reason to be- case, be received, nor could the lieve, that, in this respect, they minister have a formal audience are, in truth, not more friendly until that time. The anxious dethan the latter, but would all be sire of the Porte for this course,

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


originating in the posture of its for- that he, operating upon the weakeign relations, and the existing ness of some, and the timidity of situation of its own internal af- others, would thus be able to prefairs, is much strengthened by the vent its conclusion, and thereby character of the persons at pres- defeat what are really the present ent composing its Government. wishes of the whole Government The affairs of its two revolted upon this subject. This, of Pachalics of Albania and Servia, course, renders the Porte anxious put in requisition the resources of that the negotiations should be the Government, and render the direct, and as secret as possible. Porte generally, and particularly But, so strongly desirous are the the timid, more cautious in adopt- Porte of the conclusion of a ing any measures that might put treaty of amity and commerce at hazard its present relations with with the United States, that I feel the great European powers, or perfectly confident, that, if a perincrease the present disaffection son duly authorized by the latter among its own subjects. This to conclude such treaty, were Government, although nominally now here, it might be accomcomposed of many persons, is, in plished in the course of a few fact, at present, in the hands of a days. The present moment, so single individual. This individu- far as regards the character and al is Halet Effendi, a man of ex- dispositions of the Porte genetraordinary talents and considera- rally, is particularly auspicious for ble acquirements. He was in the this purpose. years 1803, '4 and '5, ambassa- Upon the subject of the exdor from the Sublime Porte to the pense here of such a treaty, I court of France. Since his return have made every possible inquiry, here, he has declined all the great and have obtained what I believe offices of the Government, and has to be pretty correct information. only the nominal and irresponsible I believe this whole expense would one of minister of conference, or not exceed 350,000 piastres, privy counsellor. In this however, (Turkish.) This includes the he notoriously possesses the will of public presents to be made upon the sultan, but wields the entire the minister's receiving his formal government of the empire. Heis, audience of the Sultan, &c, &c, at present, decidedly in favor of a but does not, of course, include treaty of amity and commerce the salary of the minister, &c, with the United States ; but he &c, employed by the United is considered a man in the mar- States in negotiating the treaty. ket; and the other persons of the In this estimate, I have allowed for the government favorable to such a

public presents

piastres 200,000 treaty, are apprehensive that, if To preserve Halet Efendi's

opinion the negotiations were opened and


50,000 avowed, means would be used by To this minister for procuring the powers opposed to the treaty,

the insertion in the treaty of

articles of special to change the present opinion of

- 25,000 this minister in regard to it; and To the plenipotentiary of the







piastres 25,000 with the extent of the privileges To the chief dragoman of the Porte,


to be granted them; and quite as To the Secretary of the Porte,“ 5,000

little as would be satisfactory to To two dragomans employed

the Porte. These presents may by the United States, each

10,000 5,000 psts.

be procured here, but much betContingencies,

15,000 ter, and with more economy in

the United States, England, and Total in Turkish piastres 350,000

France. The Turkish piastre is at pres- The items included in the ent worth of the Spanish dol- above estimate, as special preslar, and as of the pound sterling. ents to Halet Effendi, PlenipotenIt of course varies in value ac- tiary, Chief Dragoman and Seccording to the exchange. There retary, would not be considered is generally here considerable ad- here as bribes, but as the usual vantage in drawing on London, and just compensation for the as will be perceived by comparing extraordinary services they would the present value here of the in their respective situations be Spanish dollar, and the pound called upon to render. This is sterling

bere the general usage and course The amount of public presents of business ; a thing of course included in the above estimate, is perfectly understood, and not only as low as would be satisfactory to countenanced, but expected by the Porte. Their expectations the Sultan himself. Indeed, it is on such occasions are generally quite impossible otherwise to acregulated by their own estimate complish anything here. of the nation treating, and the ex- The 25,000 piastres included tent of the privileges accorded it in the estimate for procuring the in the treaty. As the United insertion in the treaty of articles States are here considered a na- of special favor, would not of tion of the first class, and would

course be necessary, if such artibe placed upon the footing of the cles should not be desired. But, most favored, it would be expect- I think, that a few such articles ed that its munificence would cor- would be important to the interrespond therewith. The pres- ests of the United States : for ents, on a similar occasion, of example, the right of exporting even the King of the two Sicilies, from the empire wheat, dried considered here quite a second fruits, olive oil, soap, &c, &c., rate power, and enjoying only which at present is prohibited to partial privileges, amounted to all nations; and is now only done 180,000 piastres; so that under in contravention of existing laws such a treaty as I suppose would and treaties. This right, with alone satisfy the United States, some other similar ones, in the 200,000 piastres in public pres- various vicissitudes of the relaents would be quite as little as tions of the European powers would be thought by the Porte to with the Porte, and the consecorrespond with the high char- quent fluctuations of trade in acter of the United States, and these seas, would, it is thought,

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