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the communication of public in- Let us be grateful for these telligence and private business is blessings to the beneficent Being rendered frequent and safe — the who has conferred them, and who intercourse between distant cities, suffers us to indulge a reasonable which it formerly required weeks hope of their continuance and exto accomplish, is now effected in tension, while we neglect not the a few days; and in the construc- means by which they may be tion of rail-roads, and the ap- preserved. If we may dare to plication of steam power, we have judge of His future designs by a reasonable prospect that the the manner in which his past extreme parts of our country will fors have been bestowed, he has be so much approximated, and made our national prosperity to those most isolated by the obsta- depend on the preservation of cles of nature rendered so our liberties our national force cessible, as to remove an appre- on our federal union - and our hension some times entertained, individual happiness on the mainthat the great extent of the Union tenance of our State rights and would endanger its permanent wise institutions. If we are prosexistence.

perous at home, and respected If, from the satisfactory view abroad, it is because we are free, of our agriculture, manufactures, united, industrious, and obedient and internal improvements, we to the laws. While we continue turn to the state of our navigation so, we shall, by the blessing of and trade with foreign nations and Heaven, go on in the happy cabetween the States, we shall reer we have begun, and which scarcely find less cause for grat- has brought us, in the short peulation. A beneficent Providence riod of our political existence, has provided, for their exercise from a population of three to thirand encouragement, an extensive teen millions — from thirteen sepcoast indented by capacious bays, arate colonies to twenty-four Uninoble rivers, inland seas; with a ted States — from weakness to country productive of every ma- strength - from a rank scarcely terial for ship building and every marked in the scale of Nations commodity for gainful commerce, to a high place in their respect. and filled with a population, ac- This last advantage is one that tive, intelligent, well informed, has resulted, in a great degree, and fearless of danger. These from the principles which have advantages are not neglected; guided our intercourse with forand an impulse has lately been eign Powers, since we have asgiven to commercial enterprise, sumed an equal station among which fills our ship yards with them: and hence, the annual acnew constructions, encourages all count which the Executive renthe arts and branches of industryders to the country, of the manconnected with them, crowds the ner in which that branch of his wharves of our cities with vessels, duties has been fulfilled, proves and covers the most distant seas instructive and salutary. with our canvass.

The pacific and wise policy


of our Government kept us in a voyages; and, in the inward, state of neutrality during the wars nearly an equal amount of Amerthat have, at different periods ican, and 20,000, only, of foreign since our political existence, been tonnage. Advantages, too, have carried on by other powers : but resulted to our agricultural interthis policy, while it gave activity ests from the state of the trade and extent to our commerce, ex- between Canada and our Terriposed it in the same proportion tories and States bordering on the to injuries from the belligerent St. Lawrence and the Lakes, nations.

Hence have arisen which may prove than claims of indemnity for those in- equivalent to the loss sustained juries. England, France, Spain, by the discrimination made to faHolland, Sweden, Denmark, Na- vor the trade of the Northern colples, and lately Portugal, had all onies with the West Indies. in a greater or less degree in- After our transition from the fringed our neutral rights. De- state of colonies to that of an inmands for reparation were made dependent nation, many points upon all. They have had in all, were found necessary to be setand continue to have in some tled between us and Great Britcases, a leading influence on the ain. Among them was the denature of our relations with the marcation of boundaries, not depowers on whom they were made. scribed with sufficient precision

Of the claims upon England it in the treaty of peace. Some of is unnecessary to speak, further the lines that divide the States than to say, that the state of things and Territories of the United to which their prosecution and States from the British provinces, denial gave rise has been suc- have been definitively fixed. That, ceeded by arrangements, produc- however, which separates us from tive of mutual good feeling and the provinces of Canada and New amicable relations between the Brunswick to the north and the two countries, which it is hoped east was still in dispute when I will not be interrupted. One of came into office. But I found these arrangements is that rela- arrangements made for its seitleting to the colonial trade, which ment, over which I had no conwas communicated to Congress trol. The commissioners who at the last session; and although had been appointed under the the short period during which it provisions of the treaty of Ghent, has been in force will not enable having been unable to agree, a me to form an accurate judgment convention was made with Great of its operation, there is every Britain by my immediate predereason to believe that it will cessor in office, with the advice prove 'highly beneficial.

The and consent of the Senate, by trade thereby authorized has em- which it was agreed that the ployed, to the 30th September points of difference which have last, upwards of 30,000 tons of arisen in the settlement of the American, and 15,000 tons of boundary line between the Amerforeign shipping in the outward ican and British dominions, as

described in the 5th article of the ican citizens, who were imprisonTreaty of Ghent, shall be refer- ed for setting up the authority of red, as therein provided, to some the State of Maine, at a place in friendly sovereign or state, who the disputed Territory under the shall be invited to investigate, and actual jurisdiction of his Britannic make a decision upon such points Majesty. From this, and the asof difference :' and the King of surances I have received, of the the Netherlands having, by the desire of the local authorities to late President, and his Britannic avoid any cause of collision, I Majesty, been designated as such bave the best hopes that a good friendly sovereign, it became my understanding will be kept up unduty to carry, with good faith, til it is confirmed by the final disthe agreement so made into full position of the subject

. effect. For this end I caused all The amicable relatious which the measures to be taken which

now subsist between the United were necessary to a full exposi- States and Great Britain, the intion of our case, to the sovereign creasing intercourse between their arbiter; and nominated as Min- citizens, and the rapid obliteration ister Plenipotentiary to his court, of unfriendly prejudices to which a distinguished citizen of the former events naturally gave rise, State most interested in the ques- concurred to present ihis as a fit tion, and who had been one of the period for renewing our endeaagents previously employed for vors to provide against the recursettling the controversy.

On the rence of causes of irritation, which, 10th day of January last, his Maj- in the event of war between esty the King of the Netherlands Great Britain and any other delivered to the Plenipotentiaries power, would inevitably endanger of the United States, and of Great our peace. Animated by the Britain, his written opinion on the sincerest desire to avoid such a case referred to him. The pa- state of things, and peacefully to pers in relation to the subject will secure, under all possible circumbe communicated by a special stances, the rights and honor of message to the proper branch of the country, I have given such inthe Government, with the perfect structions to the Minister lately confidence that its wisdom will sent to the Court of London, as adopt such measures as wil secure will evince that desire; and if an amicable seulement of the con- met by a correspondent dispositroversy, without iniringing any tion, which we cannot doubt, will constitutional right of the States put an end to causes of collision, immediately interested.

which, without advantage to It affords me satisfaction to either, tend to estrange from each inform you that suggestions, made other two nations who have every by my direction, to the Charge motive to preserve, not only peace, d'Affaires of His Britannic Maj- but an intercourse of the most amesty to this Government, have icable nature. had their desired effect in produ- Io my message at the opening cing the release of certain Amer- of the last session of Congress, I expressed a confident hope that claim for commercial privileges, the justice of our claims upon under the construction they gave France, urged as they were with to the treaty for the cession of perseverance and signal ability by Louisiana. our minister there, would finally Should this treaty receive the be acknowledged. This hope proper sanction, a source of irrihas been realized. A treaty has tation will be stopped, that has, been signed which will immedi- for so many years, in some degree ately be laid before the Senate alienated from each other two nafor its approbation ; and which, tions, who from interest, as well as containing stipulations that re- the remembrance of early associaquire legislative acts, must have tions, ought to cherish the inost the concurrence of both Houses friendly relations : an encouragebefore it can be carried into ef- ment will be given for persevefect. By the French Gov- rance in the demands of justice, by ernment engage to pay a sum this new proof, that if steadily purwhich, if not quite equal to that sued, they will be listened to: and which may be found, due to our admonition will be offered to those citizens, will yet, it is believed, Powers, if any, which may be inunder all circumstances, be deem- clined to evade then, that they ed satisfactory by those interest- will never be abandoned. Above ed. The offer of a gross sum, all, a just confidence will be ininstead of the satisfaction of each spired in our fellow citizens, that individual claim, was accepted, their Government will exert all because the only alternatives were the powers with which they have a rigorous exaction of the whole invested it, in support of their just amount stated to be due on each claims upon foreign nations; at claim, which might, in some in- the same time that the frank acstances, be exaggerated by de- knowledgment and provision for sign, in others overrated through the payment of those which were error, and which therefore it addressed to our equity, although would have been both ungracious unsupported by legal proof, afand unjust to have insisted on, or fords a practical illustration of a settlement by a mixed com- our submission to the Divine rule mission, to which the French ne- of doing to others what we degotiators were very averse, and sire they should do unto us. which experience in other cases Sweden and Denmark having had shown to be dilatory, and of- made compensation for the irregten wholly inadequate to the end. ularities committed by their vesA comparatively small sum is stip- sels, or in their ports, 10 the perulated on our part, to go to the fect satisfaction of the parties conextinction of all claims by French cerned ; and having renewed the citizens on our Government: and Treaties of Commerce entered a reduction of duties on our cot- into with them, our political and ton and their wines has been commercial relations with those agreed on, as a consideration for Powers continue to be on the the renunciation of an important most friendly footing.

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With Spain our differences, up under the same circumstances, to the 22d of February, 1819, and for the same allegations with were settled by the treaty of those of which we complain. Washington of that date ; but, at I however indulge the hope that a subsequent period, our com- further reflection will lead to othmerce with the States, formerly er views, and feel confident that colonies of Spain, on the conti- when His Catholic Majesty shall nent of America, was' annoyed be convinced of the justice of the and frequently interrupted by claim, his desire to preserve her public and private armed friendly relations between the two ships : they captured many of countries, which it is my earnest our vessels prosecuting a lawsul endeavor to maintain, will induce commerce, and sold them and him to accede to our demand. I their cargoes; and, at one time, have therefore despatched a specto our demands for restoration ial messenger with instructions to and indemnity, opposed the alle- our Minister to bring the case gation, that they were taken in once more to his consideration; the violation of a blockade of all to the end that if, which I cannot the ports of those States. This bring myself to believe, the same blockade was declaratory only, decision, that cannot but be and the inadequacy of the force to deemed an unfriendly denial of maintain it was so manifest, that this justice, should be persisted in, the allegation was varied to a charge matter may, before your adjournof trade in contraband of war. ment, be laid before you,

the conThis, in its turn, was also found stitutional judges of what is propuntenable; and the minister, whom er to be done when negotiation I sent with instructions to press for redress of injury fails. for the reparation that was due to The conclusion of a treaty for our injured fellow-ciiizens, has indemnity with France, seemed transmitted an answer to his de- to present a favorable opportunity mand, by which the captures are to renew our claims of a similar declared to have been legal, and nature on other powers; and parare justified, because the inde- ticularly in the case of those uppendence of the States of America, on Naples, more especially as in never having been acknowledg- the course of former negotiations ed by Spain, she had a right with that power, our failure to into prohibit trade with them under duce France to render us justice her old colonial laws. This was used as an argument against ground of defence was contradic- us. The desires of the mertory, not only to those which had chants, who were the principal been formerly alleged, but to the sufferers, have, therefore, been uniform practice and established acceded to, and a mission bas laws of nations, and had been been instituted for the special purabandoned by Spain herself in pose of obtaining for them a repthe convention which granted in- aration already too long delayed. demnity to British subjects for This measure having been resolvcaptures made at the same time, ed on, it was put in execution

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