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all lands lying within the States ally advancing a community of composing our Federal Union, American Indians from barbarand remove beyond their limits ism to the habits and enjoyments every Indian who is not willing of civilized life. to submit to their laws. Thus Among the happiest effects of will all conflicting claims to ju- the improved relations of our rerisdiction between the States and public, has been an increase of the Indian tribes be put to rest. trade, producing a corresponding It is pleasing to reflect that re- increase of revenue, beyond the sults so beneficial, not only to most sanguine anticipations of the the States immediately concern- Treasury Department. ed, but to the harmony of the The state of the public finanUnion, will have been accom- ces will be fully_shown by the plished by measures equally ad- Secretary of the Treasury, in the vantageous to the Indians. What report which he will presently lay the native savages become when before you. I will here however surrounded by a dense popula- congratulate you upon their prostion, and by mixing with the perous condition. The revenue whites, may be seen in the miser- received in the present year will able remnants of a few eastern not fall short of twenty-seven miltribes, deprived of political and lions seven hundred thousand dolcivil rights, forbidden to make lars; and the expenditures for all contracts and subjected to guar- objects other than the public debt, dians, dragging out a wretched ex- will not exceed fourteen millions istence, without excitement, with seven hundred thousand. The out hope, and almost without payment on account of the printhought.

cipal and interest of the debt, But the removal of the Indians during the year, will exceed sixbeyond the limits and jurisdiction teen millions and a half of dollars; of the States does not place them a greater sum than has been apbeyond the reach of philanthrop- plied to that object, out of the ic aid and Christian instruction. revenue, in any year since the On the contrary, those whom phi- enlargement of the sinking fund, lanthropy or religion may induce except the two years following to live among them in their new immediately thereafter. The abode, will be more free in the amount which will have been apexercise of their benevolent func- plied to the public debt from the tions, than if they had remained fourth of March, 1829, to the first within the limits of the States, of January next, which is less than embarrassed by their internal reg- three years since the administraulations. Now, subject to notion has been placed in my hands, control but the superintending will exceed forty millions of dolagency of the General Govern- lars. ment, exercised with the sole From the large importations of view of preserving peace, they the present year, it may be safely may proceed unmolested in the estimated that the revenue which interesting experiment of gradu- will be received into the Treasury from that source during the effect at the period when the nenext year, with the aid of that re- cessity for the revenue arising ceived from the public lands, from present rates shall cease. will considerably exceed the It is therefore desirable, that aramount of the receipts of the rangements be adopted at your present year; and it is believed present session, to relieve the peothat with the means which the ple from unnecessary taxation, afGovernment will have at its dis- ter the extinguishment of the pubposal, from various sources, which lic debt. In the exercise of that will be fully stated by the proper spirit of concession and conciliaDepartınent, the wbole of the pub- tion which has distinguished the lic debt may be extinguished, friends of our Union in all great either by redemption or purchase, emergencies, it is believed that within the four years of my ad- this object may be effected withministration. We shall then ex- out injury to any national interest. hibit the rare example of a great In my annual message of Denation, abounding in all the means cernber, 1829, I had the honor to of happiness and security, alto- recommend the adoption of a gether free from Debt

more liberal policy than that which The confidence with which the then prevailed towards unfortuextinguishment of the public debt nate debtors to the Government; may be anticipated, presents an and I deem it my duty again to opportunity for carrying into ef- invite your attention to this subsect more fully the policy in rela- ject. tion to import duties, which has Actuated by similar views, been recommended in my for- Congress, at their last session, mer messages. A modification passed an act for the relief of cera of the Tariff, which shall produce tain insolvent debtors of the Unita reduction of our revenue to the ed States ; but the provisions of wants of the Government, and an that law have not been deemed adjustment of the duties on im- such as were adequate to that reports with a view to equal justice in lief 10 this unfortunate class of relation to all our national inter- our fellow citizens, which may be ests, and to the counteraction of safely extended to them. The fereign policy, so far as it may points in which the law appears be injurious to those interests, is to be defective will be particulardeemed to be one of the princi- ly communicated by the Secretapal objects which demand the ry of the Treasury; and I take consideration of the present Con- pleasure in recommending such gress. Justice to the interests of an extension of its provisions as the merchant as well as the man- will unfetter the enterprise of a ufacturer, requires that material valuable portion of our citizens, reductions in the import duties be and restore to them the means of prospective : and unless the pres- usefulness to themselves and the ent Congress shall dispose of the community. While deliberating subject, the proposed reductions upon this subject, I would also cannot properly be made 10 take recommend to your consideration,


the propriety of so modifying the election they have had an official laws for enforcing the payment of agency, which I proposed as a debts due either to the public or substitute, I refer you to my forto individuals suing in the courts er messages. of the United States, as to re- Our system of public accounts strict the imprisonment of the is extremely complicated, and it person to cases of fraudulent con- is believed, may be much improvcealment of property. The per- ed. Much of the present masonal liberty of the citizen seems chinery, and a considerable portoo sacred to be held, as in many tion of the expenditure of public cases it now is, at the will of a money may be dispensed with, creditor to whom he is willing to while greater

facilities be afsurrender all the means he has of forded to the liquidation of claims discharging his debt.

upon the Government, and an The reports from the Secreta- examination into their justice and ries of the War and Navy De- legality, quite as efficient as the partments, and from the Post- present, secured. With a view to master General, which accompa- a general reform in the system, I ny this message, present satisfac- recommend the subject to the attory views of the operations of the tention of Congress. Departments respectively under I deem it my duty again to their charge; and suggest im- call your attention to the condiprovements which are worthy of, tion of the District of Columbia. and to which I invite the serious It was doubtless wise in the framattention of Congress. Certain ers of our Constitution, to place defects and omissions having been the people of this District under discovered in the operation of the the jurisdiction of the General laws respecting Patents, they are Government; but, to accomplish pointed out in the accompanying the objects they had in view, it is report from the Secretary of State. not necessary that this people

I have heretofore recommend should be deprived of all the prived amendments of the Federal ileges of self-government. IndeConstitution giving the election of pendently of the difficulty of inPresident and Vice President to ducing the Representatives of the people, and limiting the ser- distant States to turn their attenvice of the former to a single tion to projects of laws which are

So important do I consid- not of the highest interest to their er these changes in our funda- constituents, they are not individmental law, that I cannot, in ac- ually, nor in Congress collectivecordance with my sense of duty, ly, well qualified to legislate over

the local concerns of this District. sideration of a new Congress. Consequently, its interest are For my views more at large, as much neglected, and the people well in relation to these points as are almost afraid to present their to the disqualification of mem- grievances, lest a body, in which bers of Congress to receive an they are not represented, and office from a President in whose which feels little sympathy in their

omit to press

them upon

the con

local relations, should, in its at- to be remedied, and these States tempt to make laws for them, do placed on the same footing with more harm than good. Govern- the other members of the Union. ed by the laws of the States It was on this condition, and on whence they were severed, the this footing, that they entered the two shores of the Potomac with- Union; and they may demand in the ten miles square have dif- Circuit Courts as a matter, not of ferent penal codes: not the prese concession, but of right. I trust ent codes of Virginia and Mary- that Congress will not adjourn, land, but such as existed in those leaving this anomaly in our sysStates at the tiine of the cession tem. to the United States. As Con- Entertaining the opinions heregress will not form a new code, tofore expressed in relation to the and as the people of the District Bank of the United States, as at cannot make one for themselves, present organized, I felt it my they are virtually under two Gov- duty, in my former messages, ernments. Is it not just to allow frankly to disclose them, in order them at least a delegate in Con- that the attention of the legislagress, if not a local Legislature ture and the people should be to make laws for the District, sub- seasonably directed to that imject to the approval or rejection portant subject, and that it might of Congress? I earnestly re- be considered and finally disposed commend the extension to them of of in a manner best calculated to every political right which their promote the ends of the Constiinterests require, and which may tution and subserve the public inbe compatible with the Constitu- terests. Having thus consciention.

tiously discharged a constitutional The extension of the Judiciary duty, I deem it proper, on this system of the United States is occasion, without a more particudeemed to be one of the duties lar reference to the views of the of Government. One fourth of subject then expressed, to leave the States in the Union do not it for the present to the investiparticipate in the benefits of a gation of an enlightened people Circuit Court. To the States of and their representatives. Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Alaba- In conclusion, permit me to inma, Mississippi and Louisiana, voke that Power which superinadmitted into the Union since the tends all Governments, to infuse present Judicial system was or- into your deliberations, at this ganized, only a District Court important crisis of our history, a has been allowed. If this be spirit of mutual forbearance and sufficient, then the Circuit Courts, conciliation. In that spirit was already existing in eighteen our Union formed, and in that States, ought to be abolished: if it spirit must it be preserved. be not sufficient, the defect ought


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Message from the President of the United States, returning the

Bank bill, with his objections, &c. To the Senate.

The bill to modify and con- The present corporate body, tinue’ the act entitled “ an act denominated the president, directo incorporate the subscribers to

tors and company of the bank of the bank of the United States,' the United States, will have existwas presented to me on the 4th ed, at the time this act is intendof July instant. Having consid- ed to take effect, twenty years. ered it with that solemn regard to It enjoys an exclusive privilege the principles of the constitution of banking under the authority of which the day was calculated to the general government, a moinspire, and come to the conclu- nopoly of its favor and support, sion that it ought not to become and, as a necessary consequence, a law, I herewith return it to the almost a monopoly of the foreign senate in wbich it originated, with and domestic exchange. The my objections.

powers, privileges and favors beA bank of the United States is, stowed upon it, in the original in many respects, convenient for charter, by increasing the value the government and useful to the of the stock far above its par valpeople. Entertaining this opin- ne, operated as a gratuity of many ion, and deeply impressed with millions to the stockholders. the belief that some of the powers

An apology may be found for and privileges possessed by the the failure to guard against this existing bank are unauthorised by result, in the consideration that the the constitution, subversive of the effect of the original act of incorrights of the states, and dangerous poration could not be certainly to the liberties of the people, I foreseen at the time of its passage. felt it my duty, at an early period The act before me proposes anothof my administration, to call the er gratuity to the holders of the attention of congress to the prac- same stock, and, in many cases to ticability of organizing an institu- the same men, of at least seven tion combining all its advantages millions more. This donation and obviating these objections. I finds no apology in any uncertainsincerely regret that, in the act ty as to the effect of the act. On before me, I can perceive none of all hands it is conceded that its those modifications of the bank passage will increase at least twencharter which are necessary, in iy or thirty per cent. more, the my opinion, to make it compati- market price of the stock, subject ble with justice, with sound pol- to the payment of the annuity of icy, or with the constitution of our $200,000 per year, secured by country.

the act; thus adding, in a mo

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