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their present distressed condition,

There shall be divided among the sum of one hundred thousand the persons, who suffered in condollars shall be paid the Creek sequence of being prevented from tribe, as soon as may be after the emigrating, three thousand dolratification hereof, to be applied lars. to the payment of their just debts, The land hereby ceded shall and then to their own relief, and to remain as a fund from which all be distributed as they may direct, the foregoing payments except and which shall be in full consid- those in the ninth and tenth artieration of all improvements. cles shall be paid.

ART. 10. The sum of six- ART. 12. The United States teen thousand dollars shall be al- are desirous that the Creeks lowed as a compensation to the should remove to the country west delegation sent to this place, and of the Mississippi, and join their for the payment of their expens- countrymen there, and for this es, and of the claims against them. purpose it is agreed, that as fast

ART. 11. The following claims as the Creeks are prepared to shall be paid bythe United States. emigrate, they shall be removed

For ferries, bridges and cause- at the expense of the United ways, three thousand dollars, pro- States, and shail receive subsistvided that the same shall become ence while upon the journey, and the property of the United States. for one year after their arrival at

For the payment of certain their new homes Provided judgments obtained against the however, that this article shall not chiefs eight thousand five hundred be construed so as to compel any and seventy dollars.

Creek Indian to emigrate, but For losses for which they sup- they shall be free to go or stay, pose the United States responsi- as they please. ble seven thousand, seven hundred ART. 13. There shall also be and ten dollars.

given to each emigrating warrior For the payment of improve- a rifle, moulds, wiper and ammuments under the treaty of 1826 nition, and to each family one one thousand dollars.

blanket. Three thousand dolThe three following annuities lars, to be expended as the Presshall be paid for life.

ident may direct, shall be allowed To Tuske-hew-haw-Cusetaw for the term of twenty years for two hundred dollars.

teaching their children. As soon To the blind Uchu King one as half their people emnigrate, one hundred dollars.

blacksmith shall be allowed them, To Neah Mico one hundred and another when two-thirds emdollars.

igrate, together with one ton of There shall be paid the sum of iron and two hundred weight of fifteen dollars, for each person steel annually for each blackwho has emigrated without ex- smith. These blacksmiths shall pense to the United States, but be supported for twenty years. the whole sum allowed under this Art. 14. The Creek counprovision shall not exceed four- try west of the Mississippi shall teen hundred dollars.

be solemnly guarantied to the

Creek Indians, nor shall any State States, or Territories, and for or Territory ever have a right to their removal West of the Missispass laws for the government of sippi.' such Indians, but they shall be Art. 15. This treaty shall allowed to govern themselves, so be obligatory on the contracting far as may be compatible with the parties, as soon as the same shall general jurisdiction which Con- be ratified by the United States. gress may think proper to exer- In testimony whereof the said cise over them. And the United Lewis Cass, and the undersigned States will also defend them from Chiefs of the said tribe have herethe unjust hostilities of other In- unto set their hands at the City dians, and will also as soon as the of Washington this 24th day of boundaries of the Creek country March A. D. 1832. West of the Mississippi are ascer- Lewis Cass. tained, cause a patent or grant to Opothlebolo his x mark. be executed to the Creek tribe ; Tuchebatcheehango his x mark. agreeably to the third section of Efiematla

his x mark. the act of Congress of May 2d, Tuchebatche Micco his x mark. 1830, entitled . An act to provide Tomack Micco his x mark. for an exchange of lands with the William McGilvery his x inark. Indians residing in any of the Benjamin Marshall

Correspondence Relating to the Negotiation of the Treaty with the

Sublime Porte, &c, &c, &-c.

Mr Bradish to Mr Adams, Secre- times to contribute whatever may tary of State.

be in my power towards their Constantinople,

promotion. 20th December, 1820.) The inquiries here, in which Sır: In availing myself of the the United States are particularpermission obligingly granted me ly interested, are: by you, previous to my leaving 1st. Would the interests of Washington in April last, I can- the United States be promoted by not faller inyself with the idea a treaty of amity and commerce of adding much to the infor- with the Sublime Porte? If so, mation already possessed by you, 2d. Is the conclusion of such upon the subjects relating to the a treaty practicable? And if so, interests of the United States em- 3d. What is the most eligible braced in this communication. I mode of accomplishing this obhope, however, at least to testify ject? my attachment to those interests, After a residence of only a few and to evince my readiness at all months within the Turkish do


minions, for me to attempt even two, and a decision thereon in the to form, and more particularly to negative would supercede the neexpress an opinion on

opinion on a subject cessity of any discussion of the so important in its nature, and so two latter, I shall take the liberty extensive in its relations, as that of communicating now the result embraced in the first of the above of my observations and inquiries inquiries, would be to hazard ex- relating to the second and third treme error at least, if not the of these questions. I am the highest degree of presumption. more inclined to do this at the Sources of correct information present time, not only because I upon this interesting subject are am impressed with the idea that here few, and those difficult of the United States are already sat

Loose and vague state- isfied in the affirmative of the first ments are current in every circle, question, but also from the nature and are as various as they are of what has occurred since my generally incorrect. A few days' arrival in this place. And here, residence only, would be sufficient sir, I beg your indulgence, while to enable any person of tolerable I premise a few particulars which industry to collect these, but when relate to myself individually. embodied, they would form a ba- Upon my arrival at Gibraltar, sis too frail and uncertain upon Leghorn, Naples, Malta, Smyrna, which to rest the decision of a and this place, I found a report question so important as that un- currently circulating that the obder consideration. Upon this first ject of my visit, here was to conquestion, therefore, although include a commercial treaty beits nature preliminary to the other tween the United States and the two, I must beg leave to reserve Sublime Porte. myself until more extensive ob- some months previous to my arservation and inquiries, and better rival, had reached this place from information, shall enable me to various parts of Europe, and comcommunicate with you thereon, ing from different quarters of the in a manner, better suited to its United States. I cannot express difficulty, and more becoming its to you, sir, the painful surprise importance, than is at present in and mortification I experience at my power.

the existence of this report, and I will, however, add, that the am altogether at a loss to conjecstrong impressions in favor of the ture what can have given rise to it. affirmative of this first question, So far from having, in the slightest with which I left the United States, degree, justified such a report by have been much strengthened by any unguarded act or expression what I have myself observed, and of mine, I have uniformly observby the best information I have ed the most vigilant prudence upon been able to derive from others this subject, and have used every since

arrival here.

means in my power to suppress Notwithstanding, then, the first the report, both by expressly conof the above questions is in its tradicting it, and declaring, on all nature preliminary to the other occasions, that my objects here,

This report, as elsewhere, were merely those any department of this Governof a private individual, travelling ment, I received a message from for my own gratification and im- the Porte, inviting me to a priprovement. Even the special vate interview with the Reis Efpassports which the Government fendi, Minister of State for Forwere so obliging as to grant me eign Affairs. Although much previous to my leaving Washing- surprised at the receipt of this inton, I have avoided exhibiting to vitation, I had no hesitation in acany person whatever, except cepting it. In the result, I found Commodore Brainbridge, since I the object of the interview was to received them from yourself

, lest, inquire the disposition of the Uniwith persons unacquainted with ted States in regard to a treaty of their real nature, they should give amity and commerce with the the slightest color to the report, Porte ; and, also, their views as and contribute to its currency. to the mode of negotiating such But, notwithstanding all these a treaty. Upon both these points precautions, the report still con- much interest was evinced, and tinues to circulate. I am sorry upon the latter considerable soto be compelled, sir, thus to min- licitude, produced probably by gle my own affairs with those of a report prevailing here that the general interest. But have deem- United States contemplate need the communication of the gotiation with this Government above particulars, due to myself, through the mediation of Russia. and trust you will excuse the de- I know not upon what authority parture thereby occasioned from this report may have originated, the main subjects of my letter, to but I have strong reasons to bewhich I now gladly return. lieve that this course would be

Taking, then, the affirmative of very unacceptable to the Porte, the first question for granted, I and probably unsuccessful. Alshall proceed to communicate now though all persons connected with the result of my observations and this Government, with whom I inquiries relating to the second have conversed upon the subject, and third of the affirmative of the have, on all occasions, seemed second question. So far as it much in favor of a treaty of amity may depend upon the present and commerce with the United dispositions of the Sublime Porte, States, they have appeared equalthere can be no doubt. That ly in favor, indeed very tenacious disposition has been not only of direct negotiation. Hence, clearly indicated by many une- then, arises the third question proquivocal circumstances, but ex- posed. pressly and repeatedly declared In the few observations which I by the Government itself to me shall take the liberty of submitsince my arrival here.

Some ting to your consideration upon days after I reached this capital, this question, I have not the boldand previous to my having had ness of presuming to enlighten any communication whatever with your own or the wisdom of our Government; and trust this will * ***** *, in the negotianot be considered by either as an tion of a treaty of amity and comattempt 10 instruct the latter in merce with the Sublime Porte. the most eligible mode of conduct- During this period of four years, ing its negotiations, but as the this illustrious and very disinterhumble endeavors of an individ- ested mediator has gone on neual, by communicating such in- gotiating and Aattering; and its formation as circumstances and employer paying and hoping, till his peculiar situation have put at length, finding its funds and in his possession, 10 discharge patience nearly exhausted, it has the duty incumbent on every cit- wisely come to the decision, it izen of the United States to con- ought at first to have adopted, of tribute whatever may be in bis taking its own affairs into its own power, however little that may hands; and it has now a prosbe, towards the promotion of the pect of having them concluded. interests of his country:

If, therefore, the objections to diFrom all I have observed of rect negotiations are many in the this Government and people, I outset, for the future, they are am well convinced that the suc- more numerous and much strongcess of any overtures the United er. Both desire considerable adStates may hereafier make to the ditional force from the peculiar Sublime Porte, will depend much circumstances of the present moupon the manner in which the Portement. Such is at present the is in the first instance approach- posture of the relations of most of ed. It has heretofore been usual the nations of Europe with the for individuals and nations in their Porte; such the character of this first applications to the sublime Government and people; and Porte, to approach it under the such the extreme jealousy enterauspices, and through the media- tained by them towards the great tion of some intermediate power European powers generally, and already baving friendly relations particularly Russia, that any apwith it. To this mode there are proach made to them by the Unimany objections, some in their ted States, through any interinenature general, and many pecu- diate powers, and especially the liar as they regard the United latter, would, I am thoroughly States. It would be much more convinced, so far identify the difficult, expensive, and less suc- United States with such power, as cessful, in the first place, than di- to draw upon them a participation rect negotiation. But what is in the jealousies entertained tomore important, it would be attend- wards it, and subject them to all ed with many future disadvantages. the prejudices and disadvantages If a case in proof of the first posi- arising therefrom. Any unfavortion were necessary, among many able change in the relations of similar, one is furnished by recent such power with the Porte, would experience here. The King of extend to, and prejudice those Sardinia, about four years since, of the United States, established employed the mediation of * * * through its mediation. In the

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