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print of respectable publishing houses, has the DIETETIC AND Hygienic GAZETTE has borne its part, and the detestable ‘sociologi- worked, mostly as a gleaner. It is a most cal conferences, attended by the young and congenial field; and we look forward with old of both sexes, have done more than the the utmost gratification to continue workworst plays to break down the barriers of ing in it; to be as useful as we can in it; restraint and destroy good manners.” and with the hope that when our mantle
The field of preventive medicine is in- must, in the course of inexorable nature, be deed vast, constantly widening, and most transferred to others' shoulders, we shall fruitful; in it, through thirty years past, not be deemed to have worn it unworthily.
FULL TIME PROFESSORS.
The General Education Board has, by its Barker. It has not yet become fully known gift of $1,500,000 to the Johns Hopkins whether these physicians will feel themUniversity Medical School, enabled that in- selves able to go on a full term basis. It is stitution to work a now long cherished re- thought the salaries will be between ten and form in the organization and teaching of fifteen thousand dollars. But that is not the main clinical branches in this institution. now considered the main point. Dr. Welch The fund is to be nanied the William H. is reported as saying: “We don't want men Welch Endowment for Clinical Education who are thinking of salaries only; we want and Research in honor of its professor of men who will be willing to make sacrifices pathology; and the trustees of that Univer- for research.” Of course the services of sity are: unrestricted in the application of such men as Dr. John Miller Turpin Finney, the income. Hopkins will now be able to Dr. Howard A. Kelly and Dr. Joseph C. reorganize its departments of medicine, sur- Bloodgood will in any event be retained; gery and pediatrics so that the professors they will continue with the Medical School and their chief assistants will receive ade- as at present. They may be eventually ofquate salaries and will be relieved of the fered positions under this plan; but, if they necessity of practicing privately; they will should not accept, other men in their departgive their whole time to education and re- ments will be made full time assistants, and search. Should the plan work well it will will devote themselves exclusively to the be extended to the departments of physiol- University. Of course, the full time profesogy, anatomy, pharmacology and pathology. sors will be unrestricted in seeing private And here, surely, regarding the latter sub- patients, but their work will be done in the jects, were a consummation devoutly to be hospital; and professional fees for such wished; for the work in them is peculiarly services will go to the University to further con amore, work to which private practice is teaching and research. For the present at not likely to be so adjuvant as in the depart least there will still be room and need in the ments of medicine, surgery and pediatrics. Medical School and Hospital for teachers
There have heretofore been very few and physicians who are partly engaged in "full time professors" in medical education. private practice. The teaching of the speThe pediatrics department, of which the cialties is not affected by the new plan. The head is Dr. John Howland, will be the first influence of the full time system as applied to be effected. Next will probably come to the other departments, however, cannot surgery, under Dr. William S. Halstead; fail to be beneficial upon the whole Medical and then medicine, under Dr. Lewellys F. School and its organization.”
MEDICINE HATH HER VICTORIES. The Rockefeller Institute for Medical agencies)-Noguchi discovered the germ Research has, in its brief existence of scarce responsible for the development of rabies a decade, and from its beginning under the or hydrophobia, by which discovery this Directorship of Dr. Simon Flexner, given dreadful disease will henceforth without to the world work extraordinarily fruitful. peradventure be recognized and by which a Within its walls has Dr. Flexner perfected curative agency may be evolved. (The Pasa serum curative of cerebrospinal meningi- teur inoculations against rabies are a most tis, one of the most dreadful and fatal of effective immunizing agent, but they are diseases affecting humankind, especially powerless when the disease is once establittle children. Dr. Meltzer, among much lished; how earnestly is then a cure to be else that is superb, has developed the intra- hoped for, since hydrophobia, the sufferings tracheal insufflation by which are resusci- from which are exceeded in no other distated those seemingly dead for hours, from ease, has when once established in the sysdrowning or from noxious fumes. Dr. Car- tem, a mortality of one hundred per cent.) rel, (a Nobel prize winner) has not only And now, a month after the announcements maintained life in vital tissues (as the heart of Carrel and Noguchi, comes another epoand the kidney) many months after its re- chal one, that of Flexner and Noguchi's moval from the body; but in September last demonstration of the essential germ of inhe published his demonstration of cellular fantile paralysis (epidemic poliomyelitis), growth and multiplication apart from its the acute infection from which children if organism, a work pregnant with possibili- they do not die, are nevertheless like to grow ties for the repair of tissues and organs by to maturity with groups of muscles irreparsurgical procedures. At the same time Dr. ably flaccid or with entire limbs wasted or Hideyo Noguchi (to whose credit is much functionless; by this discovery again, will other notable work--as the assistance he infantile paralysis be diagnosed beyond ergave Dr. Ehrlich in the preparation of sal- ror, and a curative serum confidently hoped varsan, one of the several surest of curative for.
WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN COTTON MILLS.
DR. ARTHUR H. Perry studied the Causes entire operative population—whilst within of Death Among Women and Child Cotton its limits are 76 per cent of the entire numMill Operatives, and gave his results in Vol. ber of tuberculosis deaths from ten years of 14 of Senate Document No. 645 of the Sec- age on, 73 per cent. of the whole operative ond Session of the Sixty-first Congress. In mortality from all causes, and 91 per cent. his investigation he employed the “death of the entire operative mortality from tuberrate method": and he formed a comparison culosis. Cotton mill work, studied beof the mortality of employees in the three cause it engages more women and children great cotton mill centres of the East (Fall than any other industry, exhibits a deplorRiver, Mass., Manchester, N. H., and Paw- ably high female death rate, and, more fretucket, R. I.). with the mortality prevailing quently perhaps than any other industry, in similar age and sex conditions outside that compels its workers to inhale irritant vegeindustry. He chose the age period 15-44 table dust—which is peculiarly conducive, in years, because it represents full industrial the overworked and the underfed, to tuberactivity when the death rate would normally culosis. And tuberculosis (consumption) be low; represents one-half the entire popu- was selected for study because it is the most lation, thus giving a very wide range of prevalent ultimate or immediate cause of study; and comprises 85 per cent. of the death within the 15-44 age period. Dr. Perry's job was a pretty thorough one, all from tuberculosis. The further conclusion explained in a most interesting volume of looks as if it were justified, that whilst there 430 pages; and humanitarians, sanitarians has long been a suspicion that a cotton mill and some real statesmen are thinking hard is hardly the health resort some mill owners over certain points this doctor has pretty would claim it to be, Dr. Perry's Report well clinched, as: The death rates of male demonstrates such working places might non-operatives exceeds those of female non- more justly be called death resorts. And operatives by 22 per cent.; but the death this Report all the more abundantly justifies rates of female operatives exceeds those of satisfaction in the coming reduction of our male operatives by 33 per cent., despite the tariff, an institution fulsomely held through former averaging younger. Again : Female so many dreary years to exist fundamentally operatives have a death rate of more than for the fostering of the physical and matetwice that of non-operatives of their own rial welfare of the working people; but sex, in some age and race groups many times which, by increasing enormously the cost as high, in the years from 35 to 44 five times of the things which the poor must buy, as high. And Dr. Perry's conclusion is that whilst pari passu building up vast individual operative work is prejudicial to the health of fortunes, has become in New England, as in females; that the combination of operative Pittsburgh and elsewhere, where protection work with matrimony is especially harmful; has so conspicuously demonstrated its blessand that, whilst the general hazard of the ings, an instrument conducive in reality to female operative is greater than that of the human distress and undoing, and to death non-operative, the former is in most danger long before the term natural to humankind.
THE PESSIMIST AND LIFE EXPECTANCY.
In the Life Table for New York City re- savagery as the ideal human state, and that cently issued by its Department of Health, the wille zum guten, altruism, Christianity it was shown that, whilst life expectancy itself have been and are colossal errors. for infancy and childhood has greatly in
But who are the fit, anyway? Only those creased, that for after forty has dimin- physically so? Is the spiritual in existence ished, as compared with the calculations
to be ignored ? Such were indeed a wo
fully lopsided philosophy. Many a useful issued by Dr. Billings in 1883. This has
man (the biographical dictionaries teem moved the “knocker" to observe that we
with the names of them) has been unnow save our young people from tubercu- healthily born and has had his infant life losis in order that they may die after forty hanging many days by a thread, until the from the degenerative diseases; further- scale has turned existenceward, with remore, that the humanitarian is mistaken in sults vastly profitable and beneficial to his his now eminently successful efforts to pro- kind. The life expectancy of such an one long the lives of human weaklings beyond may not have been worth any “practical infancy, because the latter's below-par man” taking a flyer in him. He may never bodies will later become unable to resist have seen anywhere near forty. But in his the pathological processes that begin brief span he has ineffably and most commanifest themselves after two score—the fortingly impressed himself upon his day terminal diseases resulting from the fail- and generation. Hundreds of the world's ure of important organs (especially in geniuses and compellers have died before those thus predisposed) to maintain their thirty-five of the one disease, tuberculosis. efficiency. The answer to this survival of For us certainly it was good that they lived the fittest claim is, obviously enough, that at least the half of three score and ten. if there is to be no tender solicitude for the Manifestly, length of days is not as imporafflicted child we must logically go back to tant as how they have been lived.
INSPIRED GENIUS AND ITS WAYS OF WORKING.
A GREAT sculptor once had his soul so against the loveliest scenery in the world, saturated with wonderful sunset-its so swift and sure her course along her softness, its calm, its quiescent and grad- noblest river, dashing the rainbowed spray ual change of coloring and its peace-suf- from her bow, so benignant her existence, fusing quality—that he wanted to portray that these fifty years past people have never it; but he was no painter. So instead he tired admiring her, ‘many an eye has wrought in marble a little child asleep; and
danced to see her flag in the breeze; this he did so successfully that people con
many a heart has throbbed at her passing,
and from first to last men have called her, templating the equanimity and trustfulness in its infant countenance, the stone that perfectly comprehending her designer's inin its infant countenance, the stone that spiration, The Queen of the Hudson. So seemed almost to be respiring, declared
from the beginning of the race have superb that it put them in mind of a sunset and women moved men to glorious works; and were bettered accordingly. So also Har
never has such admiration been more justiper's Weekly relates how "fifty years ago fied than when translated into utilitarian a boat builder (this is imagined for the achievements. The Mary Powell is going facts are not known nor do they in the to the scrap heap! That is what it really least matter, since they have nothing at amounts to, though her owners are trying all to do with the case') was profoundly to break it gently to the many thousands moved by a queenly, a soul compelling, and who love her and cherish memories of a good-diffusing woman; but he was no those with whom they spent hours on their poet and could not manifest his devotion runs. 'She will make occasion trips.' This, in rhyme and rhythm. Yet his imperative any discerning person can see, is but softambition was to interpret his inspiration ening the blow. Soon she will pass away into something that might in turn benefit along with such gray heads as began their the world. So he built a poem: he design- wedding trips on the sympathetic decks. ed a most beautiful white vessel with ex- But that is the appointed course for beauquisitely graceful lines; and he named her tiful women and devoted men, and wonderthe Mary Powell. And so transcendently fashioned vessels, as well as for all and delightful was that vessel, when outlined everything else in the cosmos."
COLONEL GORGAS TO SOUTH AFRICA.
DR. GORGAS, who has transformed the Probably many of these cases of pneuIsthmus of Panama from one of the most monia are preceded by grippe, one of the pestilent regions in the world, to one of the
most contagious of known diseases, in itself most salubrious, now vying with Palm
not serious, seldom fatal, but having oftenBeach as a health resort, is on his way to
times grave sequelae. The mine workers The Rand with the consent and approval of our War Department. The management of
whose sufferings Gorgas hopes to--and certhe Rand gold mines have asked him to deal tainly will—relieve are negroes, native Kafwith the diseases, especially pneumonia and firs, a race very susceptible to grippe and grippe, that are gravely affecting their em- pneumonia. ployees. Pneumonia has during the last
In Panama Gorgas had, in the beginning few years caused great mortality among of his work, a very similar problem to deal these inen, epidemics quickly succeeding one with. Deaths from pneumonia ran up to another. Dr. Gorgas expects to find out the 15 in the thousand of population annually. causes of the epidemics and then to lay Here again the initial disease was influenza, plans for stamping them out.
pneumonia being the sequel. The negroes
who were employed as laborers were fetch- tion such as has been accomplished so much ed by thousands from Jamaica and other in the Canal Zone. West India Islands, and had theretofore
The Kaffirs, it seems, live in compounds never known grippe nor been exposed to it; --quadrangles of buildings, resembling in the natural history of infection they were
somewhat city blocks and surrounded each thus extraordinarily subject to its contagion by a courtyard, such as in tropical America
would be called a "patio." The buildings --they had a low relative immunity to it.
on the four sides of the courtyards are barOn the Isthmus they met sufferers from the racks, used for sleeping and other living United States or elsewhere, and thus epi- purposes; the cooking is done outdoors on demics quickly took place. Besides, ninety the ground, beneath slanting shed-like roofs, per cent. were then quartered in barracks that project from the walls of the buildings (now but ten per cent are thus housed); on their inward sides. Here then, are conthus grippe spread rapidly. Later the ne- ditions practically akin to those which forgroes took up quarters outside barracks, had merly obtained in our Canal Zone, and very their families come from their native is inviting to grippe and pneumonia epidemics; lands, and thus provided a fresh stock of if at frequent intervals fresh supplies of imnon-immunes to invite further mischief.
munes are introduced from various tribes,
a situation is created accounting fully for The Canal Zone folk have, however, since
the pneumonia death rate which has occabecome more or less, by acquired immunity, sioned such consternation in the Witwatersinfluenza-proof, and suffer now not much
rand. worse than in any American community. Influenza is now no more troublesome in
Possibly the state of affairs in the Wit- Panama than anywhere else, as has been watersrand, which Gorgas will visit, is akin stated; nor has there been yellow fever in to that which formerly existed in Panama. that region since 1906; there is some maIf the labor supply has been maintained by laria left, but not much. Grippe could be recruiting fresh batches of Kaffirs from abolished entirely in the Canal Zone, as elsevarious tribes that have not been previously where if people could only be convinced that exposed to grippe, the disease would spring it is worth while to take the necessary rapidly among them, with pneumonia as a trouble; simply by isolating the grippe sufsequel in many cases. The remedy would ferers, as is done with smallpox cases and lie in avoiding in the future, as far as pos- as ought to be done with measles cases. sible, such practices. Gorgas will make a With the possible exception of dengue there general sanitary survey of the mine dis- is no disease in the tropics which attacks so tricts. It is an elevated region, probably many people as grippe; Gorgas will assurnot malarious to any degree. Presumably edly reduce the latter's incidence and, if he there is more or less typhoid, as anywhere is properly "backed up," banish it from the else in the world. Our great sanitarian will Rand, with its so often fatal sequel, pneucertainly get established a regular organiza- monia.
BATHING AND HEALTH.
In our present and several succeeding is- GAZETTE the first paper on A Public Bath, sues appears and will appear, by official ar- with plans, published in this country. rangement, the transactions of the recent
We are confident our readers will find
the Association's proceedings interesting meetings of the Association for the promo- and most profitable. They will certainly tion of Hygiene and Public Baths. It is be to all not suffering from an incurable wholly fitting that the authoritative delibera- aquaphobia; even that individual may see a tions of the workers in these important light who, in overweening pride, boasted he fields, of hygiene and balneology, should bathed regularly, every Fourth of July, be co-ordinated in The GAZETTE, which has "whether he needed it or not.” May these through three decades occupied them. In- transactions serve to hasten the day when deed, Dr. Simon Baruch, the Association's the public bath will be as essential to AmeriPresident and a laborer for many years in can civilization as it was to that of Rome behalf of hydrotherapy, gave to The or of Greece.