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as you have books for good manners :' I will name you the degrees. The first, the Retort courteous; the second, the Quip modest; the third, the Reply

(or the lie circumstantial.] V. Of the Lie in general. VI. Of the Lie in particular. VII. Of foolish Lies. VIII. A Conclusion touching the wresting or returning back of the Lie, [or the countercheck quarrelsome.) In the chapter of conditional Lies, speaking of the particle if, he says, “ -Conditional lies be such as are given conditionally, as if a man should say or write these wordes :—if thou hast said that I have offered my lord abuse, thou liest; or if thou sayest so hereafter, thou shalt lie. Of these kind of lies, given in this manner, often arise much contention in wordes,—whereof no sure conclusion can arise.” By which he means, they cannot proceed to cut one another's throat, while there is an if between. Which is the reason of Shakspeare making the Clown say, “ I knew when seven justices could not make up a quarrel : but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an if; as, if you

said so, then I said so, and they shook hands, and swore brothers. Your if is the only peace-maker; much virtue in if.” Caranza was another of these authentick authors

upon

the Duello. Fletcher, in his last Act of Love's Pilgrimage, ridicules him with much humour. WARBURTON.

The words which I have included within crotchets are Dr. Warburton's. They have hitherto been printed in such a manner as might lead the reader to suppose that they made a part of Saviolo's work. The passage was very inaccurately printed by Dr. Warburton in other respects, but has here been corrected by the original. MALONE.

- books for good manners :] One of these books I have. It is entitled, The Boke of Nurture, or Schole of good Manners, for Men, Servants, and Children, with stans puer ad mensam ; 12mo. black letter, without date. It was written by Hugh Rhodes, a gentleman, or musician, of the Chapel Royal ; and was first published in 4to. in the reign of King Edward VI.

STEEVENS. Another is, Galateo of Maister John Casa, Archbishop of Benevento; or rather, a Treatise of the Manners and Beħaviours it behoveth a Man to use and eschewe in his familiar Conversation. A Work very necessary and profitable for all Gentlemen or other; translated from the Italian, by Robert Peterson, of Lincoln's Inn, 4to. 1576. REED.

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churlish; the fourth, the Reproof valiant; the fifth, the Countercheck quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lie with circumstance; the seventh, the Lie direct. All these you may avoid, but the lie direct; and you may avoid that too, with an If. I knew when seven justices could not take up a quarrel; but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an If, as, If you said so, then I said so; and they shook hands, and swore brothers. Your If is the only peace-maker; much virtue in If. JAQ. Is not this a rare fellow, my

are fellow, my lord? he's as good at any thing, and yet a fool.

DUKE S. He uses his folly like a stalking-horse, and ụnder the presentation of that, he shoots his wit.

Enter HYMEN, leading ROSALIND in woman's

clothes; and CELIA.

Still Musick.

Hym. Then is there mirth in heaven,

When earthly things made even

Atone together.
Good duke, receive thy daughter,
Hymen from heaven brought her,

Yea, brought her hither;
That thou might'st join her hand with his,
Whose heart within her bosom is.

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like a stalking-horse,] See my note on Much Ado about Nothing, Act II. sc. iii. STEEVENS.

3 Enter Hymen,] Rosalind is imagined by the rest of the

Ros. To you I give myself, for I am yours.

[To Duke S.

company to be brought by enchantment, and is therefore introduced by a supposed aerial being in the character of Hymen.

Johnson. In all the allegorical shows exhibited at ancient weddings, Hymen was a constant personage. Ben Jonson, in his Hymenæi, or the Solemnities of Masque and Barriers, at a Marriage, has left instructions how to dress this favourite character.

« On the other hand entered Hymen, the god of marriage, in a saffroncoloured robe, his under vestures white, his sockes yellow, a yellow veile of silke on his left arme, his head crowned with roses and marjoram, in his right hand a torch." STEVENS. * That thou might'st join her hand with his,

Whose heart within her bosom is.] The old copy, instead of her, reads his in both lines. Mr. Rowe corrected the first, and I once thought that emendation sufficient, and that whose might have referred not to the last antecedent his, but to her, i. e. Rosalind. Our author frequently takes such licences. But on further consideration it appears to me probable, that the same abbreviation was used in both lines, and that as his was certainly a misprint in the first line for her, so it also was in the second, the construction being so much more easy in that way than the other. “ That thou might’st join her hand with the hand of him whose heart is lodged in her bosom,” i. e. whose affection she already possesses. So, in Love's Labour's Lost, the King says to the Princess :

6. Hence ever then heart is in thy breast.Again, in our author's Venus and Adonis :

“ Bids him farewell, and look well to her heart,
“ The which, by Cupid's bow she doth protest,

“ He carried thence incaged in his breast.Again, in King Richard III:

“ Even so thy breast incloseth my poor heart.” Again, in Romeus and Juliet, 1562: “ Thy heart thou leav'st with her, when thou dost hence

depart, “ And in thy breast inclosed bear'st her tender friendly

heart." In the same play we meet with the error that has happened here. The Princess addressing the ladies who attend her, says :

“ But while 'tis spoke, each turn away his face.” Again, in a former scene of the play before us :

“ Helen's cheek, but not his heart.” MALONE.

ту

To you I give myself, for I am yours.

[To ORLANDO. DUKE S. If there be truth in sight, you are my

daughter. Orl. If there be truth in sight, you are my

Rosalind.
PhE. If sight and shape be true,
Why then,—my love adieu!
Ros. I'll have no father, if you be not he:-

[To Duke S. I'll have no husband, if you be not he:

[To ORLANDO. Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not she.

[To PHEBE. HYM. Peace, ho! I bar confusion :

'Tis I must make conclusion

Of these most strange events:
Here's eight that must take hands,
To join in Hymen's bands,

If truth holds true contents.
You and you no cross shall part:

[To ORLANDO and ROSALIND. You and you are heart in heart:

[TO OLIVER and CELIA. You [To Puebe] to his love must accord, Or have a woman to your lord:

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If there be truth in sight,] The answer of Phebe makes it probable that Orlando says:

If there be truth in shape : that is, if a form may be trusted ; if one cannot usurp the form of another. JOHNSON.

If truth holds true contents.] That is, if there be truth in truth, unless truth fails of veracity. JOHNSON.

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You and you are sure together,

[To TOUCHSTONE and AUDREY.
As the winter to foul weather.
Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing,
Feed yourselves with questioning;
That reason wonder may diminish,
How thus we met, and these things finish.

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SONG.

8

Wedding is great Juno's crown;

O blessed bond of board and bed!
'Tis Hymen peoples every town;

High wedlock then be honoured:
Honour, high honour and renown,
To Hymen, god of every town!

DUKE S. O my dear niece, welcome thou art

to me;

Even daughter, welcome in no less degree.

PHE. I will not eat my word, now thou art mine; Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine.'

[To Silvius.

1-with questioning ;] Though Shakspeare frequently uses question for conversation, in the present instance questioning may have its common and obvious signification. STEEVENS.

* Wedding is &c.] Catullus, addressing himself to Hymen, has this stanza:

Quæ tuis careat sacris,
Non queat dare præsides
Terra finibus : at queat
Te volente. Quis huic deo
Compararier ausit? Johnson.

combine.] Shakspeare is licentious in his use of this

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