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anti-extension idea is merged in that of abolition. Accordingly we find, notwithstanding the denial by the Republican party of any purpose to interfere with slavery where it exists, that the tendency of its policy is to its extermination everywhere.

“ The logical consequences of their teachings have been exhibited in the recent raid at Harper's Ferry ; and so long as that party maintains its present sectional organisation, and inculcates its present doctrines, the South can expect nothing less than a succession of such traitorous attempts to subvert its institutions and to incite its slaves to rapine and murder. The crimes of John Brown were neither more nor less than practical illustrations of the doctrines of the leaders of the Republican party. The very existence of such a party is an offence to the whole South.

“ Your committee have no appeals or remonstrances to address to their fellow-citizens of the North. They doubtless comprehend their obligations under the Constitution to the people of the South. If they shall in future show a readiness to fulfil those obligations, Virginia and the other Southern States are prepared to bury the past in oblivion, and to respond with cordiality to every manifestation of a returning spirit of fraternity. As Virginia was among the foremost in the struggle for national independence, and contributed as much as any other State to the formation of the Constitutional Union, she would be among the last to abandon it, provided its obligations be faithfully observed. Her sons having been educated to cherish “a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to our national Union -accustomed to think and to speak of it as the palladium of their political safety and prosperity, watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety, discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it may in any event be abandoned, and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.'

“But the Union which they have been taught to love and revere is the Union contemplated by the Constitution — a Union of communities having equal rights — a Union regulated and governed by the principles of the Constitution —a Union of sovereign States, entitled to regulate their domestic affairs in their own way, and bound to fulfil their obligations to each other with scrupulous fidelity. When it shall cease to be such a Union, it will have forfeited all claims to their respect and affection. Virginia feels that she has discharged her wholy duty to her sister States, and she asks nothing from them that is not guaranteed to her by the plain terms of the federal compact. She has not sought officiously to intermeddle with the domestic concerns of other States, and she demands that they shall refrain from all interference with hers.

“But it is clear, from the review of the condition of the public sentiment of the Northern States for the last five years, as indicated by their legislation and in other authentic forms, that many of their people have ceased to respect the rights of the Southern States, to recognise

the obligations of the federal compact, or to cherish for us those friendly sentiments which gave birth to the Constitution of the United States. A proper sense of self-respect and the instinct of preservation, therefore, require that we should adopt such measures as may be necessary to secure ourselves against future aggression, and to meet every emergency which may hereafter arise. We desire nothing but friendly relations with our sister states of the North. We ask of them nothing to which they have not solemnly bound themselves by the compact of the Constitution. But we understand our rights, and we are resolutely determined to maintain them. We disclaim all aggressive purposes. But when we are threatened with the knife of the assassin and torch of the incendiary, we cannot fold our arms in blind security. We have no desire to rupture the political, commercial, or social ties which bind us to the North, so long as our rights are respected; but, admonished by the past, it is our duty to prepare for the future by placing ourselves in an attitude of defence, and by adopting such measures as may be necessary for our security and welfare.”



Summary of Jefferson Davis' Address, June 21, 1861.

“ The aggressive movements of the enemy have induced prompt and energetic action. The accumulation of the enemy's forces on the Potomac has been sufficiently demonstrative that his efforts are directed against Virginia, and from no point could the necessary measures for her protection be so efficiently directed as from our capital. The rapid progress of the last few months has stripped the veil behind which the true policy and purposes of Mr. Lincoln's Government had been previously concealed, and they are now fully revealed. The message of their President, the action of their Congress during its present session, confess the intention of subjugating the seceded States by war, a folly which is only equalled by its wickedness — a war by which it is impossible to attain the proposed result. While its dire calamities cannot be avoided by us, they will fall with redoubled severity on themselves.

“ Commencing in March last with an affectation of ignorance of the secession of the seven States which organised the Confederate Government ; persisting in April in absurd assumptions of the existence of a riot which was to be dispersed by a posse comitatus ; con

tinuing in successive months false representations that the States intended offensive war, in spite of conclusive evidence to the contrary, furnished as well by official action as by the basis of the Constitution, the President of the United States succeeded in deluding the people of those States into the belief that the purpose of this Government was not peace at home, but conquest abroad; not the defence of their liberties, but the subjugation of the people of the United States.

“ The series of maneuvres by which the impression was created, the acts by which they were devised, and the perfidy by which they were executed, are already known. Could it be supposed they would make openly their success a subject of boast and self-laudation in the Executive Message?

“ Fortunately for truth, Mr. Lincoln's Message minutely details the attempt to reinforce Fort Sumpter in violation of the armistice, of which he confesses to have been informed only by rumour too vague and uncertain to create any attention. Hostile attempts to supply Fort Sumpter are admitted to have been undertaken with a knowledge that their success was impossible. The sending a notice to the Governor of South Carolina of the intended ruse for the accomplishment of this object, and, quoting from the inaugural, that there would be no conflict unless these States were the aggressors, and proceeding to declare that his conduct, as in the past will be for the future, was in performance of this promise, which could not be misunderstood. In defiance of our statement that he gave notice of the approach of a

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