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as good, has been grown, as a sample article, in Australia. But of this denomination of cotton the consumption is very small. Another species, long, strong, fine, and yellowish, is grown in Egypt, and imported in considerable quantities. An inferior quality, coarse, harsh, bright in colour, but strong, is imported from Brazil, and a very small quantity from the West Indies. Doubtless if the price were adequate, and the demand here very great and steady, the supply from many of these quarters might be largely augmented. But it is not of this sort that we need any considerable increase, nor could we afford the price which probably alone would remunerate the grower.
“2. Our great consumption and demand is for the soft, white, silky, moderately long cotton of America, the quality usually called “Uplands, * Bowed Georgia,' and · New Orleans.' This used to be sold at prices varying from 3d. to 6d. per pound (it is now from 6d. to 8d.); it can be consumed in any quantity, for it is available, not only for weft, but for warp, except for the finer numbers. We need and consume nine bags of this cotton for one bag of all other qualities put together.
“ 3. It is the insufficient supply or the higher price of this cotton that has driven our manufac
turers upon the short-stapled native article of India, commonly called Surat. If the price of the two were equal, scarcely a bag of Surat would be employed. When the price of American cotton rises, owing to an inadequate supply, that of East India cotton follows it at a considerable interval — the usual ratio being two to three — and the import of the latter is greatly stimulated. It is always grown in India in large quantities, and with improved means of communication, and more careful preparation, might be supplied in time in indefinite and probably ample quantities. But it is its quality that is in fault; and as far as the past is a guide, it would seem incurably in fault. Many attempts to amend the character of this cotton have been made: American planters and American saw-gins' have been sent over, and American seed has been planted, and the result has been a sensible amelioration in cleanliness and colour, and some slight increase in length of fibre, but scarcely any change in specific character. The dry, fuzzy, woolly characteristics remain. Sometimes the first year's samples nearly resemble the American article, but the resemblance never becomes permanent. Hitherto (we believe we are correct in stating), either from the peculiarity of the soil or of the climate, or as some say, from adulteration by the air-borne pollen of the inferior native plant, the improved and altered character of the cotton has never been kept up.
“We are far from saying that this difficulty may not be overcome, and American cotton be naturalised in our East Indian possessions; but certainly the results of our past efforts have not been of favourable augury. So far as our own observation and experience have gone, only from two other parts of the world have we seen samples of cotton analogous in character to that of the United States, and equally available for our purposes: one of these was the west coast of Africa, where we understand there is a considerable native growth, which doubtless our commerce might encourage and increase; the other is the opposite side of the continent, where Port Natal has exported some very hopeful samples, soft and silky, but not clean, nor of a very good colour, but still decidedly American in quality.
“ The point we have to bear in mind then, is this: our desideratum is not simply more cotton, but more cotton of the same character and price as that now imported from the States. If India were to send us two millions of bales of Surat cotton per annum, the desideratum would not be supplied, and our perilous problem would be still involved. We should be almost as dependent on America as ever.”*
The “ London Cotton Supply Reporter” of Feb. 3rd, remarks:
“ Upwards of 500,000 workers are now employed in our cotton factories, and it has been estimated that at least 4,000,000 persons in the country are dependent upon the cotton trade for subsistence. A century ago Lancashire contained a population of only 300,000 persons; it now numbers 2,300,000. In the same period of time, this enormous increase exceeds that on any other equal surface of the globe, and is entirely owing to the development of the cotton trade. In 1856 there were in the United Kingdom 2210 factories, running 28,000,000 spindles, and 209,000 looms, by 97,000 horse power. Since that period a considerable number of new mills have been erected, and extensive additions have been made to the spinning and weaving machinery of those previously in existence.
“ The amount of actual capital invested in the cotton trade of this kingdom is estimated to be between £60,000,000 and £70,000,000 sterling.
“ The quantity of cotton imported into this
* J. B. Smith, Esq., M.P. for Stockport. Paper in the Journal of the Society of Arts.
country in 1859 was 1,181,750,000 lbs. weight, the value of which at 6d. per pound is equal to £30,000,000 sterling; but of 2,829,110 bales of cotton imported into Great Britain, America has supplied us with 2,086,341 — that is, 5-7ths of the whole. In other words, out of every 7 lbs. imported from all countries into Great Britain, America has supplied 5 lbs.; India has sent us about 500,000 bales; Egypt about 100,000 ; South America 124,000; and other countries between 8000 and 9000 bales. In 1859 the total value of the exports from Great Britain amounted to £130,513,185, of which £47,020,920 consisted of cotton goods and yarns. Thus more than one-third, or £1 out of every £3 of our entire exports consists of cotton. Add to this the proportion of cotton which forms part of £12,000,000 more exported in the shape of mixed woollens, baberdashery, millinery, silks, apparel, and slops. Great Britain alone consumes annually £24,000,000 worth of cotton goods. Two conclusions, therefore, may safely be drawn from the facts and figures now cited: first, that the interests of every cotton worker are bound up with a gigantic trade which keeps in motion an enormous mass of capital, and this capital, machinery, and labour depend for 5-7ths of its employment upon the