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majesty, that there are three cases in which it is right and good to tell a lie; in the treachery which they make use of in war, in the promises made to a wife, and in making peace among men.” In Haq ul Yaqin, leaf 240, is said, “Takia in the land of Takia” is obligatory. An oath, sworn for Takia and to escape oppression, is no sin, nor is any atonement required for it.” And at another place of the same book (leaf 261) it is mentioned, “False witness on account of Takia is

allowed in case it should not occasion the death of a person ; and a false oath to remove oppression from one’s self or from any other of the believers is lawful. In both these cases it is necessary to use as much dissimulation as possible. And

Takia is allowed even in speaking blasphemous words, as

Aaman did, and the Almighty made known his excuse in the

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That evil thoughts are not counted sin is mentioned at large

in the following tradition; where is said: “It is related that

his majesty Muhammad said: when a believer, a Banda, forms the intention of doing a good work, although he may not do

it, God still writes down for it one good work in the book of his good works. And if he forms the intention of doing a sin, but does not actually do it, he does not write down any thing against him. And when he executes his evil intention, they give him time seven hours : and the angel of his right side, who is the recorder of his good works, says to the angel of the left sidef, who is the recorder of his evil deeds, do not be hasty in writing it down, peradventure he may do a good work which will blot out this sin.” (Ain ul Hayāt, leaf 80.) And at another place, where the circumstance of Muhammad’s begging God to reduce the number of prayers is related, it is thus written: (God speaking to Muhammad) “For as thou hast assented to perform as many as five prayers, I shall therefore for this five bestow upon thee and thy people the merit of 50 prayers, accepting every one prayer for ten. And whosoever of thy people shall perform one good work, I shall write down for him ten ; and if he forms the intention of

* Takia means religious dissimulation, with the view to escape persecution or oppression on account of one's religion. The land of Takia they call the country where a Muhammadan is exposed to religious persecution. But this doctrine is not approved of by the Sunnis, only the Shiás hold it.

t The passage of the Qurán referred to in this tradition is found in Sale's Qurān, vol. ii. p. 88. It is on this and some other passages of the Qurán that the Shias have grounded the lawfulness of their Takia,

# The Muhammadans believe that every man is accompanied by two angels, carrying large books with them in which they record all his doings. The good intentions produce an agreeable and the evil a bad smell, and by this means the good as well as the bad intentions of a man are known by these recorders, and they are enabled to record the former.

doing a good work, but does not carry it out, I shall write for him one good work. And whosoever of thy people forms the intention of doing a sin, but does not actually do it, I shall not write it down against him, and if he does it I shall write down one sin." (Hayat ul Kulub, vol. ii. leaf 1/7-)

That the belief in Muhammad or Muhammadanism has nothing to do with the state of the heart and does not require internal purity, is clearly implied in the traditions just now mentioned ; but it is still more distinctly expressed as well in many of those Hadiths which speak of the means of forgiveness of sin, as in the following tradition : where it is said: "It is related by Kuleini, according to a tradition to be relied upon, that there was an oilman, who loved Muhammad very much, and who never went to his daily work except he had seen first the beauty of his majesty. When he therefore for several days had not appeared, Muhammad, with some of his followers, went to inquire about him, but was told that he had died some days ago. His neighbours said then, O prophet, he was a good man among us, but he had one bad habit. He said, what was it? they said, he was addicted to fornication. The prophet of God replied: I swear by God, he loved me so much, that if he should have been even a dealer in free men, God would have forgiven him*." (Ibid. 370.)

It will have been observed that the Sunni traditions do not go quite so far as those of the Shifts in justifying and recommending lying or false swearing, but, as they also appro,fe of a lie under certain circumstances, they likewise justify the principle.

These extracts will sufficiently prove that Muhammadanism is unacquainted with the actual nature of sin; that by it sin is taken only as an external act, and its internal character lost sight of altogether; and this will be still more established by what shall be mentioned under the next head.

4.—On the Means of Forgiveness of Sin. As their notions of the nature of sin, so are also the means which the Muhammadans make mention of to attain forgiveness of sin by them. These are as superficial and external as the other, and altogether irreconcilable with divine holiness and justice, and incapable of exercising a purifying and sanctifying influence on man's heart. They shew clearly that Muhammadanism knows nothing of a holy God, and nothing of holiness of heart. One kind of means upon which they rely for forgiveness is

To kidnap free men, especially Musalmans, and sell tbem as slaves, u regarded by them as one of the greatest sins. VOL. I. T

God's mercy, faith in God and Muhammad, and repentance*. But feeling that this was not enough to satisfy the conscience, and that they must have some thing else to ground their hope of forgiveness upon, they introduced Muhammad's intercession and good works, of which the repetition of certain short formulas of prayer, and the reading of parts of the Quran form the most prominent part.

It is to be remarked that nothing is mentioned in the Quran of Muhammad's intercession; only his prayer for the believers and the efficacy of it are mentioned. He, having rejected the Christian doctrine of mediation, as unnecessary and even as unworthy of an all-merciful and all-powerful God, never thought of giving himself the honour of being a mediator between man and God. But his followers soon felt this want, and trying to make up for it, bestowed on him this honour very liberally in their traditions; and the Shias have added the lniains too, at least the three first, that is Ali and his two sons, together with Fatima. They even view the sufferings which Hassan and Hussain, the two sons of Ali, had to endure from the other party, the Sunnis, as highly meritorious for them. There are many traditions which speak of the great efficacy of Muhammad's intercession, and some even go so far as to make it the principal ground of forgiveness for sin and salvation. It is thus related in a tradition from Anas: "Musalmans will be prevented from moving, on the day of resurrection, so that they will be sad and say, would to God we had asked grace from our cherisher, and produced one to intercede for us. Then these men will come to Adam and say: you are Adam the father of all men, ask grace for us from your cheraher. And Adam will say, I am not in that degree of eminence, which you suppose me." They then make the same application to Noah, Abraham and Moses, and also to Jesus; but all decline it, saying, that they do not possess that high degree as to be able to intercede for them. Jesus will then direct them to Muhammad: "then the

* The word faith is with the Muhammadans only a dead letter, and not that living principle, conveyed through the word of faith, which separates from sin and unites to God, as the Christian faith may be termed. Under faith they understand nothing more than the dead assent to their creed, and the external profession and repetition of it. Such a faith can therefore never satisfy the guilty conscience, for this wants a faith in an all-sufficient atonement and in a divine mediation to find rest and peace. And repentance in like manner is but a dead word, and consists, as they define it, in the acknowledgment of one's sin, connected with the desire not to do it again, and in restitution where it is practicable. Of the contrition of heart which flows from faith and leads to faith, and in which the soul perceives the hateful nature of sin and learns to hate it, of this the only true repentance the Muliammadnns know nothing. And how could they ? as they do not believe in a sanctifying Holy Ghost, and in a divine Mediator, who is the life and the truth.

Musalmans will come to me, said Muhammad, and I will ask permission to go into God's court, which will be given, and I will see Almighty God, I will prostrate myself before him, and he will keep me, so long as he will, and then he will say: Raise up your head, O Muhammad! and say what you wish to say, it will be heard, and approved; and ask grace for whoever you like, it will be approved. Then I will raise up my head, and praise and glorify my cherisher. After that I will intercede for them; and God will say, Intercede for a particular class. Then I will come out from the presence, and bring that particular class out of hell-fire, and will bring them into paradise. After that I will go to God's court, to ask grace for another particular class; and will bring them out of hell, and introduce them into paradise. After that I will go again into paradise, and in this way will I do for all Musalmans, so that none but the infidels will remain in hell." Mishcat, vol. ii. p. 604 and 99. It is related according to an authentic tradition that Muhammad said: "The Almighty wrote above his throne my greatness and glory in ten names, and through every prophet he made known the good tidings of my coming to that people to whom the prophet was sent; and in the Old and New Testament my name is mentioned many times. In the Quran he called me Muhammad (the illustrious, the glorious), for at the day of judgment every people and sect shall pay homage to me, because no one except myself or by my permission shall make intercession at the last day." (Hayat ul Kulub, vol. ii. leaf 60.) In another tradition it is mentioned that Muhammad said to Ali, " I can give you the glad tidings of which Gabriel informed me, that whosoever of my people sends his good wishes and. prayers to me, and after me to my family (that is, to the Imams) the door of heaven will be opened for him, and the angels will send him 70 good wishes (congratulations), and if he has committed any sins, his sins will fall off as the leaves fall from a tree." (Ain ul Hayat, leaf 184.) In another place it is mentioned, that Muhammad said, "There are four classes of people for whom I shall make intercession at the day of judgment, although their sins should be as many as the sins of all the people in the world, and they are those who assist the people of my house, viz. the Imams, who afford them relief when needed, who love them with heart and mouth, and who remove danger and damage from them. (Ibid, leaf 45.) And at the same place it is, according to another tradition, thus said: "Whoever loves us the people of the house, his sins shall fall off, like as when a strong wind shakes the leaves from the trees." The excellency and mediatorial merits of Fatima, or of her great veil, are described in the following tradition: His Majesty said : " Fatima is the best of all women, and when the Almighty shall awake all the creatures, the first and the last, then the outcrier of heaven shall call out from the Arsh: O all ye creatures, shut your eyes till Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad and the lady of the women of the worlds, has passed the Serat or the bridge*. Then all creatures will shut their eyes, except Muhammad and AH and her children the Imams; she passes then the bridge, having spread the skirts of her veil over it in such a way that one end of it is in paradise in the hand of Fatima and the other end on the plain of resurrection, (that is, ou the plain where all people shall be collected after having been raised from the dead, awaiting their judgment.) Then our God's outcrier calls out: O friends of Fatima, adhere to the threads of Fatima.'s veil, who is the best of all women! Whosoever then is a friend of this glorious lady takes hold of one of the threads; and there shall adhere to it more than ten Faams, every Faam amounting to oue million; and all these shall be saved from the fire of hell by the blessing of the veil of this glorious lady." (Hayat ul Kulub, leaf 105.)— This is clearly an imitation of what the Muhammadans have heard from the oriental Christians of the intercession of Mary the mother of Christ. The idea of the intercession of the Imams seems also to have been borrowed from the same source.

The great efficacy of prayers and reading of the Quran to take off and blot out all sins is described in the following manner. It is said in one tradition: "Whoever reads often the Sura Sala sail the Almighty will take no account of any of his sins, and will let him dwell in the paradise with God's prophet." In another tradition is said: "One who reads the Sura Sejda every Friday night, the Almighty will give him at the day of the resurrection his book in his right hand, and shall not call him to account though he be a sinner." (Ain ul Hayat, leaves 208 and 211.) Again it is thus written: " It is related from Imam Baker, that whosoever performs two Rukatf of prayer and understands what he is saying, when he has finished his prayer not a sin remains more upon him." (Ibid, leaf

* The Serat is the bridge, which according to Muhammadan doctrine is suspended above hell. It is as thin as a hair, and as sharp as a razor. Over this bridge every one has to pass : the unbeliever, not being able to pass, it will tumble down into hell beneath; but the believer will cross it like lightning, and then enter paradise.

t A Rukat, they call all the different positions and motions of the body, as lifting up the hands to the head, kneeling down, touching the ground with their forehead, rising up again, &c. which they have to go through each time they repeat certain prayers or words; four of these Rukats they have to perform at every namaz, or daily prayer.

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