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they performed in a manner which hag created much dissension amongst the sects, and greatly perilled the claims to authenticity of their edition. One chapter (if not more), which favors the Shiah sect, has been omitted; but has otherwise been preserved and may be found in the Dabistan Mozabib. Many ayats have been lost; and others that are contradictory have been preserved. All parties are, however, ready to excuse these discrepancies on the plea, that God sometimes saw fit to abrogate commands and rules which he had previously enjoined. Some verses are obscure or incomplete; others have been altered by mistake in transcription; and the various readings produced by the different methods of adding the vowel points are innumerable. The notes, as we proceed, will indicate the peculiarities of the work, some of which nuiy be gathered from the following extracts. Besides the names above given, which are the usual titles of the Quran, the following are also ascribed to it: Tuzkira and Zikru, remembrancer; Tunzil, descended; Ahtan ul Hadis, best tradition; Moizah, admonition; Hukm, command; Hakim, philosopher; Hikmut, mystery; Mhokam, strength; Shaffa, health; Rahmat, mercy; Haiti, guide; Herat ul Mattaqin, the right way; HabluUah, the cord of God; Ruh, spirit; Jissanulhnq, true narrative; Ray tin and Tibyan, and Mvhiit. exposition; Rasair, perspicuous; Qfiul fast, plain speech; Najum, stars; Matam, repetition; Mutashdba, uniformity; Rarhan, evidence; Rashir and Nazir, promise and threatening; Qiam, orthodoxy; Mohaimin, protecting; Nur, light; Haq and Haq ul yaijin, truth and the truth of faith; Azit, glorious: Niamat, favor.—Taftir Fatliul Axis.
Najia'n Bin Bashir. A. G. S. Verily God wrote a book two thousand years before creating the heavens and the earth, and sent two revelations down from it, which are the two last chapters of the cow; if they are not repeated in a house for three nights, the devil will be near that house. Mishcat ul Masahih, Book VIII. Ch. I. Part 2.
Aaveshap. Verily the Prophet said, Repeating the Quran in prayers is better than at other times; and repeating it at other times is better than Tasbih (praising God by repeating Sabhan Allah), and Takbir, (repeating the words Allaho Akbar.) Ibid. Book VIII. Ch. I. Pt. 3.
It was said, O messenger of God, what causes an unsullied heart? He said, Remembering death very much, and repeating the Quran. Ibid.
Aifa Abdu'l Kala'ai said, that a man said, O Prophet of God! What is the greatest chapter of the Quran? He said, The declaration of God s unity. The man said, Which is the greatest section of the Quran? He said, 'I he revelation of the throne. Ibid. Part 3.
Abuhuhawah. A. G. S. Learn the Quran and read it; for verily the condition of him who has learnt the Quran and read it, and stood up at night by it, is like th«t of a bag filled with musk, which diffuses iu scent in every place; end th. state of him who has learnt the Quran, and slept, and not stood up at night, whilst having the Quran in his belly, (i. e. remembering it,) is like u bag of musk with its mouth tied. Ibid. Part 2.
Abuhurairah. A. G. S. He is not of my followers who does not read the Quran with a good voice. Ibid. Part 1.
Ibn Omer Baid, The prophet has prohibited travelling with the Quran, that is, that it should be carried towards the land of the enemies of religion. Ibid.
Ibn Juraih relates from Ibn Abi Malaikah, and he from Om Salmab, that she said, " The prophet used to read (repeat) the words of the Quran separately, and his highness would read, ' Praise be to God, the Lord of all worlds,' and after stopping a little would say, 'the gracious, the merciful;' then he would stop, then say 'the master of the day of judgment,' and in this way to the end of the chapter." Ibid. Part 3. [notr. Muhammnd was apparently making sure of his memory, as he sometimes made mistakes,]]
Omeh Bin Al Kha'tta'b said, I heard Hisham bin Hakim bin Hizam read the chapter entitled FarqSn (25) in another manner, than J had read it and the prophet taught me that chapter; and when I read it as he taught it me, and when he read it differently, I was near being angry with him ; after that I watched till he had finished reading; then I threw my garment upon his neck, and pulled him and brought him to the prophet, and said, "O Prophet! verily I heard this man read the chapter Far. qan in a different way from that which you taught me." And the prophet said "let Hisham go;" and he said to Hisham, "read the chapter." And he read it in the manner he had done; and his highness said "thus has this chapter descended;" after that he said to me "read it," which I did as I remembered. Here also he said "thus was this chapter sent down." And as we were confounded when he said of both, thus it was sent down, the prophet said, "Verily the Quran was sent down in seven dialects; then read what is easy and agreeable to you." Ibid. Part 1.
Ibn Abbas said, the prophet did not know the division between two chapters until the words, " In the name of the gracious, the merciful," came down to him. Ibid. Ch. III. Pt. 2.
Zaid Ibn Sabit said, "Abu Bakr sent n person to me and called me
to him, at the time of the battle with the people of Yemanah, and I went
to him and, behold, Omar was with him; and Abu Bakr came to me and
said, "Verily a great many of the readers of the Quran were slain on the
day of the battle with the people of Yemanah; and really I am afraid, if
the slaughter should be great, much will go from the Quran; because
every person remembers something of it; and verily I see it advisable for
you to order the Quran to be collected into one book. I said to Omar,
How can I do a thing which the prophet has not done? He said, I swear
by God, this collecting the Quran is the best way. And Omar used to be
constantly returning to me and saying, You must collect the Quran, till
at length God opened my heart to do so, and I saw what Omar had seen
advisable. Zaid Ibn Sabit says, that Abu Bakr said to me, You are a young
and sensible man, and I do not suspect you of forgetfulness, negligence
or perfidy; and verily you used to write for the prophet his instructions
from above; then look for the Quran in every place and collect it.
Then I sought for the Quran from the leaves of the date, and white stones,
and the hearts of people that remembered it, till I found the last part of
the chapter, entitled Repentance, with Abu Khazaima Ansari and with no
other person. Then these leaves were in the possession of Abu Bakr till
Ood caused him to die; after which Omar had them in his lifetime; after
that they remained with his daughter Hafsah; after that Osman compiled
them into one book. Anas Ibn Malik relates that Hadhaifah came to
Osman, and he had fought with the people of Syria in the conquest of
Armenia, and had fought in Athurbaijan, with the people of Irak, and he
was shocked at the different ways of people reading the Qurdn. And
Hadhaifah said to Osman, "O Osman! assist this sect, before they differ
in the book of God, like as the Jews and Christians differ in their hooks."
1 hen Osman sent a person to Hafsah, ordering her to send the leaves
which she had; and saying, "I shall have a number of copies of them
taken, and will then return them to you." And Hafsah sent the leaves
to Osmin. Then Osman ordered Zaid Ibn Sabit Ansari, and Abdullah
bin Zubair, and Zaid Ibn Al Aas, and Abdullah Ibn Al Haris bin Hisham,
(and these were all of the Koraish tribe, except Zaid Ibn Sabit,) and
Osman said to the three Koraishites, " Whan you and Zaid Ibn Sabit differ about any part of the dialect of the Quran, then do ye write it in the Koraish dialect; because it came not down in the language of any tribe but theirs; (and by the petition of his highness it was permitted to every person to read it in his own dialect ; but Osman, fearful of the difference which might arise amongst people, ordered all other dialects to be expunged from the Quran except theKoraish.) Then they did as Osman had ordered; and when a number of copies had been taken, Osman returned the leaves to Hafsah. And Osman sent a copy to every quarter of the countries of Islam ; and ordered all other leaves of it to be burnt. Ibn Shahab said then, Kharijah, son of Zaid ibn Saint, informed me, saying, " I did not find one section of the chapter entitled The Confederates, when I was writing the Quran, which verily I heard from the prophet;" then I looked for it and found it with Khuzaimah Ansari, and entered into the chapter of Confederates. Ibn Abbas said, "I said to Osman, ' what possessed you that you had the chapter entitled The Spoils written, and the chapter entitled The Declaration of Immunity, and joined them, and did not have the words, " in the name of the most merciful God," written between; and so classed these chapters of the Spoils and the Declaration of Immu. nity with the seven long chapters?'" Ibid. Book VIII. Ch. III. Pfc. 3.
Abuhurairau. The prophet said, The Quran consisteth of five heads; things lawful, things unlawful, clear and positive precepts, mysteries, and examples. Ibid. Book I. Ch. VI. Pt. 2.
J A Bin said, I heard his majesty relating the commencement of the in. structions from above, saying, "whilst I was walking along, I heard a voice from the heavens, and raised up my eyes, and behold, I saw the angel, who had come to meat the mountain of Hi ran, sitting upon a throne between the heavens and the earth; and I feared him so that I fell upon the ground. Then I went home and said, " Wrap me in a cloth, wrap me in a cloth;" and they wrapped me up, when God sent this revelation "O thou wrapped up, arise," &c. (Quran. Ch. 73.) Ibid. Book, XXIV. Ch. V. Pt. 1. [note. It will be observed that the Quran is truly a book that begins at the end."]
Aatesba said, Haris bin Hisham asked his majesty "How did these instructions come to you?" His majesty said, "Sometimes like the noise of a bell; and these were the most difficult for me to understand; and the angel* would go away and I remembered the instructions; and some, times the angel would come in the shape of a man, and converse with me, all of which 1 remembered." Ibid. Book XXIV. Ch. V. Pt. 1.
Abuhurairah. A. G. S. There is no prophet but what appealed to miracles, which when the sects saw they believed; I mean, their miracles were particularly confined to their own time; and my miracle is the Quran, which was sent to me and will remain for ever. Then 1 am hopeful of hav. ing more followers than any of the other prophets. Ibid. Book XXIV. Ch. II. Pt. 1. [note. As Muhammad asserted that Adam, Enoch, Moses, David, Jesus, and others received books, the Quran (were it true) is not a miracle different from theirs; and as it is asserted that their books were lost or corrupted, the same liability attached to the Quran, as we see has happened to it]
Fatjii Aii] Prologue. Abuhurairah. A. G. S. That person who does not say the Am ul Qurdn, (i. e. Surah Fatibah,) his prayers will be defective. Mishcat ul Masabih, Book IV. Ch. XIII. Pt. 1.
Abuhurairah said, the prophet said to Ubai ibn Hab, What parts of the Quran do you repeat in your prayers? He said, The introductory chapter. And the prophet said, I swear by God that there has not been sent down, either in the Bible or Evangelists, Psalms or Quran, any thing so excellent as the introductory chapter ; and verily it consists of seven signs which descended twice; and this chapter is like the great Quran which has been given to me. Ibid. Rook VIII. Ch. I. Pt. 2. (Baizawi gives a similar tradition of Abuhurairah Abu Zaid Ibn Malic: I said, "O messenger of God! verily you said, I will teach you the greatest chapter in the Quran." He said, It is the introductory chapter; and it consists of seven signs which came down twice ; once in Mecca and once in Medina, on which account it is called Sabd-ul-Matsini, Ibid. Book VIII. Ch. I. Ptl.
According to Baizawi, the following are the names of this chapter. SuraUul-Fatah-ul-kitab; Um-ul-quran; Surat-ul-Asis; Surat-ul-kanz; Sdrat-ul-w&fiyah; Surut-ul-shafiyah; Surat-ul-hamd ; Surat.u-shukra; Surat-ul-duaa, and Saba-ul-Masani. Muhammad said that the reading of it wag a cure for every pain and disease.
There is a dispute as to its revelation, the common opinion being that it descended at Mecca when prayer was enjoined by God. Some however think it descended at Medina when the Tiblah was changed. Baizawi.
Ibn Abbas said, that he was seated near the prophet, when suddenly an angel came and said, I give thee tidings by two lights which were given to no prophet before thee ; one is Fatihat ul kitsb and the other the letters prefixed to the Sura-ul-Baqr. Baizawi.
Yaqu'b Chahkhi says, 1 heard from the chief of the faithful, AH, and from Abdullah bin Abbas, that this chapter descended at Mecca in the follow, ing manner. The prophet related it thus: When I was going into the forest, 1 heard a voice cry, " O Muhammad !" and I beheld a glittering person on a throne of gold, balanced between heaven and earth. Terrified at the voice, 1 fled. When this spectacle presented itself on various occasions, I spoke of it to Waraknh bin Mafil, the son of the uncle of Bibi Khadija, and he was a man learned in the Law and Gospel, and had received much knowledge from the learned Christians. He said, when you hear that voice, fly not, but hearken to what is said. I did so. When the voice came again saying, " O Muhammad," I replied, " Labbaiyak" [a word implying submission or attention]. He said, ' I am Gabriel, and thou art the prophet of this people.' A second time he said, " I testify that there is no deity besides God, and I testify that Muhammad is his servant and messenger." A third time he said," All praise unto God," and repeated to the end of the chapter. Taftir Futhul Azis. \Note. 1 believe that the Warakah here mentioned was the first who planned the imposture, for if it be true, as is said, that he translated our Scriptures into Arabic, he must have left the originals and his version in the family, and Muhammad by his marriage with Khadija must either have inherited them, or had access to them*. This tradition, contrary to what the Muhammadans usually say, shows that Warakah did not die while Mahammad was a mere child, and that he explained to Muhammad by his knowledge of our Scriptures, matters of which his pupil would otherwise have been ignorant. More will be said of this Warakah on a fitting opportunity.]
It is requisite that this Surab should be repeated at the time of prayer. There are seven fundamental points in prayer, as in this chapter there are seven verses; 1st, standing ; 2nd. kneeling; 3rd, prostration; 4th, standing between two prostrations; 5th, the second prostration ; Gth, sitting between two prostrations; and 7th, the final fitting; and these seven are according to the seven parts of a body, without soul, but the Surah added thereto becomes the soul. Taftir Futhul Axis. In addition to the names given above from Baizawi, the following titles are found in the Fathul Azu, Siirat-ul-Manajat, Surat-ul-Tafviz, Siirat-us-shafa, Surat-us-Ruaiya,
* We do not exactly understand what connection there is between possessing or translating our Scriptures, and planning the imposture of Muhammadnnism.—Ed.
Surat-us-mlit, Qursn Aziin, Surah Talim-ul-Mnsalah, Surah Kafiyah. Um-ul-kitab.
In the Sahih Muslim, and Nisaie, and Ibn Haban and Tabrani, and Hakim, a tradition of Ibn Abbas is given, viz. that one day Gabriel was seated near Muhammad, when they heard the noise of the opening of agreat door; and looking towards heaven, Gabriel said, An angel is now descending who from the time of Adam till now has never descended to the earth. The angel approached and congratulated Muhammad, saying; Rejoice, for this sight granted unto thee has never been granted unto any prophet before thee. That was the Surah Fathul kitah and Amin ul rasul, to the end of the chapter Surah Baqr. No one reads a letter of them but shall have a reward. In Bokhari, and Muslim, and Sehalia Settah, it is stated that the companions of the Prophet cured men stung by snakes and scorpions, and such as were epileptic, and madmen, by reading the Surah Ruqaiya, [which name is given to the Fatihah on account of Ruqai va, one of the friends of Muhammad having performed many notable cures by the reading of it.] Fathul Axis.
Signs] This word is used indifferently for miraculous performances and the verses of the Quran, each of which is a stupendous miracle.
In The Namb Of God, &c] This heading belongs to the Fatihah, as the readers of Makkah and Kufa, and Ibn Mubarak and Shafai have decided; but the readers in Medina and Basia and Sham; and also Malik and Lau Narai differ from them;—and Abu Hanifa finding no sufficient proof, doubts its belonging to the Surah Fatihah. Muhammad Ibn Hasan of Sliailian said that it is the word of God. Abuhurairah said that the first verse of the Fatihat ul kitah is the Bismillah (as above). Ummo Salman says, the messenger of God counted from the Bismillah to Rabbil alamSn (worlds) as one verse. Thus there is a variance as to whether it is a separate verse, or is conjoined with what follows. Baizauri.
Whatever work is begun, the expression Bismillah should be used. They say that when Noah had embarked, he became much perturbed for fear of foundering and said, Bismillah Majriha O Mursaha, In the name of God, I start and set sail ; and hence his ark continued safe. Some relate that a saint wrote Bismillah and in his will directed that it should be put in his shroud. Another person required his reasons, and he replied, " I observed a faqir standing near a lofty gateway begging, and they gave him only a trifle. He then obtained a spade and commenced digging down the gate. The owner of the house came and said, What are you about? He replied, Make your door to correspond with your small gift, or your gift suitable to your great door. So this verse is the door of his hook, by which in the day of resurrection I shall have a suitable document on which to claim his mercy." It is observed that the Bismillah contains 19 letters, and the angels in charge of hell are 19, who are severally repelled by these letters. It is also noticed that there are 24 hours in a day and night, and for five of the hours five prayers are appointed, and for the other 19 these letters are given ; so that whether we be sitting or standing, in business or at rest during the 19 hours, the remembrance of God contained in these 19 letters is sufficient. The chapter Buraat contains the command to kill infidels, and therefore has not this heading; and when sacrifice is offered, the Bismillah Allaho Akbar is used instead, because sacrifice has the semblance of vengeance, and mercy is not then regarded. This form should he used IT times a day, and then it is certain that the person will be saved from the wrath of God, and be blessed through the mercy of God. It is said under certain circumstances to be as a veil between man and the evil genii oa earth; and if it be a veil between man and his enemies in this world, then it will be a veil between man and the punishment of the last day. Fathui Axis.