Imagens das páginas

YVe have a native preacher with us whose labours are principally devoted to the heathen. Also a native Christian and wife who assist us in taking care of the children. For the entire support of both these Christian labourers, and the twenty-six boarding children, we have at present scarcely forty rupees in hand. Owing to this sudden increase our funds have been expended, and several months must yet elapse before the usual time to receive our remittances, and a still longer time before arrangements can be made to furnish the means for sustaining the school as it is now so much increased. Owing also to the want of funds, we have not been able to build more than two mud houses for the school children to live in. Hence we are obliged to keep school, and have our meetings for worship, all in our own bungalow. To avoid this inconvenience, we wish as soon as practicable after the close of the rains, to erect a building which may answer the double purpose of school-room, and chapel, until such time as the state of our funds will admit of our building again. A building of this kind made of cheap materials might be erected for a hundred and fifty rupees.

Under these circumstances we have thought an appeal to the liberality of the benevolent in this country for aid in behalf of our school to be justifiable, and called for. The present is not an ordinary case, and the like may not soon occur again. Certainly no Christian or philanthropist could condemn the effort made to provide for the support and education of these destitute children. All would rather rejoice, that they have been rescued from temporal death, and unite in prayer to God for their deliverance from the power of the second death.

To such, therefore, of our friends as take an interest in the present and future welfare of the needy and destitute, we present this simple statement of our case, and shall feel truly grateful to any who may be disposed to aid us in this object. As we are not at a European station we are of course unable to collect any tiling for the school ourselves. Any donation which may be made for this object, can be forwarded per dak, to the writer at Jellasore, or, if more convenient, to the Editors of the Calcutta Christian Observer. Jellasore, Orissa, July 16th, 1840.


VII.—Strictures on the Hindustani Versions of the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society.

To the Editors of the Calcutta Christian Observer. Dear Sirs,

It is not my intention to write a critical review of the Hindustaui Versions published by the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, and to be had, on application, at their Depository, but to contiue my strictures to the indefensible mode of rendering the terms referring to Church Government.

I. Mr. Martyn's Version.

1. E/ncMjcria, Church or Congregation is left untranslated in most places, but in Acts xix. 39, 40, it is rendered by Mahfil.

2. Eiriu-KOTos, Overseer, he has translated in the important passage in Acts xx. 28, by Nigahbin; Phil. i. 1, 1 Tim. iii. 1, 2, Tit. i. 7, by Isquf (a corruption of Bishop), and 1 Pet. ii. 25, again by JV7gahban.

8. AitUovos. Deacon, he has translated in most places by Khadim, but in John ii. 9, by Chdkar, 1 Cor. iii. 5, by Khidmat fcamewdla, Gal. ii. 17, by Sabab ; in the important passages of 1 Tim. iii. 8, 12, which refer to the official character of Deacons, by Khidmat karnttvii/e!

4. Tipttrfivrtpot, Elder, he has translated in Matthew v. 2, by Mutaqaddim; in Luke vii. 3, Acts xi. 30, 1 Tim. v. 1, 2, 17, 19, Tit. i. 5, 1 Pet. v. 5, Revel, iv. 4, v. 5, 6, 8, 11, 14, vii. 11, 13, xiv. 3, xix. 4, by Buzurg; in Acts xiv. 23, xv. 2, 4, 6, 22, 23, xvi. 4, xx. 17, xxi. 18, xxiii. 14, xxv. 15, by Peshwa ,- John viii. 9, Acts ii. 17, by Burhd, and James v. 14, and 1 Pet. v. 1, by (Justs; in all other places by Mashaikh.

nptafivriiHov, he has translated in Luke xxii. 66; Acts xxiL 5, by Mashaikh; I Tim. iv. 14, by the plural of Qasis.

Thus he lias called the presbyters of the Jews' synagogue by three names, viz. Mutaqaddim, Buzurg and Mashaikh ; and the Presbyters of the Christian Church also by three names, viz. Buzurg, Peshwd and Qasis!

II. Mr. Bowley's translation of the Gospel of Mark and John. Published by the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, and to be bad at their Depository.

I have the highest respect for Mr. Bowley's Missionary character. He has done more for the Hindustani language by his translations of tracts and books than any other man. The whole Missionary body in Hindustan is under the highest obligation to him. He first opposed the pedantry of the Hindustani style and wrote such easy Hindustani as to be understood by all, for which he was once greatly abused by all parties, but he remained firm. His version of Mark and John is good, but some of the terms are very objectionable. He has translated ;tpor and yabs, temple, by Girja, the Portuguese Igreja, which according to Sliakespear is a corruption of fKK\nala; Uptvs, priest, by the Portuguese or Roman Catholic term of Pddri, i. e. Father, from the Latin Pater; ipxttpevs, the high-priest of the Jews by Sarddr (■«, head and affix dar, headman, chief), Pddri, literally, the headman or chief of the Fathers, which in the language of the Portuguese or Roman Catholics of India means the Pope of Rome, but the Natives of Hindustan do not apply it to that individual j Trpf(r$urtpof by Buzurg, Elder ; ypumtarrut by Likhnewala, writer or Scribe.

Here is a specimen of the Version from Mark xiv. 53.

Tab we Tsa ko Sardar Padri ke pas, j&han sab Sardar Padri aur Buzurg jama the, le gae. Aur Patras dur dur us ke pichhe pichhe Sardar Padri ke ghar men ayd, aur naukaron ke sath baithke fig tapne laga. Tab Sardar Padri aur sari mujlis qatl karne ko fsa par gawahi dhundhte the, par na pai. Agarchi bahuton ne us par jhuthi gawahi di, par un ki gawahian na milti thi. Tab b£zon ne u^hke us par yih jliutlii gawahi di ki Ham ne use kahtesunfi ki Main hath ke bande hue is Girja ko dliaiiuga, aur tin din men ek dusre ko baghair bath se khara kanitiga. Us par bhi unki gawahi na raili. Tab Sardar Padri ne bich men khara hoke use puchha, &c.

Here is a literal and faithful English version of the ahove iu which I have deviated from the authorized translation as little as possible.

"Then they led Jesus away to the Chief Father, with whom were assembled all the Chief Fathers and Elders and Scribes. And Peter followed him afar off, even into the house of the Chief Father: and he sat with the servants and warmed himself at the fire. And the Chief Father and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none. For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together. And there arose certain and bare false witness against him saying, 'We have heard him say, I will pull down this Church that is made with hands, and within three days, without hands, establish another.' But neither so did their witness agree together. Then the Chief Father arising in their midst asked him," &c.

III. The Gospel of Luke and the Acts translated by " the Banaras Translation Committee." Published by the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, and to be had at their Depository.

This Committee was formed about five years'ago, and originally composed of Messrs. Buyers, Mather, Shurman, of the London Society; of Messrs. Smith, Leupolt and the late Mr. Knorpp of the Church Mission ; of Mr. Smith of the Baptist Mission, at Banaras; of Mr. Bowley at Chunar, and Mr. Start at Patna. Mr. Bowley, Mr. Smith, of the Baptist Mission, and all the Missionaries of the London Society* at Bauaras have withdrawn, and Mr. Start, I believe, has not joined it again since his return from England, but I cannot speak positively on this point. The correspondence in the name of the " Banaras Translation Committee" is, I believe, carried on at present by the Church Missionaries at Banaras and Mr. Mather, of Mirzapur, alone. In this version iKKATj.rm and iTuTKonos are left untranslated. i\pea$\nipos is translated Buzurg when it refers to the Jews' synagogue, and left untranslated when it refers to the Christian Church. This is very objectionable. In every able treatise on Church Government these questions are discussed. I. Was the Government of the Apostolic Church, taken from the synagogue? II. Was the office of a Presbyter in the synagogue corresponding to that of a Presbyter in the Church? III. Was the office of a bishop different from that of a presbyter, or do both terms denote one and the same office, the one being more consonant to the mode of speaking among the Jewish converts, and the other more consonant to the mode of speaking among the genuine Greek and Gentile converts? I cannot discuss these questions in your Observer, nor will I even go so far as to express my own opinion for fear of transgressing your rules, and having my article sent back "bearing," and getting blamed on the cover of the Observer in your Editorial Notices; but so much I may venture to say, that in the discussion of these questions, the version of the " Bauaras Translation Committee" will not bear us out,—a reference to the Greek becomes necessary, which is very undesirable, and can easily be obviated by leaving the term in all places untranslated, as the Missionaries of the London Missionary Society at Banaras have done in their version of the New

VOL. I. 3 Q

Testament, or by translating it in all places as the Calcutta Baptist Missionaries have done in their translation of the New Testament.

There is, however, a more serious objection to this Bauaras version. They have entirely obscured in the sixth Chapter of the Acts, the important institution of the SioxoWa in the Apostolic Church. They hare determined to leave the terms of bishop and deacon untranslated when, in their opinion, they express certain offices, as in Phi. i. 1, in which verse the Apostle Paul greets the bishops and deacons of the Church. No*. as they in the Epistles will leave the term in some /'litres untranslated, they ought, in my humble opinion, to have rendered the important passage in Acts vi. in which we read a detailed account of the institution and purporse of the Staxorta as the Missionaries of the London Society at Banaras have done in their version, viz. "Aur un dinoa men, jab shagird ziyada hote the, Yiiimiii log Ibranion se yih takrar karue lage, ki Turn log roz roz ki diyaki'mi men haiuari be won ki khabar nahhi lete ho. Tab un barah ne shagirdon ki jamaat ko ika{the bulake kaha, ki Ham ko achchha nuhin lagta ki K Inula ke kalaiu ko chhorke mezon ki divakyni karen. So, ai bhaio, turn ap men se sat mimtabar mard, jo Ruh i Quds aur dauai se bhare howon, chuno, ki hum unhen is kam par muqarrar karen; aur ham baudagi aur kalaiu ki diyaki'mi men niashghul rahenge." In this version the institution and purpose of the tuucovta in the Apostolic Church are as clearly expressed as in the original Greek. When in the Epistles of this translation instructions and exhortations are addressed to the deacons, every man, woman and child will know from this passage what the duties of the deacons were and are. No explanation, no interpretation, no expounding is necessary. Now "The Bauaras Translation Committee" have used in this passage tiro Hindustani terms for the Greek tuutorim namely, khabargivi and khidmat, aud when they in the Epistles leave Jiaxoroj untranslated, no reader will a possibly can kuow what the duties of his office were and are. Teachers of Christian Churches who adopt this version will be obliged to say, that, in the original Greek there is but one word for the two in the translation, namely, luucorla, which means the office and work of a deacon, and that the translation is obscure and wrong in this particular instance at least, and that this fact proves the desirableness, and even the necessity of studying the Greek language. But the translators of this version might say, " We will translate in the Epistles Sianovos by khudim, then this mutter will be right." Not quite so. In this case they ought not to have khabargiri, and ought also to have translated fxisKoiros as the Baptist Missionaries have done in their version. All the terms referring to Church Government should be translated in an uniform manner in all places.

I think the best plau is to translate all the words, and the best Hindustani terms, are, in my humble opinion, the following:

I ■ K.,,,a,j.rui, Hebrew Vrp, congregation, assembly, can in all places of the Old and New Testaments be translated by Jamaat. Bishop Anthony, of Agra, has in his Catechism of the Christian Religion, which is before me, invariably used Pd/c Kdtuliki Jamaat.

2. Xvvayu>y>), congregation, assembly; place or house of the assembly. It is synonymous with outlaid for which James ii. 2, uses it. It can in all places be translated by Mahfll which means a meeting and a meeting-house.

3. ZwtSpiov, session, council, can t'n all places be translated by JITajlis.

4. Ettktkotos, overseer, can in all plaoes be translated by Nig&hhan. In the Khiradafroz and other native works, kings are addressed by this title, which is a certain proof, that those persons are in the wrong, who say that Nigahb&n means nothing but a common chokidar.

S- Eiriinfoiri;, oversight, can in all places be translated by Nigiih•bdni.

6. Ejriiricoircai, to oversee, can in all plaoes be translated by Nigdht,t'<iii kamd.

7. Aiixoyos, a servant who serves volantarily, can in all places be translated by Khddim.

8. AiaKoWa, service, can in all places be translated by Khidmat.
9- Aicucortu, to serve, can in all places be rendered by Khidmat


10. n,.t<rfluTfpoj, elder, senior, can, I believe, in all places be translated by Buzurg.

11. Vp«r$iirtpu>r, an assembly of presbyters, can in all places, l>e translated by Buzurgon ki inajlis. or by the plural of Buzurg.


Concordance. 12th June, 1840.

VIII.—Notice of " An Abridgment of the History of Bengal, under British administration. By Chas. J. S. Montague." Calcutta, 1840.

There is no branch of unrevealed knowledge more practically useful than history, which as it has been said, furnishes the young with the -experience of the old, and is, as it were, a compensation furnished by a merciful God for the boon of longevity which by our sin we have forfeited. This is clearly pointed out by the highest of all authority in the fact that the greater part of the inspired volume consists of narrative. After that history which God has selected to be written by his own inspiration, the history of our native land ought in fairness to occupy the next place in the historical department of a useful education, and therefore it that, watching as we do with so intense an interest over every thing that is connected with the education of the people of this vast ■country, we do not like to allow any school-book to appear without at least a passing notice.

But there are reasons why the Natives of this country—(we use the term in a wider sense than is usual and include all whether aboriginal or not whose nativity has been placed and whose education is to be conducted in this land)—we say, there are reasons why the natives of this country should he made acquainted with its history which do not apply with the same force to the people of any country in the world. If we could afford an article we might well bestow it upon these reasons, but we must content ourselves with the most cursory glance at them.

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